In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 2: The Main Explanation of Heredity in Chastity

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lesson Two: The Main Explanation of Heredity in Chastity


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.


The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:


ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ وَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌ بِالْخَيْرَاتِ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْكَبِيرُ [1]

 '…then, We allowed some of Our worshippers, whom We had singled out, to inherit this Book. Yet there are some of them who wrong themselves while some others are lukewarm, and there are some who compete in performing good deeds with the permission of Allah. That is a great blessing, (Qur'an: 35/32).'


The basis of the heredity is of the invariable rule of Allah

The law of heredity is the most important basis. It must be taken into deep consideration in all fields of studies: human- being, animals and lifeless. So far, great beneficial results have been achieved by that therefore, it can be said that it is the Divine irreducible rule. Investigation on every individual, the transmission of the specifications and the circumstances that by copulation of father and mother the embryo appears as a child proves this question about the human-being. A tiny sperm of a man is the main corporation of his being and the entire qualities of a man compressed alive and active therein.  As it was already placed in the special bowl in the womb of mother at that stage was activated and now appears as a whole but tiny being that presents all material, ethic and spiritual qualities of the father and mother.

Not only a child inherits his skin colour, the quality of his members of organs and the formation of his bones and Skelton from his father, but every single drop of his blood, and each tiny micros-cubic blood cell is just similar to his father's – so alike that if the child's father is doubted, by analyzing his blood his father can be recognized.

In fact, the child is a branch produced by the main tree – father; and its quality is the original one. Apart from the eyes, nose, ears, heart, stomach and the whole bones and Skelton, a child inherits from his father and mother by his tiny microscopic members – even the illnesses of the ancestors transfer to the newly born generations. If a disease does not transfer to the first or the next generations, it is still there and passing its interior course until the right time to come then to emerge through an unfortunate generation.

These traces and the qualities of the father not only transfer to his sperm but also they are apparent in every single blood cell of his; it can be said that in every tiny piece of a body there exists a whole intelligent human-being – if conditions were fitting, they would have appeared  as a whole being. In another word, there is not only a complete human-being in any sperm which comes to the sight after being in its proper place in the womb, but, as heredity, there exists the same complete being in each blood cell.   Although so far they have not been able to fecundate these cells with the cells of a woman out of the wombs to produce babies but, apart from there is no abstention on it there has been many positive reasons about it. It seems possible, through the course of science, in future they can take it to practice and by fecundating both male and female cells they produce new babies out of the wombs – by only a man and a woman to produce milliards of babies.

This is just because the main heredity that the whole qualities of a man's body have effects on it; that tiny portion indicates the whole affection of the man. It is the same with the plantation. It proves the heredity of its not only by planting it in the soil, but also by grafting a part of a certain branch of a tree to the next; it then produces fruit in the right time. All this process is because the piece of slip planting has every quality: root, trunk, leaves with it. When joining it to the next tree the case is the same: the sprout of the slip takes the trunk of another tree as the catering womb for itself and start growing, and in the mean time, securing its own qualities therein.

مَّا مِن دَآبَّةٍ إِلاَّ هُوَ آخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتِهَا إِنَّ رَبِّي عَلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ  [2]

'… There is no creature that crawls, but He takes it under His control. For indeed my Lord is on the Straight Path, (Qur'an: 11/56).'

Ignoring the concerns and the maternal out-looking of the father, a child even inherits his thoughts, behaviour and the moral attitudes. Through the sperm, his qualities transfer into the new born child, that is, with the combination of two sperms all qualities of them transfer to the child.

Without any offending or interfering a child turns to be brave if his parents are brave, in they are weak the child also is weak, and when they are generous or mean the production will be the same – if they are forgiving then the child is forgiving also.

The wise parents create wise children, while if they are dull their children will be alike. To cut it short, in his behaviour and nature a child takes after his parents – the parents are the cause of their good or bad productions.

It may happen that the child of a wise man to become dull or that a dull man's child to be wise. It is also the same story: the heredity has remained dormant for a period and then has appeared if a certain generation.

The main heredity is also seen in the animals; a wolf gives birth to a wolf-cub, a sheep has a lamb and a lion its own cub. It goes on generation after generation that their physical and spiritual attitudes are found in their new born.

 The story in plantation is the same: jasmine produces jasmine, a rose is grows roses which in colour, shapes and smelling are the same; an apple never grows on the pear's tree – even if years pass by it never happens. Anyway, this is the main heredity of the existing and it will continue the same forever.

فَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ اللَّهِ تَحْوِيلًا [3]

'… Yet you will never find any change in Allah's practice, nor will you ever find any substitute for Allah's practice, (Qur'an: 35/43).'


This main heredity has secured its stability in all walks of life, above all its existing and stability is apparent in spiritual and the Divine Secrets.

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The Messenger of Allah is the complete manifestation of that Devine Light which is trusted to Adam

Allah created the father of man (Adam) and assigned him as His vicegerent and filled up his heart with the Lights of His Beauties. He strengthened his wisdom, widened his chest and expanded his heart so that to be able to embrace the whole knowledge of the universe and to learn the news of the creatures, to tear apart the veils of the illusions and find his seat

فِي مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ عِندَ مَلِيكٍ مُّقْتَدِر [4]

‘… in a truthful abode in the Presence of the Omnipotent Sovereign, (Qur'an: 54/55).

Then, to reach the secured position and to learn of the Secrets of the Unveiled, and to have conversation with the angels; to abide in the Divine safe Harem and his heart to be the host for the illuminating attributes and Names of the Excellent Beloved, to Him be glory – to be able to observe Allah's Embracing Power, Knowledge and His Being in every single thing. Then, to have confidential talks, to have whispering chats with Him so that to reach

عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى ﴿5 ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَى ﴿6 وَهُوَ بِالْأُفُقِ الْأَعْلَى ﴿7 ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلَّى ﴿8 فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى ﴿9 فَأَوْحَى إِلَى عَبْدِهِ مَا أَوْحَى [5]

‘…The Mighty in Power, has taught him the well-established one who rose and stood stable;   while he was at the highest horizon.  Then while descending he got and closer stood two bow-lengths off or even closer, where He inspired Revelation unto His obedient worshipper, (Qur'an: 53/5-10).’

Then, after his four-stages travelling, when passes away, to be as a full-length mirror for His, the Excellent. Due to: '… and He taught Adam all the words, (Qur'an: 2/31);

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الأَسْمَاء كُلَّهَا [6]

in the beginning, when Allah created Adam, He deposited this Light with him; and also with this statement:

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلاَئِكَة ِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الأَرْضِ خَلِيفَة  [7]

… And when your Lord said to the angels, 'I am surely assigning a vicegerent on the earth (Qur'an: 2/30);

Adam took his position in the unique pearl station in the world. He soared next to the Treasure of the Secret for the Divine Highness and he found boon to gain of that.

Then, due to exigency, the main heredity passed to the children of Adam – the prophets. Each one of them rose and came to sight with his own moral attitude and each one of them possessed the Light according to his capacity:

تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللّهُ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ [8]

'… these are the apostles We preferred some above others; there are some of them Allah spoke to, and some He raised in rank. And We gave Jesus, the son of Marry, apparent proofs, and endorsed him by the means of the Holy Spirit, (Qur'an: 2/253).'

It was so until the seal of the prophets and the Master of the messengers, Muhammad Ibn Abdullah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, appeared; that Light, the main heredity, which had been dormant in the loins of the fathers became active and came to sight, then without failing, it started illuminating.

Therefore, his religion is complete and it is the abolisher of all religions and creeds of the past and it will remain so until the Day of Resurrection.

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After the Messenger of Allah, the Divine Light and Fact was trusted to the Commander of the believers and then, by his to the rest innocent Imams

This is because of the vast soul and the capacity of his blissful heart – not nominal. It was then transferred to his descendants. It was then the Light was divided in two: a part remained with his Highness and the next part transferred to joined with the Highnesses Siddigha, (Fatima) peace be upon her and from them it passed to their off spring. Thus he has mentioned in (Yanabi Al-Mawadda):

إنَّ اللهَ جَعلَ ذُريَّةَ كُلّ نَبىّ فِى صُلبهِ وَ جَعَلَ ذُرِّيَّتِى فِى صُلب علىّ بنِ أبى طالِب‏ [9]

 'Allah has assigned the off spring of every prophet from his own loin and He has assigned my Descendants from Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace.'

There is a narration about Salman saying:

يقولُ: كنتُ أنا و عَلىّ نوراً بَينَ يَدَىِ اللهِ تَعالَى قَبلَ أن يُخلَقَ آدَمُ بأربَعَةَ عَشَرَ ألفَ عامٍ فَلَمّا خَلَقَ اللهُ آدمَ قَسَّمَ ذَلك النورَ جُزئَينِ جُزءٌ أنَا وَ جُزءٌ عَلىٌّ اخرجه احمد فى المناقب. [10]

'I heard the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, say, 'Ali and I were a unique light in the presence of Allah, the Highest, for fourteen thousand years before He created Adam; then when Allah created Adam that light was divided in two: a part of it was me and the next part became Ali.'

And also in Mawaddat Al-Ghorba, in Yanabi Al-Mawadda, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, is narrated by Othman that the Highness had said:

خُلقتُ أنا و عَلىٌّ مِن نورٍ واحدِ قَبلَ أن يخلُقَ اللهُ آدمَ بأربَعةٍ آلافِ عامٍ فَلمَّا خلقَ اللهُ آدمَ رَكِبَ ذلكَ النُورُ فِى صُلبهِ فلَم يَنزَل شَيئاً واحداً حَتّى افتَرقنا فِى صٌلب عبد المطَّلِب، فَفِىَّ النُبُّوةُ و فِى علىٍّ الوَصية [11]

'Allah, the most Lofty created the single unique light of Ali and I for about fourteen thousand before creating Adam, the father of man; when He created Adam, He placed the intact light in his loin where it remained generation after generation until it divided in two in the loin of Abd Al-MotTālib: a part to me and the other half was transferred to Ali ibn Abī Tālib. It was then that the Prophet-hood was consigned to me and the Imamate was assigned for Ali.'

The historian, Amin Hussein ibn Ali Masoodi has an excellent and significant narration in the Morawwaj Az-Zahab concerning Ali upon him be peace, in the beginning of the creation and the quality of the creation of the light of Muhammad, Bless be to him and his Descendants, and his off spring; and he narrates the same light in different stages until he ends it up with the creation of the angels and Adam.                    

ثمّ نَبَّه آدمَ عَلَى مُستَودِعهِ، و كَشَفَ لَه[عن] خَطَرِ مَا ائتَمَنَه عليه، بعدَ ما سمَّاهُ اماماً عندَ الملائكةِ،

فكانَ حظُّ آدمَ منَ الخيرِ مَا آواهُ مِن مُستودعِ نورنا، و لَم يَزَل اللهُ تعالَى يخبأ النورَ تحتَ الزمان إلَى أن فَضَّل محمداً صلّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم فِى ظاهرِ الفَتَرات.

فدَعا الناسَ ظاهراً و باطناً، و نَدَبَهم سرّاً و إعلاناً، وَ استَدعَى علَيهِ السَّلام التنبيهَ عَلَى العَهدِ الَذى قَدَّمَه إلى الذَّرِ قَبلَ النَسلِ

فَمَن وافَقَهُ و قَبَسَ مِن مصباح النورِ المُقدِم، اهتَدَى إلى سّرهِ و استَبانَ واضُحُ أمرِهِ، و مَن ابلَستهُ الغَفلَةُ، استَحَقَّ السَخَطُ

ثُمّ انتَقَل النُورِ إلَى غَرائِزنا، وَ لَمَع فى أئمَّتنا فنَحنُ أنوارُ السمآء و أنوارُ الأرضِ، فَبنَا النَجَاةُ، وَ مِنَّا مَكنُونُ العِلمِ، وَ إلينَا مَصيرُ الأمور،

و بمَهدِيِّنَا تَنقَطعُ الحُجَجُ، خَاتمةُ الأئَّمةِ، و مُنقِذِ الأمَّةِ، و غَايةِ النُّورِ، و مَصدَرِ الأمُورِ

فَنَحنُ أفضَلُ المَخلُوقِينَ، و أشرَفُ المُوَحِّدينَ، و حُجَجُ ربِّ العَالَمين.

فَليَهنَأ بالنِعمَةِ مَن تَمَسَّكَ بولايتِنا، وَ قَبَضَ عَلَى عُروَتِنا

And later on, he says: 'Then, Allah informed Adam of what He had deposited him and He let him know of the prominence of it – He unveiled the unknown to him. This was after Adam was introduced to the angels as the Imam and given the position of Imamate. So, the enjoyment of Adam was so much as that Allah has deposited him our light – He had transferred it to him and condescended it. Accordingly, Allah, the Exalted, kept the Light secret through the long period of time until He honored it for the creation of Muhammad, Bless be to him and his Descendants, when the era was in the need of a prophet.

Now, he inwardly and outwardly invited the people to this Prophet and his religion. This Prophet warned and informed the people by that receiving covenant, while was in the state of resting before the generation was created.

Those who agreed with this Prophet and lightened their torches with his illuminating Light benefitted of his manifest commands and found their ways into the secret of his reality. While those who neglected and were wondering by seeing the occurrence deserved to receive his wrath and anger.

It was until that Light appeared in our natures and illuminated our Imams.   Therefore, we are the light of the heavens and the earth, and salvation will be by us; and those hidden sciences and knowledge will be issued by us and the return of all affairs is to us.                                                                            

And by the uprising of our MAHDI, all reasons and proofs will be cut off and ended; he is the seal of the leaders and Imams, he is the savior of the nations and he is the final Light and the centre of issuing affairs.

So we are the best of the creatures, superior and the noblest of all the monotheisms – and we are the Divine evidence and the proofs of the Creator of the worlds. Therefore, bliss be upon those who are blessed by Allah's blessing – those who have clung to our Guardianship and held on the hand of our Guardians.

Masoodi says, 'This narrative is related by the Highness Abi Abdullah Ja'far ibn Muhammad which was narrated by his father, Muhammad ibn Ali, that was narrated by his father Ali ibn Hussein which was narrated by the Commander of the believers, Ali ibn Abī Tālib, may Allah honour him.[12]             

Masoodi also says, 'I have seen in many historic books and the case histories that when Adam heard an invisible voice alerting him to know of his son's death, Abel, and his sorrows increased about the past and the future evinces, Allah inspired him that: "I shall take my Light away from within you – the Light that shall be placed in the pure loins of the noble and respectable Descendants; I shall choose his Descendants the best Leaders, Caliphs and the Imams.

فاوحي الله إليه: إنّي مخرج منك نوري الذي أريد به السلوك في القنوات الظاهرة و الأرومات الشريفة، و أباهي فيه بالأنوار و أجعله خاتم الأنبياء

و أجعل له خيار الأئمة الخلفاء.

و أختم الزمان بمدتهم، و أغص الأرض بدعوتهم، و أنيرها بشيعتهم.

فشمِّر و تطهر و قدس و سبح ثم اغش زوجتك على طهارة منها

فإن وديعتي تنتقل منكما إلى الولد الكائن منكما [13]

And I shall end up the running wheel of life and the Divine Government by them, I shall so fill the earth with their call and invitation that not a single space remain without the effects of their calls – I shall furnished the earth for their followers to abide and walk on. O Adam, now role up your sleeves and get ready, keep yourself pure, praise and glorify your Allah and get closer to your wife and have pure and honest contact with her. It is because My to-you-depositing Trust is going to be transferred by the child you are producing."

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The commentary of the verse ‘… then We allowed some of Our worshippers, whom We had singled out, to inherit this Book

Now that the subject is clear, let's refer to the interpretation and the comment of the foregoing verse

ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا

Then, We allowed some of Our worshippers, whom We had singled out, to inherit this Book, (Qur'an: 35/32)

and to consider what the given heredity is. Therefore, our discussion will be in two parts: the first one is, what does 'the Book' mean here? And the second question is: who are the chosen worshippers that the Book is trusted to?                                                  

With no doubt, the first question about the Book is the Glorious Qur'an, because before this verse, it says:

وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ هُوَ الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِعِبَادِهِ لَخَبِيرٌ بَصِيرٌ [14]

 '… and that which We have sent down to you from the Book is the Truth confirming what has preceded it; for indeed Allah is the Perceptive upon His worshippers, ‘…(Qur'an: 35/31).'                                                          

This is directly to Muhammad, Bless be to him and his Descendants, because the Book which has been inspired to him is the Qur'an.

As soon after this verse it is said, '…then, as the heredity, We gave this Book to Our chosen worshippers, it becomes clear that it is the same Qur'an. However, it is obvious that the meaning of 'this Qur'an' is not the written Book, but it is the real statement of the Qur'an which was inspired to them; in the same way that the Messenger of Allah was inspired by Gabriel – these chosen worshippers have also received the Qur'an by the Messenger of Allah just this way. And those facts, secrets and favours as: '… which nobody but the purified may touch it;

 لَّا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ [15]

(Qur'an: 56/79)


إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ وَإِنَّهُ فِي أُمِّ الْكِتَابِ لَدَيْنَا لَعَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌ [16]

… We arranged it in Arabic so that you may apply insight.  It is indeed recorded in the Mother of the Book, [the Reserved Tablet], in Our presence – so Exalted Sublime, (Qur'an: 43/3-4).’

It has been inspired to their hearts at the highly respectable manner as they deserved it.

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Who are the selected people of Allah who have inherited the Divine Book?

However, the second subject is rich with the delightful narrations from the Highness Imam Muhammad Baqir, and the Highness Imam Ja'far Sadigh concerning these chosen worshippers of Allah, the Descendants of the respectful Messenger through Fatima, peace be upon her, as:

إِنَّ اللّهَ اصْطَفَى آدَمَ وَنُوحًا وَآلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَآلَ عِمْرَانَ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ [17]

'… surely Allah has chosen Adam and Noah, and Abraham’s family and the Family of Imrān above the Worlds,(Qur'an: 3/33),'

which is placed under: off spring and Abraham.

Apart from this, since the beginning of the Islam up to the very moment, no one has claimed to be expert on the Qur'an than Ali, the Commander of the believers, and the innocent Imams, peace be upon them all. According to the successive narrations by the scholars of the Sunnite the Commander of the believers upon him be peace, has been the most learned of Allah's Book. Surely, according to the foregoing explanation, 'Allah's chosen worshippers', which the Qur'an has been trusted to them, are those.  

In addition, according to the successive narrations by the Shiite and the Sunnite that the Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants, has associated his off spring with the Qur'an proves that the meaning of the chosen worshippers are the off spring of the Messenger of Allah; as:

إِنِّي تَارِكٌ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَ عِتْرَتِي أَهْلَ بَيْتِي لَنْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْض [18]

I am leaving with you two great and precious things, one is the Book of Allah and the other one is my family, that is my offspring; these two will never separate from each other until they come to me by the Kow‘thar  [river in Paradise].

And apart from the narrations, about the knowledge of the Commander of the believers, is that of Umm Salema that the Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants, had said:

عليٌّ مع القرآنِ و القرآن مع عليٍ [19]

 'Ali is with the Qur'an, and the Qur'an is with Ali', and the narration:

أَنَا مَدِينَةُ الْعِلْمِ وَ عَلِيٌّ بَابُهَا [20]

 'I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate'. And there are also other narrations about the knowledge of Ali, the Commander of the believers, which are always used – they prove that he, the Highness, was the heir for the Book of Allah by the Messenger of Allah.

فَمِنْهُمْ ظالِمٌ لِنَفْسِهِ وَ مِنْهُمْ مُقْتَصِدٌ وَ مِنْهُمْ سابِقٌ بِالْخَيْراتِ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ

However, when it is said that, 'and of them some wrong themselves and of them are frugal as well those compete in doing good with the permission of Allah,' it is clear that it means the very companion of the right and the companion of the left, as well as those the nearest ones; it is obvious that the chosen people are those who are prior in doing good.

Thus, the pronoun 'of then' either refers to 'Our worshippers' without having an adverb, that is: Our worshippers are divided into three groups but only it is 'those who are prior in doing good' are the real chosen ones who have inherited the Book. Or, the pronoun‘them'

الصطفينا مِن عِبادِنا الدّين     

Refers to ‘those whom We chose from Our worshippers' that the three groups are the same in inheriting the Book; although the real inheritors and the savers of the Book will be the third group. There is no objection here when the saver of the Book is certain and heredity is for them, as:

وَأَوْرَثْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْكِتَابَ [21]

 '… and We let the Children of Israel inherit the Book, (40/53),

that is, We gave the Torah to the Children of Israel as the heritage, though it was sent to Moses not to all of them; however, as the Highness Moses was among the Children of Israel, its revealing to the Children of Israel is also approving to be correct.

Therefore, 'wronging themselves' refers to those Muslims who, by doing, wronged them; otherwise, 'wronged themselves' would point to the 'chosen ones. So it cannot be taken as 'the companion of the left' maybe they are of the companions of the right – in the end the deficiency if by them.

Anyway, let's follow the main discussion; that is as the Commander of the believers and the pure Imams, upon them all be peace, are the chosen ones – due to the clearly stated texts that the great narrators have stated – they are the Guardians and the Protectors of the Book of Allah.

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The narratives of the Sunnite most learned about the Commander of the believers upon him be peace

The inheritor and the protector of the Qur'an must be one who is parallel to the Messenger of Allah, and his hear to be vast as the Messenger's heart so that to receive the facts and save them. Here, we are to refer to some of the narrations that the greatest scholars have mentioned, so that the state and the position of Ali, the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, to become clear to all of them.

In the Yanabi Al-Mawadda is narrated by Abdullah Ansari that the Holy Prophet said:

كفّ عليٍ كفّي [22]

'Ali's hand is my hand.' It is clear that it means: the activities as, taking, giving, writing, and fighting … are carried out by hands. That is, all the activities that done is by hands, because these muscles are always at the service of one. Therefore, their attending mean that all the senses are attentive.

And it is also narrated by Abu Bakr that the Messenger of Allah stated:

يا ابا بكر، كفّي و كفّ عليّ في العددِ سواء [23]

'O Abu Bakr, 'Ali's hand and mine are counted one'; and in another one, he says:

يا ابا بكر، كفّي و كفّ عليّ في العدلِ سِواء [24]

O Abu Bakr, 'Ali's hand and mine are counted one'. Of course, the just equality as it explained: 'all the activities that done is by hands, because these muscles are always at the service of one. Therefore, their attending mean that all the senses are' – that consequently, when doing something, they do it as the Respected Messenger did. However, equality in number, is an allusion to the equality in all aspects and authorities, whatever the respected Messenger does, the Commander of the believers can do the same; because had, specially here that it has mentioned in count, is the effect of power and a tool at the service of the desire of man. Thus, this interpretation means the power of the Messenger of Allah and the power of Ali are equal. All those weird and wonderful miracles that took place by the Respected Highness were in the proposal of Ali's power.'

Moheb-e-Tabari, in the Al-Reyaz Al-Nazreh, has narrated by from Ans ibn Malik:

قال رسول الّله: ما من نبي الا و له نظير في امتهِ و عليّ نظيري [25]

The Messenger of Allah has stated that, 'not a single prophet came but he had a parallel in his nation – and Ali is my parallel.'  This narration proves that among the whole nation of the Messenger of Allah, no one was spiritually and in characteristic and his nearness to the Prophet as Ali – that is only he, the Master of the believers was parallel to that Highness.

And another narration, similar to this one, in Yanabi Al-Mawadda, by Anas ibn Malik, narrated by Al-Ferdous is that the Messenger of Allah said:

قال رسول الّله: ما من نبي الا و له نظيرٌ اليِ ان قال و عليّ بن أبيطالب نظيري [26]

'Not a single prophet came but he had a parallel in his nation – and Ali is my parallel.'

And in Sahih Al-Bokhri, on the merit of Ali, it says:

أنت مِنّى وَ أنا مِنكَ [27]

'The Messenger of said: "You are of me and so am I of you.'" This expression indicates the outmost unity; it is as if those two masters are a unique being divided in two separate bodies.

And also ibn Hajar Heitami Makki, in the Sawaegh Al-Moharragha,[28] from Bara Bin Azeb and Al-MohebTabari in the Reiaz Al-Nazara, from Molla has quitted that the Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants, had said:

علىّ منّى به منزلة رأسى من بدنى [29]

'To me, Ali is my head on my body.' This interpretation also shows the outmost unity.               

The Messenger of Allah says, 'As a body cannot exist without the head, my life is also depending on Ali's life.'

In the Yanabi Al-Mawadda, it is narrated of Abdullah ibn Masood that the Messenger of Allah sad:

عليّ منّي مثل رأسي من بدني [30]

 'To me, Ali is my head on my body.'                     

And inYanabi Al-Mawadda, Al-Imam Ahmad narrates of Abu Horeirah who said,

کان رسول الّله صلّی الّله عليهِ و آلهِ و سلّم بعث بعثينِ، و بعث علی احدِهما علياً و علی الاخر خالد بن وليدِ، و قال اذا التقيتم فعلی النّاسِ اِمامٌ، و اذا اقترقتم فکلٌّ علی جندِهِ، فلقينا بنی زبيده، فاقتتلنا، و سبيناهم، فاصطفی علِیٌّ  مِن السّبی واحداً لِنفسِهِ، فبعثنی خالِد اِلی النّبیّ صلّی الّله عليهِ و آلهِ و سلّم ، حتّی اخبِره بذلِک فلمّا أتيت و أخبرته فقلت ما ارسِلت بِهِ؟

فقال: لا تقعوا فی علیٍّ، فاِنّه مِنّي و أنا مِنه، و هو وليّي و وصيّي مِن بعدي. [31]

'The Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, prepared two armies and set them out for the battle – one with the directorship of Ali and the next one with the directorship of Khalik ibn Walid – and each one has the control of his own army.'

Abu Horeirah says, 'the two armies set out and met at Bani Zobeida, then, we fought Bani Zobeida and got victory over them. We took many of them as captives, and Ali ibn Abī Tālib picket out one of the captives for himself.

It was then Khalid ibnWalid sent me to the Messenger to report the case to him that Ali ibn Abī Tālib, without your permission, has selected a captive and taken him for his own. 

I set out for the Messenger of Allah and when I reached his presence informed him of the case, I said, 'O the Messenger of Allah, I now, I have carried out my duty and what I was ordered to, I did well.' Messenger, the Highness, stated: 'Do not mention Ali's faults, and do not interfere his business; know that surely Ali is from me and I am of Ali and after me, he has the whole authorities and is the Guardian over my nation.' Ibn Athir, in Osol Ghayeh,[32] with his chained documents by Imran Hasi, and also Ghandozi Yanabi Al-Mawadda [33] from the Termizi's Sonnah from Imran ibn Hasin [34] and Moheb Ad-Din Tabari from Imran ibn Hasin have narrated that the Messenger set Ali as a commander upon an army and sent him to a brigade, in that fighting, Ali took a female-captive for himself. Some of his companions were not pleased with his action, thus, four of them united and went to the Messenger and one by one complained against Ali.             

The Messenger of Allah turned his face away from them until the fourth one stood up to repeat what his friends had said, he stated the same thing.

فاقبل اِليهِم رسول الّله صلّ الّله عليهِ و آلِه والغضب يعرف في وجهّه،  فقال: ما تريدون مِن عليّ؟ ما تريدون مِن عليّ؟ ما تريدون مِن عليّ؟ اِنّ عليّا مِنّي و انا مِن عليّ، و هو وتيّ كلِّ مؤمِنٍ بعدي.

Soon after, the Messenger of Allah turned to them in anger saying: 'What do you want from Ali?  'What do you want from Ali? 'What do you want from Ali? Certainly Ali is from me and I am of Ali, he is the Guardian and has the whole authority after me upon my nation.' [35]

Truly, those who could not bear Ali taking a female-captive for his own, while the stability of Islam was due to his self-sacrifice, how could they bear seeing he was the Leader of the Muslims and to have the control of people in his hand!

They ill-treated him as they could, so that after thirty years experiencing of sufferings, they killed him while praying in the altar and thus they buried that whole pure soul under the earth – they turned the hearts of the man, jinn, beasts and the bird in the heavens into the abode of mourning.

Ibn Athir Gazari writes:

 أنبأنا جدّي، حدّثنا زيد ذن علیّ عن عبيد الّله بن موسی، حدثنا الحسن بن کثير عن أبيه قال: خرج علیّ لِصّلوة الفجر فاستقبله الاؤز يصحِن وجهه: قال: فجعلنا نطردهنّ عنه.

فقال: دعوهنّ فإنّهنّ نوايح: وخرج فاصيبَ. [36]

Hassan, ibn Athir Jazari has written as: 'My father told me, "The Commander of the believers was going to [the mosque] for the dawn prayer, some ducks strutted to him and while looking at him in the face, they started making cackles.'(Asad al-Ghabah volume 4, page 36) He added, 'We wanted to shoo them away from around the Commander of the believers, but the Highness said: "Let them on their own, they are mourning for me." Before long, when he commenced the prayer, he was struck with the sword.

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The mourning of the birds and the wild animals upon the Master Martyr of the martyrs upon him be peace

That is true, later on the birds of the sky and the beasts of the desert wept and mourn for his son. Ibn Shahr Ashoob says, 'As on the twelfth of the Moharram, the Bani Asad came to collect those pure corpses to bury, they noticed the while birds assembling around sacred bodies. [37] Majlesi, May Allah be pleased with him, has related through the offspring of the Prophet that:

أَنّه لَمّا استَشْهد الْحُسَيْنُ عليهِ السّلام بقِی فی كَرْبَلَاءَ صَرِيعاً وَ دَمُهُ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مَسْفُوحاً وَ إِذَا بِطَائِرٍ أَبْيَضَ قَدْ أَتَى وَ تَمَسَّحَ بِدَمِهِ وَ جَاءَ وَ الدَّمُ يَقْطُرُ مِنْهُ فَرَأَى طُيُوراً تَحْتَ الظِّلَالِ عَلَى الْغُصُونِ وَ الْأَشْجَارِ وَ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمْ يَذْكُرُ الْحَبَّ وَ الْعَلَفَ وَ الْمَاءَ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ ذَلِكَ الطَّيْرُ الْمُتَلَطِّخُ بِالدَّمِ يَا وَيْلَكُمْ أَ تَشْتَغِلُونَ بِالْمَلَاهِي وَ ذِكْرِ الدُّنْيَا وَ الْمَنَاهِي وَ الْحُسَيْنُ فِي أَرْضِ كَرْبَلَاءَ فِي هَذَا الْحَرِّ مُلْقًى عَلَى الرَّمْضَاءِ ظَامِئٌ مَذْبُوحٌ وَ دَمُهُ مَسْفُوحٌ فَعَادَتِ الطُّيُورُ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمْ قَاصِداً كَرْبَلَاءَ فَرَأَوْا سَيِّدَنَا الْحُسَيْنَ مُلْقًى فِي الْأَرْضِ جُثَّةً بِلَا رَأْسٍ وَ لَا غُسْلٍ وَ لَا كَفَنٍ قَدْ سَفَتْ عَلَيْهِ السَّوَافِي وَ بَدَنُهُ مَرْضُوضٌ قَدْ هَشَّمَتْهُ الْخَيْلُ بِحَوَافِرِهَا زُوَّارُهُ وُحُوشُ الْقِفَارِ وَ نَدَبَتُهُ جِنٌّ السُّهُولِ وَ الْأَوْعَارِ قَدْ أَضَاءَ التُّرَابُ مِنْ أَنْوَارِهِ وَ أَزْهَرَ الْجَوُّ مِنْ أَزْهَارِهِ فَلَمَّا رَأَتْهُ الطُّيُورُ تَصَايَحْنَ وَ أَعْلَنَّ بِالْبُكَاءِ وَ الثُّبُورِ وَ تَوَاقَعْنَ عَلَى دَمِهِ يَتَمَرَّغْنَ فِيهِ وَ طَارَ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمْ إِلَى نَاحِيَةٍ يُعْلِمُ أَهْلَهَا عَنْ قَتْلِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ. [38]

'After Imam Hussein, the Highness, upon him be peace, was martyred, and his corpse was lying on the ground, in Karbala, and blood was still issuing out from his body, a white bird got closer to him and after straining his white wings with the blood it flew away while the blood dripping down from its wings. It flew by until it reached a patch of green land and saw some birds pecking seeds under the shades of the trees and some more sitting in the trees and while chirping, they were in the thought how to get more seeds.

The stained-in-blood bird told them,' Woe on you! Are you sitting in this fresh land and speaking about the seeds how to get it more and satisfy your hunger and enjoy your lives! Look! Now Hussein has fallen on the hot sand in the land of Karbala? They have killed him thirsty and his blood is running on the ground!

The birds all together left that green land and flew toward Karbala, when they got there, they saw the beheaded corpse of our Master, Hussein, upon him be peace, was laid on the ground; no one had given him the final wash nor was he wrapped in the white death shroud. The desert harsh wind had blown and it carried the whiling dust and sand on the corpse smashed and battered by the enemies' forceful horses.'

Then, his pilgrims and visitors were the beasts of the desert who were gathering around him; and his mourners were the jinn who always live by the passes and the valleys of town skirts.

However, the gloomy desert, and dust and sand were illuminated by the light of that corpse – all surrounding looked bright.                                                    

But by seeing the strange sight, those birds changed their twittering into squeaking and mourning, that is they were openly crying. They were rubbing their wings and the whole bodies on the blood and then flying high while looking at the corpse. In the end, each one flew to a different direction in sorrow to inform the others of the martyrdom of the Highness Aba Abdullah, upon him be peace.

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The approved visiting the shrine of the Master Martyr upon him be peace on the first day of Rajab

We, on the first day of Rajab, in the ‘Visiting-Pamphlet of the Highness’ recite:

يا أبا عَبدالله، اشهدُ لقَد اقشعرت لِدمائِكُم أظلُّةُ العرشِ مع أظلَّةِ الخلائقِ و بَكتكُمُ السماء و الأرضُ و سكانُ الجنانِ و البرُّ و البحرُ

صلّى الله عليكَ عددَ ما فى عِلم الله، لبيكَ داعِىَ اللهِ، إن كان لم يجبكَ بَدنى عند استغاثتِكَ، و لسانِى عند استِنصَارِكَ، فقَد اجابَكَ قلبى و سَمعى و بَصرى، سُبحانَ ربَّنا، أن كانَ وَعدُ ربّنا لَمفعُولا. [39]

'O Aba Abdullah! As a witness, I swear that the dwellers of the firmament of Allah and the whole territory of the creatures were shaken and wept for the fact and the truth of your agony – and the dwellers of the heaven and, land and the seas cried upon the distress of yours.  (Iqbal, page 712)

May the endless praises of Allah, which are included in the whole knowledge of Him, be upon you! Yes, o yes! O the inviter to Allah, I accepted it! I declared: 'Here, I am at your service, Allah!' And I heard your call by all means and accepted all! If, on that day, I had no physical body to answer your imploration for help, and I had no tongue to accept your need for aid, but today my soul, my body, my heart, my ears and my eyes are ready to answer your imploration for help and carry out your command. Glory be to our Creator, and surely His meeting day on the way – if I sacrifice myself to this appointment, it worth.  

وَ بشيرِي لَو جاءَ مِنكَ بعطفٍ              و وجودِي فِى قَبضَتِي قُلتُ هَاكَا

As the thanksgiving, of flower, now that you have blossomed         Do not spare the glad tidings of the meeting from the dawn bird.

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[1] Concerning this noble verse, ibn Babwiia has related a story from the Holiness Imam Reza, Upon Him be Peace, he has said: 'we were in the assembly of Ma'moon and the great learned asked him the interpretation of this verse, but the Holiness Imam answered them. This narrative is very interesting and in includes many subjects, and it is in Ghāyat-al-Maram, page 219, under the title of the ninth.

[2] Surah 11, "هود", Verse 56.

[3] Surah 35, "الفاطر", Verse 43.

[4] Surah 54, "القمر", Verse 55.

[5] Surah 53, "النجم", Verse 5-11.

[6] Surah 2, "البقرة", Verse 32.

[7] Surah 2, "البقرة", Verse 31.

[8] Surah 2, "البقرة", Verse 253.

[9] Yanabi Al-Mawadda, page 252.

[10]" الریاض النضرة", page 164.

[11] Yanabi Al-Mawadda, page 256.

[12] " مروج الذهب‏", first volume, of "مطبعة السعادة مصر" printing, 1367 of Hijri, pgaes 32 and 33, and of "مطبعه دار الاندلس بيروت‏" printing, Beirut 13 93 Hijri, pages 42 and 43.

[13] " مروج الذهب‏", first volume, published in "مطبعة السعادة مصر" 1367 of the Immigration year, page 37, and the publication of " مطبعه دار الاندلس بيروت‏", 1395 of the Immigration year, page 47.

[14] Surah 35, "الفاطر", Verse 31.

[15] Surah 56, "الواقعة", Verse 79.

[16] Surah 43, "الزخرف", Verse 3-4.

[17] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 33.

[18] Ahmad bin Hanbal relates this narrative from the narrative of Zeid bin Thabit in two most correct ways: first on the page 182, and then at the last part of the page 189, in the fifth part of his "مسند", however, the expression is:

 قال النبى انى تارك فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله و اهل بيتى و انهما لن يفترقا حتى يردا على الحوض‏ ,

and in the interpretation of " الدر المنثور", volume 6, page 7, he says:

و اخرج الترمذى و حسن ابن الانبارى فى المصاحف عن زيد بن ارقم رضى الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله: انى تارك فيكم ما ان تمسكتم به لن تضلوا بعدى احدهما اعظم من الاخر كتاب الله حبل ممدود من السماء الى الارض و عترتى اهل بيتى و لن يفترقا حتى يردا علىّ الحوض فانظروا كيف تخلفونى فيهما.

[19]   كنز العمال, volume 12, page 201, narrative 1130, published in India 1384.

[20]   كنز العمال, volume 12, page 203, narrative 1152, published in India 1384.

[21] Surah 40, "غافر", Verse 53.

[22] Yanabi Al-Mawadda, page 252.

[23] Yanabi Al-Mawadda, page 252.

[24] It is not unlikely that both narratives to be "فى العدل‏" but one has been printed in number.

[25] " الریاض النضرة", volume 3, page 153.

[26] Yanabi Al-Mawadda, page 235.

[27] Sahih Bukhari, page 164.

[28] " الصواعق المحرقه‏", page 75.

[29] " الرّیاض النظرة "  , page 153.

[30] Yanabi Al-Mawadda, page 235.

[31] Yanabi Al-Mawadda, page 235.

[32] Asad al-Ghabah, volume 4, page 27.

[33] Yanabi Al-Mawadda, page 235.

[34]  " الریاض النضرة", volume 3, page 164 & 165.

[35] In the book of “على و الوصية”, from the page of 352 to 354, the Messenger of stands against those who complain him against Ali, the Commander of the believers, and while he has defended him he has warned them that Ali is Successor and the Guadian upon every believer.

[36] Asad al-Ghabah, volume 4, page 36.

[37] "مناقب", volume 2, page 224.

[38] "بحار الانوار طبع کمپانی", volume 10, page 241.

[39] Iqbal, page 712.

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