In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 5: Chastity is a Donated Matter

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lesson Five: Chastity is a Donated Matter


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.

The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:

وَلَوْلاَ فَضْلُ اللّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَهَمَّت طَّآئِفَةٌ مُّنْهُمْ أَن يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلاُّ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِن شَيْءٍ وَأَنزَلَ اللّهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمُ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا [1]

 '… but were it not for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you, a party of them would try to lead you astray. Yet they only lead themselves astray but cannot injure you in any way. In addition, Allah sent the Book and Wisdom down to you and taught you what you did not know; thus, the Grace of Allah is great to you, (Qur'an: 4/113).' 

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The Messengers Chastity is certain

For the messengers and the Imams, upon them be peace, chastity is a Divine Gift, and it is a special kind of insight and the state of heart-brightness for them. It is not like the common knowledge for the ordinary people, and it is never over dominated by the power of the common sense.

And never, even for a moment, in wakefulness, in sleep, at the easy or difficult circumstances, and in comfort and upset, and in vanquish and defeating state any devil imagination can interfere their territories; their Divine given chastity is always bright inside and wipes the tiniest dark and devil spots out of their hearts.

This kind of knowledge not only is not defeated by the force of the common sense, and it is not defeated by the excitement, but it controls them as well; it implies them for its own benefit and makes them work for its will – they are totally under control.

Therefore, this bright potent knowledge always protects them against sins and crimes.

It is narrated that for the messengers and the Imams is a certain soul known as 'The Holy Spirit' which protects them at the highest point of the humanity – it immunes them from any stumbles, sins and misleading.

In the foregoing chapter[2] Allah states to His Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants: but were it not for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you, a party of them would try to lead you astray. Yet they only lead themselves astray but cannot injure you in any way.

In addition, Allah sent the Book and Wisdom down to you and taught you what you did not know; thus, the Grace of Allah is great to you.

In this blessed verse 'the book' means 'the revelation' concerning the rules of the religion sent by the Gabriel to the pure heart of the Messenger; and 'the wisdom' stands for 'the whole Knowledge of the Divine Secrets. And the purpose of 'the instructed knowledge' is the different facts and perceptions and the distinction of the right subjects.

And as the sentence: '… Allah sent the Book down' denotes to either present or it is explaining the cause of the preceding sentence, it means that the lack- of-effect-words of the hypocrites in you is because of your sound heart by which you are receiving the revelations about the facts and rules concerning religion through the trustworthy Gabriel. On the other hand, you are quite efficient in receiving the inspirations concerning the facts of the unseen, and the unknown affairs to the common, and also making the facts and wrongs explicit.

Therefore, by this verse, it is well understood that the awareness of the Messenger and his lacking of being astray, even on a tiny bit of matter, is due to that special Divine-given knowledge. It is by the that very knowledge the messengers receive the revelations, it is the very same knowledge that is known as 'The Holy Spirit' which in all circumstances protects the messengers from committing sins and doing wrong.

The next logic about the Chastity of the Messengers in the Qur'an

And the next reasons, [3] for the chastity of the messengers, are these two verses in the Qur'an, the first statement of Allah the Highest is:

وَمَن يُطِعِ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُوْلَئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاء وَالصَّالِحِينَ وَحَسُنَ أُولَئِكَ رَفِيقًا [4]

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The other verses of the Glorious Qur’an are the citations to the chastity of the messengers

'… and whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, will stand by those whom Allah has blessed: the messengers, the just people, martyrs and the noble men – and how great companions are they, (Qur'an: 4/69)!'

And the second statement of Allah the Highest is: 

اهدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِمْ غَيرِ المَغضُوبِ عَلَيهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ [5]

 '…guide us to the straight path, the path of those whom You have bestowed blessing, not of those, against whom, You are angry, nor of those who have gone astray, (Qur'an: 1/6-7)!'

By the first verse, we understand that Allah has given blessing to the messengers, martyrs, friends and the good; and the second verse says that those who have received Allah's blessing will not go astray.

Therefore, the messengers, martyrs, friends and the good will never go astray; and as any losses are considered sin, they never go beyond their bounds.

It is because of their retentive faculty which keeps them away from sins and committing any offences; and as any small affairs and making mistakes in propagation is considered perdition, they never ever commit it once. Thus, their Divine Knowledge and chastity is only used in receiving the revelations and propagating them properly.

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Ali, the Commander of the Believers, Possesses Chastity

Ali, the Commander of the believers, is given chastity by Allah, and he is the guardian, inheritor and the caliph of the Messenger of Allah, and he is the first one who believed in Messenger of Allah and said his prayer with him.

Tabari, (the narrator), by the reliable documents from ibn Abbas, narrates:  

قال أوّل من صلّي عليٌّ [6]

'The first one who prayed was Ali.'

He also narrates from Zeid Bin Argham who said:

 أوّل من أسلم مع رسول اللّهِ صلّ اللّهُ عليهِ و آلِهِ عليّ بن أبيطالِبٍ [7]

 'The first one, who believed in the Messenger of Allah, was Ali.'

And he narrates of Zeid Bin Argham who said:  

اوّل رجلٍ صلّي مع رسولِ اللّهِ صلّ اللّهُ عليهِ و آلِهِ عليّ بن أبيطالِبٍ [8]

'The first one who prayed was Ali, the son of Abī Tālib.'

And also Ibad Bin Abdullah also narrates: 'I heard Ali say:

 سمِعت عليّآً يقول: أنا عبد اللّهِ و أخو رسولِهِ و أنا الصِّدّيق الاكبر لا يقولها بعدي إلّا كاذِبٌ مفترٍ صلّيت مع رسول اللّهِ قبل النّاسِ بِسبع سِنين [9]

 "I am the worshipper of Allah and the brother of His Messenger, and I am the greatest rightful, after me if anyone claims this title is a liar – prior to the people, I prayed with the Messenger for seven years.'"

Both ibn Abbas Maliki and Muhammad Bin Talha Shafiite say: 

و كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قبل بدو امره اذا اراد الصلوة خرج الى شعاب مكة مستخفيا و اخرج عليا معه، فيصليان ما شاء الله فاذا قضيا رجعا الى مكانهما [10]

  'The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, used to pray even before the Islam; he often went to some of the valleys about Mecca and said his prayers secretly. He also took Ali along with him, and they both prayed as much as it would satisfy Allah, then they returned to their place.

 According to his investigation, Tabari narrates of Yahia Bin AfifKundi (AfifKundi who is Ashass Bin Kundi's brother who was the friend of Abbas Bin Abdul Mut‘talib and when he went on business to Mecca lodged in Abbas' house.)

Anyhow, he says, 'I went to Mecca at the era of ignorance and entered the house of Abbas Bin Abdul Mut‘talib. Some later, the sun rose and then it appeared in the sky, I was looking at the Ka‘ba when I saw a young man looking at the sky. Then, he took his eyes away from the sky and faced to Ka‘ba, and in the mean time, a youth came and stood on his right side; soon after, a woman came and stood behind them, the young man bowed down to pray and those two also bowed down to pray, the young man stood up so did those two. Next, the young man fell to prostrate and the youth and the woman too fell down to prostrate.'

I said, 'O Abbas, this is a great thing they are doing.'

Abbas said, 'Yes, it is, but do you know who they are?'

I answered, 'No.'

He said, 'He is Muhammad Bin Abdullah Bin Abdul Mut‘talib, the son of my brother. And do you know who that boy with him is?'

I answered, 'No.'

He said, 'He is Ali ibn Abī Tālib Bin Abdul Mut‘talib the son of my brother; and do you know who that woman standing behind them is?'

I answered, 'No.'

He said, 'She is Khadija, the daughter of Khavild, the Messenger's wife, he is my cousin. And this man has told me that my Creator is the same Creator of the heavens, and that Creator has commanded them to do such action; by Allah, except these three persons, I know none on the earth in this religion.' [11]

Nevertheless, the Messenger, the Commander of the believers and Khadija prayed and worshipped Allah for years; not a single person at Mecca believed then. No one knew of his Highness' mission until when this Warning Verse was sent down by Allah:

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The verse of ‘warning and the story of the Household

وَ اَنذِر عَشِيرَتَكَ الاَقرَبيِنَ﴿214 وَ اخفِض جَناحَكَ لِمَن اتَّبَعَكَ مِن المُؤمِنينَ ﴿215 فَإن عَصَوكَ فَقُل اِنِّى بَرِىٌ مِمَّا تَعمَلُونَ﴿216 وَ تَوَكَّل عَلَى العَزيزِ الرَّحيمِ ﴿217 الَّذِى يَريكَ حِينَ تَقُومَ ﴿218 وَ تَقَلُّبَكَ فِى السَّاجِدينَ﴿219 اِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّميعُ العَليِمُ‏ [12]

'… and warn your nearest kinfolk, and be humble to the believers who may follow you. If they are to oppose you, then say, ‘I distain of what you are doing.’   And put your trust on the Merciful [Allah], the Source of Might Who sees you whenever you stand [to pray], and [observe] your moving around among those who prostrate. He is indeed the Knowing Hearer, (Qur'an: 26/214-220).'

Then, the Highness Messenger of Allah invited his relatives and clans and announced them his own prophet-hood; as it is narrated by the historians, narrators and the great people in Islam, it is known as 'The Tribe Narration'.

Allama Amini says: 'this narration has been stated the by the Imams and the narrators of the both (Shiite and Sunni) sects; they have recorded it in their books of Sahihs and Masnads. And some other narrators as well as the Imams, and the people whose words are trusted in Islam have referred to the narration, read it, pondered on it and then unanimously accepted it.

Apart from them, the greatest historians of the Muslims and non-Muslims have accepted the truth of the narration and have put it down as an absolute event in their books; and the poets, Muslims or non-Muslims, have changed the narration into poem – as an example, you can find the poem of Nashi Saghir who died in 365 the Lunar Month. [13]

Here, we are to explain the original narration of Tabari's from the history book of his, and then we will discuss it in detail.

Tabari is narrating Ibn Hamid from SalamaIbnIs‘haq, from Abdul Ghaffar Bin Ghasim, from Minhal Bin Amrou, from Abdullah Bin Harith Bin Nawfel Bin Abdul Mut‘talib, from Abdullah Bin Abbas and finally from Ali ibn Abī Tālib who said:

'When the Verse of Warning,'… and warn your nearest kinfolk…, was sent down to Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants, he called me saying: "O Ali, my Allah commanded me to give notice to my nearest kinfolk and the relatives, I felt this affair weighty on my shoulder, because, I thought, as soon as I would open my mouth to say a word they would rise against me. So I kept silent until next Gabriel came to me and said: 'O Muhammad, if you do not fulfill your duty, your Creator will chastise you.'

"Therefore, do prepare us some three kilos' weigh of food, when preparing it add a sheep-thigh to it – and get a bowl of milk. Then, invite all the children of Abdul Mut‘talib to me so that I give a speech and announce my mission to them."

Ali, says, 'Whatever the Messenger of Allah commanded me I carried out. I invited the sons of Abdul Mut‘talib to Messenger's house; they were forty altogether but one more or less. Among them were the Messenger's uncles, Abu Tālib, Hamza, Abbas and Abu Lahab.

'When all of them were present, the Highness commanded me to bring the food inside and I did bring it and put it in front of the Highness. The Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants took a piece of the meat with his hand and then tore it into pieces with his teeth, and put the smaller pieces on a big plate inviting the quests: 'Now, go on by mentioning 'In the name of Allah.''

'They all had enough of the food until they had no more rooms. I swear by Allah that Ali's soul is in His hand, the food that I prepared was only for one person, but it was the Highness who stated: "[O food, do satisfy this gathering."

'Next, I presented that bowl of milk and they all drank out of it to quench their thirst – by Allah, that bowl of milk was just for one person.

In the mean time, when the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants wanted to commence his speech, Abu Lahab, [when pointing to the Highness and addressing the gathering], took the lead saying: 'This companion of yours has been a magician for a long time!'

Thus, the Messenger kept silent.

'The day after, he said: "O Ali, when I was going to say my word, this man took the lead and with his ugly utterance made the tribe leave without hearing my words, so once more, prepare of the same food you did the day before and again invite those people here."'

Ali says: 'I made the same food and called all those people to come to his house.

The Highness ordered me to bring the food, so did I, and as the day before, he invited them to eat, they ate so much that they had no more rooms.

Then he said, 'Now, quench their thirst.' I brought a bowl of milk, they, one after another, drank out of that bowl and satisfied their bellies.

Then, the Messenger of Allah commenced his word saying: "O the sons of Abdul Mut‘talib, by Allah, I never remember a young man among the Arabs to bring you a gift better than what I have brought to you. I have brought a blessing for this world and the next world of yours – Allah, the Highest, has commanded me to invite you to worship Him. Now, in this affair, which one of you is volunteer to assist me so that to be as my brother, my guardian and my caliph among the people?"

Ali says, 'All of them present ignored answering the Highness! At that time, I, who was the youngest of all, and was the poorest and shabbily dressed among them, said: "Me! O the Messenger of Allah, I am going to be your assistant!" [14] It was then the Highness rested his hand on my shoulder and stated to the gathering:

إنّ هذا أخي و وصيّي و خليفتي فيكم، فأسمعوا له وأطيعوا

'This is my brother, my guardian and my caliph among you, so listen to his command and obey him.'

Ali says, 'everyone in the group stood up, and while they were laughing and telling Abu Tālib: "Now, this man has ordered you to listen to your son and to carry his orders." [15]

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The Authentic Documents of the Story of the Household

Allama Amini says, 'Similar to this narration, Tabari too has quoted this narration that Abu Ja‘far Iskafi the orator of Mo‘tazili Baghdadi, who died in 240, has put it in his book 'Naghz-ul-Othmaneiah [16] and it is authentic.'

And also some others, such as: the jurisprudent Borhan-Addin in his book, Anba Nojaba Al-Abna (pages: 46-48), and Ibn Athir in Kami (pages 2-24), and Abul Feda Emad Ad-din Dameshgi at his history book (volume 1, page 116), and Shahab Ad-din Khaffaji in 'the explanation of curing' which belongs to Ghazi Ayaz(pages 3-37) has written – though he has omitted the rest of the narration, and he has said that he has added it 'in 'Beihaghi's Reasoning' have narrated it.'

And also ibn Abi Al-Hadid, in the explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha, (volume 3, page 254), and the historian, Jorhi Zeidan, in 'The History of the Culture of Islam' (volume 1, page 31), and finally, Muhammad Hussein Heikal, in the book of 'Muhammad's Life' (page 104) have narrated it.'

All the narrators of this are known and they are reliable.

But some people consider Abu Maryam Abdul-Ghaffar Bin Ghasim to be unreliable. This doubling is for his being Shiite, though ibn Oghda has praised him for his work, he has even elaborated as he is highly praised in 'The Lesan Al-Mizan' (volume 4, page43).

And the foregoing six preservers also relate their narrations to him; though they are expert in narrating and relating the traditions and stories.

No one has under estimated 'The Tribe Tradition', though the case of Abu Maryam, who has not well, is different; and the cases of prophet-hood and the attributes of the Imams are based on his reasoning.

And also AbuJa‘farIskafi and Shahab-AddinKhaffaji believe in the authentic of this narration; and Seyouti, in 'the Jam-ul-Jawame‘(volume 6, page 396) has related that ibn Jarir Tabari has accepted the genuine of this narration.

Apart from these, the subjects of this narration have been put in many books and all the narrators are reliable.

Ahmad Bin Hanbal has narrated in his Mosnad (volume 1, page 111) that all the narrators of this book are reliable and are the men in Sahah, they are: Sharik, A‘mash Sahal and Ibad. [17]

However, 'The Tribe Tradition' has been narrated by many of the great men, such as: ibn Mardoyeh, Seyoti, and ibn Abi Hatam, and Baghawi, and Halabi in the 'Attributes of the prophets' and some other books, like:

فَأَيُّكُمْ يُبَايِعُنِي عَلَى أَنْ يَكُونَ أَخِي وَ صَاحِبِي وَ وَارِثِي فَلَمْ يَقُمْ إِلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ قَالَ فَقُمْتُ وَ كُنْتُ أَصْغَرَ الْقَوْم الي ان قال فضرب رسولِ اللّهِ بِيدِهِ علي يدِي

و قال: من بايعني علي ان يكون أخي و صاحِبي و وليّكم مِن بعدي؟فمددت يدي و قلت: أنا ابايِعك

و أيضاً: انا أدعوكم الي كلِمتينِ خفيفتينِ علي اللِّسانِ ثقيلتينِ في الميزانِ: شهادةٌ أن لا اِله اِلّا اللّهِ و أنّي رسول اللّهِ فمن يجيبني اِلي هذا الامرِ و يوازرني يكن أخي و زيري و وصيّي و وارِثي و خليفتي مِن بعدي فلم يجِبه أحدٌ مِنهم، فقام عليٌّ و قال: أنا يا رسول اللّهِ فقا: اِجلِس ثمّ أعاد القول القومِ ثالِثاً، فلم يجِبه أحدٌ مِنهم فقام عليٌّ و قال أنا يا رسول اللّهِ فقال: اِجلس فأنت أخي و وزيري و وصيّي و وارثي و خليفتي مِن بعدي.

و أيضاً: أَيُّكُمْ يَنْتَدِبُ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَخِي وَ وَزِيرِي وَ وَصِيِّي وَ خَلِيفَتِي فِي أُمَّتِي وَ وَلِيَّ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مِنْ بَعْدِي فَأَمْسَكَ الْقَوْمُ حَتَّى أَعَادَهَا ثَلَاثاً فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع أَنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَوَضَعَ رَأْسَهُ فِي حَجْرِهِ وَ تَفَلَ فِي فِيهِ وَ قَالَ اللَّهُمَّ امْلَأْ جَوْفَهُ عِلْماً وَ فَهْماً وَ حُكْماً ثُمَّ قَالَ لِأَبِي طَالِبٍ يَا أَبَا طَالِبٍ اسْمَعِ الْآنَ لِابْنِكَ وَ أَطِعْ فَقَدْ جَعَلَهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ نَبِيِّهِ بِمَنْزِلَةِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَي.

و أيضاً: من يؤاخيني و يوازرني و يكون وليّي و وصيّي بعدي و خليفتي في أهلي يقضي ديني؟اِلي أن قال رسول اللّه لِعلي: أنت، فقام القوم، و هم يقولون لِابيطالب أطع اِبنك فقد امِّر عليك

و أيضاً: فَأَيُّكُمْ يَقُومُ فَيُبَايِعُنِي عَلَى أَنَّهُ أَخِي وَ وَارِثِي وَ وَزِيرِي وَ وَصِيِّي وَ يَكُونُ مِنِّي بِمَنْزِلَةِ هَارُونَ مِنْ مُوسَى إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا نَبِيَّ بَعْدِي فَسَكَتَ الْقَوْمُ فَقَالَ لَيَقُومَنَّ قَائِمُكُمْ أَوْ لَيَكُونَنَّ مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ ثُمَّ لَتَنْدَمُنَّ ثُمَّ أَعَادَ الْكَلَامَ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ فَقَامَ عَلِيٌّ ع فَبَايَعَهُ فَأَجَابَهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ ادْنُ مِنِّي فَدَنَا مِنْهُ فَفَتَحَ فَاهُ وَ مَجَّ فِي فِيهِ مِنْ رِيقِهِ وَ تَفَلَ بَيْنَ كَتِفَيْهِ وَ ثَدْيَيْهِ فَقَالَ أَبُو لَهَبٍ بِئْسَ مَا حَبَوْتَ بِهِ ابْنَ عَمِّكَ أَنْ أَجَابَكَ فَمَلَأْتَ فَاهُ وَ وَجْهَهُ بُزَاقاًفقال عليهِ السّلام ملأته حكمةً و عِلماً    

[The Holy Messenger said], 'which one of you is volunteer to assist me and then to be as my brother, my guardian and my caliph among the people?'

No one stood up to answer him except I, I stood up, while I was the youngest in the tribe, and answered positively. Then the Highness rested his hand on my shoulder and stated to the gathering …

And like: 'which one of you volunteers to assist me and then to be as my brother, my guardian and my caliph among the people?'

I answered, 'I pay homage.'

Also like this one:

I invite you to admit these two easily uttering words by tongue and the weightiest in the balance of the deeds, they are: witnessing that 'There is no deity except Allah, and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah'.

'And who is going to help me in my affairs, for anyone who does, he will be as my brother, my guardian, my inheritor and my caliph after me?'

No one of them answered until Ali stood up and said, 'O the Messenger of Allah, I am going to help.'

He said, 'Sit down,' Then he repeated his words for the third time but none of them answered this time, either.

Again Ali stood up and clearly said, 'O the Messenger of Allah, I do.' Thus, the Messenger said, 'Then, you are my brother, my guardian, my inheritor and my caliph after me.'

Well, 'Which of you is entrusted to be as my brother, my minister, my inheritor and my caliph among my nation; and also my guardian after my death?. All the people there kept silent and he repeated his words for three times, no one but Ali answered, 'I am, O the Messenger of Allah.'

He was disappointed and turned his face away from them and sad: "O Allah, fill up his heart with knowledge, understanding and command," then he said to Abī Tālib: "O Abī Tālib, now listen to your son and obey for Allah has assigned him for Him a prophet – as Aaron to Moses."

And similarly: Who is going to support and follow me as my guardian, and inheritor and the caliph after me from among my relatives so that to carry out his debt and responsibility?"

[There came no response until] the Messenger of Allah said to Ali: "It is you!" Then, the group stood up and said to Abī Tālib: 'Now, obey your son what he is going to command you.'"

Moreover: 'Which one of you paying homage to me to be as my brother, and my minister, and my inheritor and also as Aaron to Moses except there is no prophet after me?' It was only Ali who stood up, paid homage and responded him. Then he said: 'Honour me and follow him. I t was then Abu Lahab got furious, spitted around and after swallowing his saliva said: "It is so bad giving such honour to the son of your uncle?'

Again, bless be on him said, 'Increase him wisdom and knowledge.'

And recently, Ahmad Lotfi, the Master, in Shahid Khalid book, 'Al-Hussein Ibn Ali' has added it under the narration from Tabari; and Toufigh Al-Hakim has mentioned it as Tabari's in the book of Muhammad. And the poet, Alghadir, Abdul Masih Antaki, the Egyptian, has brought as Tabari in his book; and Qazzali has composed a poem about it. [18]

Abu, [after explaining this narration in detail], Ja‘farIskafi says: 'Is it reasonable to let a child stand for a chef and to assign him to invite the clans and tribes? Is this the sign of being a prophet, a child at the age of five or seven?

Is it wise letting a child take part in the gathering of elderly in a session?

By the way, is it approved in the case of the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants   to put his hand to his and pronounce the brotherhood formality with him, and then, to nominate him as his guardian and the inheritor after him while lacking of efficiency? [It is not fair unless] he attains puberty and to be capable of taking the responsibility of the guardianship and having enough power to encounter the enemies of Allah.

Why does this boy not mingle with his own age children, why does he not join them? Here he is! Why did he, after embracing Islam, did not join the children, though he was as old as they are? He did not spend an hour of his to play with them, so that to be said, he is enjoying his childhood; his state as a child and the world wonders did not draw his attention to them.

[Now, for us, it looks weird] because we have not seen Ali except [hearing of] his resistance and stability to save Islam, and being determined in his affairs. His acts supported his words, Islam was his chastity and his piety confirmed it, and among the people around him he was the only one who first joined the Messenger of Allah.

Ali was the trustee and the friend of the Messenger of Allah in this world and will he be in the next world. Ali vanquished the lust and passions and save his strength of memories. He resisted patiently on it as he was hopeful of the reward of the Hereafter. [19]

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The Household story with the orient-lists

Anyway, the 'Clan Tradition' and the nomination of Ali, the Commander of the believers, as the caliph on that day is so vivid and serious that some of the oriental historians have narrated the case: George Sale in his book called 'The Qur'an and Muhammad' says: 'At that time, Muhammad paid too much affection to Ali, he embraced him in his arms and said to those present at the meeting to listen to him and carry out what he says; and to take him as his second-in-command and obey him. It was why that tribe left the assembly and told Abu Talib, "There! Now, you have to obey your son."'

While explaining this narration, John Daven, Port in the book 'Muhammad and the Qur'an' says: 'Muhammad Bless be to him and his Descendants stood up while wearing his usual pleasant smile, and said: "The eternal blessing be on him who follows him, and then delivered the most influence lecture as: 'Which one of you is going to help me in this affair? Who is going to be my deputy as Aaron was the minister of Moses?' Silence and surprise dominated the session and no one dared accept his dangerous proposal until when his cousin Ali, the heedless young boy stood up and shouted, 'Here! O the Messenger of Allah, I will support you.' Before long, Muhammad opened his arms, embraced Ali and said, 'Now, look at my brother and minister!"'

The American Washington Aronick in the 'Holy Book' translated from English into Farsi by the Shirazian Mirza Ibrahim Khan, while writing about the life of the Messenger, on page 60 he has written:

'The Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants, stated: 'Which one of you is ready to accept me as his brother? Which one of you likes to be my minister and deputy?' Those present at the session kept silence for a while and no uttered a single a word. They looked at each other on the faces and then some of them in surprise and some others mockingly laughed. It did not lost long until Ali, the son of Tālib, without caring them stood up in courage and said: "Here! O the Messenger of Allah, I am your obedient servant though still I am young and I am not worthy to be at your service."

Muhammad embrace that trustworthy youth and called in a loud voice: "Now, see my brother, minister and the deputy of mine."'

This courage, boldness and the ostentation of the child, as Ali, caused the Quraish unanimously laugh, and then they turned to Abu Tālib and mockingly said: "You too are excepting us to bow down in front of your son and respect him!" [20] 

However, we have to discuss on this narration in two different ways: the first one by the documents and the second way by reasoning.

By the document, as we said, the case is clear and needs no doubting. In the point of view of the traditions it is quite authentic and there gives no way to doubts. No one among the Sunni believes the weakness of this narration, but only ibn Tameiiah who has said the narration is false in subject. But, on the other hand, ibn Tameiiah's words are unreliable because everyone knows that he is prejudice and an eminent enemy to the Shiite. He had denied the very true traditions and the stories have been narrated about the Household of the Messenger of Allah.

To the scholars it is quite clear that his rejecting the Household is his severe grudge against them.

Yafiee, in the 'Mar'at-ul-Jinan', says: 'ibn Tameiiah's Judicial Decrees are strange and it is why they are rejected even by the Sunni and because of his weird verdicts he was jailed. The ugliest decree of his is his rejecting to meet the grave of the Messenger of Allah.

Tabari's crimes in narrating 'The Clan Tradition'

And it is a wonder why Halabi has narrated 'The Clan Tradition' by ibn Tameiiah! In his narration he says, 'the Messenger of Allah has stated:

فمن يجيبني اِلي هذا الامرِ و يوازِرني أي يواوِنني علي القيمِ بِهِ. قال عليّ: انا يا رسولِ اللّهِ وأا أحدثهم سِنّا و سكت القوم.

"Whoever fancies on this affair, to meet my grave, he makes me stand against him.'

He continues the narrative up to here and in the question of the Prophet and his answer he does not say anything about the dignities of the Commander of the believers, and the phrase:

علي أن يكون أخي و وصيّي و خليفتي مِن بعدي

And also in the answer of the Holiness:

فأنت أخي و وصيّي و خليفتي مِن يعدي

He has omitted it; and it is even strange that he says: ‘someone has added the phrase:

أخي و وصيّي و وارِثي و وزيري و خليفتي مِن بعدي

He has distorted this saying: 'Ali is going to be my brother, my guardian and my caliph after me;' that is he has altered the His Highness' answer as: 'So you are my brother, my guardian and my caliph after me.' He claims that some people have added this clause: 'my brother, my guardian, my inheritor, my minister and my caliph' to Messenger's own saying. [21]

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The crimes of Tabari in recording the story of the Household

Allama Amini says, 'One of the serious crimes they have done on this 'narration' is that: though, in his era, Tabari quoted the foregoing narration in his translation, (volume 19, page 74), word by word as it appeared to him, that is he has mentioned in details – unless for this phrase:

وصيّي و خليفتي فيكم،

'My guardian and caliph among you'

he has used the phrase 'so and so' and then has brought up the narration by: 'So which of you is ready to this affair to be my brother and…

And in this sentence the Highness has also said, 'Indeed this brother and so on….

It is quite clear that how serious crime he has done to hide the fact and also to avoid to explain the virtues of the Commander of the believers by under estimating and distorting the phrase 'my guardian and my caliph among you'.

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Ibn Kathir's crime in narrating 'The Clan Tradition'

And after this alteration, ibn Kathir Shami in 'Al-Beyah and Al-Nahayah' (volume 3, page 40), as well in his interpretation (volume 3, page 351) instead of 'my guardian and my caliph among you, has put so and so – though the outlet of this narration with him was Tabari's history.

Ibn Kathir has explained this narration in details, but for him recording the main points concerning Ali, the Commander of the believers' religious caliphate, has been unpleasant; it is why he has evaded explaining it clearly and has committed crimes in quoting this historical narration.

Has in his interpretation Tabari meant so – after previously bringing those two phrases in his history – or something else? Allah knows about it!

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Heikal's crime in narrating 'The Clan Tradition'  

And then, Muhammad Hasanain Heikal [22] has also altered this narration. First of all, in his first book 'The Life of Muhammad' page 104 he has mentioned the main narration and continued:

فأيّكم يوآزرني هذا  الأمر و ان يكون أخي ووصيّي وخليفتي فيكم، فاعرضوا عنه و همّموا بِتركِهِ ، لكِنّ عليّاً نهض و مل يزال صبييّاً دون الحلمِ وقال: انا يا رسولِ اللّهِ! عونك، أنا حربٌ علي من حاربت فاتبسّم بنو هاشم و قهقه بهضهم و جعلنظر هم ينقِل مِن أبيطالبٍ إلي إبنِهِ ثمّ انصرفوا مستهزِءين [23]

'Which one is among you agrees with this affair that is to be my brother, and my guardian and the caliph? They all turned away and ignored it but Ali stood up, though had not yet attained puberty and said: 'It is I, o the Messenger of Allah! I will help you; I will fight with whoever fights you.' They, the Bani Hashim laughed at him – some of them turned to Abī Tālib and told him to obey his son and then all laughed.

The clause 'I will help you in fighting whomever fights you' as added to the narration by Allah Himself. This sentence is not seen in any narration, and so is the Messenger's answer to Ali's utterance when he states:

فأنت أخي و وصيّي و وارثي و خليفتي فيكم

'So among them, you are my brother, my guardian, my inheritor and my inheritor and caliph' which is omitted. And when in doing this crime he did not encounter anyone to call him to account, and to fine his mistakes, he himself has omitted anything about Ali, the Commander of the believers, in the second re-publishing of his book.

The secret to this alteration is perhaps the influence of ibn Kathir and some people alike that after the first publication he has noticed it and then corrected it in his second press.[24] Or it might be the outnumbered objects to him in the Mass Medias. And putting the first sentence in his book might be by the enemies' influence and then he has corrected it in his second publishing. Or, as it is customary among the publishers, who take away some of the sentences they dislike, and also the writer agrees with them then the sentence is omitted. Or it might be that the writer is unable to challenge them! Anyhow, May Allah awakens our sense, understanding and to protect the Divine Attributes in our hearts. [25]

But the next, as our discussion is about the sense of the tradition and that it is about the different translations and the explanation of it as:

أنت أخي و وصييي و خليفتي فيكم و اسمعوا له وأطيعوا

'You are my brother, my guardian and my caliph among you so listens to him and obeys him' which is an authentic saying from the Messenger of Allah and it is clearly said about the caliphate of that Highness, as the story of the Ghadir Khom. The point is that the main consign was in the beginning of the prophet-hood while the story of the Ghadir Khom was at the end of it – when, prior to the Messenger's demise, Gabriel descended and let the Highness know what the news was about.

Let not talk about some of the previously mentioned narrations which include: inherit ion, ministry case, guardianship, and all the believers after me, and he is as Aaron to Moses, to fulfill my debt and the phrase 'listen and obey' – each of them refer to the Highness' guardianship and the caliphate.

Let's assume that there was not a single story or narration after this 'my brother, my guardian and my caliph with you', only these few phrases would clearly prove the caliphate of the Highness.

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From the very beginning, Ali’s Guardianship was with the Monotheism and the Prophet-hood of the Messenger

Therefore, certainly it can be said that, from the very beginning, the guardianship of Ali, upon him be peace, has started with this witnessing:

لا إله إلا اللّه و محمّدٌ رسول اللّه

'There is no deity but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger' and the phrase:

عليٌّ وليّ اللّهِ

'Ali is the Guardian of Allah' has been joined to it.

As the Messenger of Allah, in the beginning of Islam, invited his family and the relatives to 'Witness' it, in this gathering on this day also he ordered them to accept the guardianship of Ali, the Commander of the believers and obey him [26] – that is, he officially announced his guardianship.

Therefore, right from the rise of the Islam, it was announced with witnessing Allah, witnessing the prophet-hood of the Messenger of Allah and witnessing the guardianship of Ali, the Guardian of Allah.

That which Shiite says of the necessity of following Ali, the Commander of the believers, is one of the serious natures of the Islam, and the truth of the Shiite and it is the fact of the Islam.

Those who contend themselves with 'witnesses' but avoid the guardianship of Ali, the Commander of the believers, in fact, reject part of the 'witnessing' – for sure, they reject the Islam altogether.

It is similar to witnessing the Unity of Allah but ignoring the prophet-hood that is accepting a part but ignoring the part – in fact, ignoring the main fact.

From the very start of the Islam, following the Household and obeying them, as well as the guardians of the Highness Messenger of Allah has been assigned. Based on this clear assignment, since then, manifest verses of the Qur'an and sayings of the Messenger of Allah have been reinforced the guardianship; similar to the manifest verses of the Qur'an and the sayings of the Messenger of Allah have been added to the Unity.

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During the whole period of the messenger-hood, the Commander of the believers upon her be peace was the close friend and the supporter of the Respectable Messenger.

Apart from this, the narration indicates that it was Ali, the Commander of the believers who bore the hardship of the prophet-hood and the risky responsibilities of missionary, commandments and jihad; and also, as it is the duty of a messenger on-fording the people of the world to their destination, he was a genuine assistant. Because the 'Narration' does not mean that 'One who simply believes in me can be the guardian or the caliph' but it means 'He who assists me in this affair and stands by me through the difficulties can be my caliph.

On this matter, some sentences have been quoted by the Highness who had said:

أيّكم يوازرني علي هذا الامر؟

'Which one of you is going to help me in this affair,' and:

أيّكم يبايعني علي أن يكون أخي و صاحِبي و وارِثي؟

'Which one of you is paying homage to me, that is, he obeys me and puts himself at my disposal, and in all difficulties tries to fulfill the task of the missionary; and he is always ready to continue this hard responsibility of mine alone after me?

And: 'In this matter, which one of you is going to be as a brother to me to help me and take the responsibility of the guardianship after me and accomplish his duty?'

And: 'which one of you accepts to be my brother, my minister, my guardian and as a caliph for my nation after me – to take authority upon the people?'

It is clearly understood that for fulfilling his hard and risky task, the Messenger of Allah was looking for a sincere assistant to help him both during his life and after his demise.

These sentences clearly denote that the Messenger of Allah says: 'Who is among you to come to my help in this condition of mine and so serious state, and rise up to help the religion of Allah; to take the responsibility during my life time and after my death, to stand by me as long as I am alive, and after my death to be able to take the responsibility of the mission so that to pay my debt to Allah.'

Thus, by accepting this responsibility, Ali, the Commander of the believers, has been responsible for carrying out all the affairs about Islam and being the sincere assistant to the Messenger of Allah.

May Allah bless you o Aba Al-Hassan!

Let it be not assumed that the position of brotherhood, ministry, guardianship, inheritance and the caliphate which the Messenger of Allah gave to Ali is a ceremonial formality and it is a reward for his accepting it; as if he has been rewarded for the task was taken – by uttering these sentences, the Messenger has invited him to meet the difficulties he had in mission.

And he stated:

'Who is to take this insufferable huge mountain on his shoulder?

'Who is to rise alongside me and revolt against the disbelievers and lessen my impression?

'Who is to rise courageously alongside me in the battles and to support the right religion?

'Who is to rise against the severe opposition of Quraish and the disbelieving tribes?

'Who is as the immigrant to wander in the deserts and then flee to the unknown destinations?

'Who is he to lie in my bed at the 'overnight stay' and expose his body to the swords of the cruel Arabs?

'Who is he, after my demise, not to be frightened by the hypocrites of his nation, and not to let any passion enter his heart, and to challenge with too many hardships, but not to offend against anyone?

The groan of my daughter, Zahra, not to stimulate him against the tribes disputes; and as a peaceful ocean stand stable and carry out his duties, and not only at this time, but look after his nation until the day of Resurrection. To accomplish his duty patiently and in proud and truth, and the ascetic manner: to be careless to the impiety and to train the people to the straight path.

O people of the world! Know that on that day with so many problems, the little boy, the Commander of the believers, answered the Messenger of Allah positively. With his enormous power and positive answer, he avoided the dangers at that perilous state, and prepared himself to sacrifice for Islam at that age. He clearly sighted the Messenger's 23-year-old events and even the state of the Islam after his demise so he stood up and shouted: 'O the Messenger of Allah, "Here, I!"

O Messenger of Allah, it is just me to be your loyal and sincere friend and assistant, I will never separate you for a single moment. I would like to sacrifice my soul, my belonging, my personality, my honour and my life for the sake of you. It is me that would like to see they have tied rope around my neck and dragging me to the mosque to pay homage; [27] and in any case, not to open my mouth to offend, and control my emotions.

It is me who is going to witness their setting a fire in front of your daughter's house, [28]  and hearing  my beloved cry 'Oh, Allah, oh, Muhammad!'

But for the security of the religion, and the everlasting of the Qur'an, and safeguarding the importance in the religion I will not overpass my duty.

I am the very same person that at the sharpest moment of being tested – when two great men of Quraish, Abu Sofyan and Abbas come to me and say: 'Ali, put your hand in our hands so that to swear allegiance, because after that, no one can be against you; [29] then, if you want to, we can fill up the streets and lanes with the soldiers to defend you against your enemies, [30] but I will not answer them and keep quiet.

It is me that when witnessing your daughter's cry and her feeling upset for their taking her right, I will take refuge by your grave and say: 'O the son of my mother, the tribe has indeed made me weaker and they are nearly killing me!' [31]

It was not unduly that on one stood up at that assembly of 'The Clan Tradition' and they did not accept his saying, though they believed in Messenger's truthfulness.

The Messenger of Allah was not unknown to them for he had grown up among them, but they knew that, by accepting his proposal, they would encounter thousands of worries, difficulties and experiencing great sufferings, so it was why they stood up one after another and while mocking an smiling, they left the session.

The late Saied Himyari points 'To the Clan Tradition' and composes a satirical poem as: 

بأبي أنت و أمي                               يا أمير المؤمنينا

بأبي أنت و أمي                               و برهطي أجمعينا

Then he says:

كنت في الدّنيا اخاه                          يوم يدعوالاقربينا [32]

And also says:

من فضله أنه قد كان أول من            صلى و آمن بالرحمن إذ كفروا

سنين سبع و أيام محرمة                 مع النبي على خوف و ما شعروا

و يوم قال له جبريل قد علِموا            أنذِر عشيرتك الادنين اِن بصروا          

And he says:

منِ الّذي قال مِنهم و هو احدثهم       سِنّاً و خيرهم في الذِّكرِ اذ سطروا

آمنت بِاللهِ قد أعطيت نافِله                لم يهطِها أحدٌ جِنٌّ و لا بشرٌ

و اِنّ ما قلته حقّ و إنّهم                    اِن لم يجيبوا فقد خانوا و قد خسِروا [33]

ففاز قِدماً بِها واللهِ أكرمه                  و كان سبّاق عاياتٍ اِذا ابتدروا

And in his another elegy he says:

عليٌّ عليهِ ردّت الشّمس مرّةً             بِطيبةِ يوم الوحيِ بعد مغيبِ

The he says:

و قيلله أنذِر عشيرتك الاولي            و هم مِن شباب أربعين و شيبِ

Then he says:

ففاز بِها مِنهم عليٌّ و سادهم            و ما ذاك مِن عاداتهِ بِغريبٍ [34]

‘May my father and mother be sacrificed to you, o the Commander of the believers, ‘may my father and mother be sacrificed to you, and so do my family altogether…?

He continues up to:

You were his brother in the world until the day he called you to him from our from our circle.’

Then, he adds some more to it as:

He was the first in virtue who prayed and believed in the Mercy Giving when all disbelieved. At the age of seven, when still not prescribed to pray, he prayed with the Prophet in danger and awareness. And once Gabriel said to him: “Now you, forewarn your intimate clan to observe.”

He goes on:

He who responded among them, was the youngest one of them, he believed in Allah and was allowed to pray supererogatory, though it was not allowed for the jinn or human before.” Whatever he was said was right, but indeed they were not surprised, for they were not right but cunning; He won, for it came down to him, and Allah honoured him, he was running purposely when the rest were sluggish.

And in another satirical he says:

“Time and again the sun retreated for Ali’s goodness, so did he set on the Day of Revelation.”

He goes on:

He was said, “Warn your own chiefs in your clan; the forty-year-old youths as well as the grayed, the aged.”

And he brings it up as:

“Ali won and he became the Master for all, and it was not his custom to surprise the others.”

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[1] " سوره نساء", chapter 4, verse 113.

[2] the verse in the beginning of Lesson 5.

[3] in the commentary of al-Mizan, volume 2, page 140.

[4] Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 69.

[5] Surah 1, "فاتحة", Verse 6 & 7.

[6] the history of Tabari, volume 2, page 55.

[7] Tabari, volume 2, page 56.  And in "ينابيع المودة ", page 60, from ibn Majeh Ghazvini and Ahmad in Mosnad and Abu Naeem Hafiz and Tha'labi and also Hamwini have related it.

[8] The forgoing document.

[9] The forgoing document.

[10] "فصول المهمة ", page 14, and "مطالب السؤول‏ " page 11, and Tabari, volume 2, page 58.

[11] "Tabari, volume 2, page 56, and "فصول المهمة ", page 16, and "مطالب السؤول‏", page 11.

[12] Surah 26, "شعراء", Verse 214 - 220.

[13] Al-Ghadir, volume 2, page 278.

[14] In his poetic works, page 73, Sayyid Ismaeel Hamyari says:

ابو حسن غلام من قريش      ابرهم و اكرمهم نصابا

دعاهم احمد لما اتته             من الله النبوة فاستجابا

فادبه و علمه و املى            عليه الوحى يكتبه كتابا

فاحصى كلما املى عليه         و بينه له بابا فباب

This poem is extracted from "اعيان الشيعه‏", volume 12, page 216; and also from Hemyari, page 203 0nward. Thirteen lines are composed on the Tribe Narration.

[15] The History of Tabari, volume 2, page 62 & 63.

[16] The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha, ibn Abi-al-Hadid, volume 3, page 263.

“The Explanation of the Path of Eloquence” of Ibn Abi al-Hadid, volume 3, page 263/267 and from the 20-volumes publication volume 3, page 219.

Allama Ayat-u-llah Sayyid Sharaf ad-Din Aamoli in the book “Al-Morajeat” the first publication , page 111, after explaining this subject from the “Path of Eloquence” , of Ibn Abi al-Hadid, in the Ta‘lighah he says: The book of “Naghz al-Othmaneiiah” is of the rare book, and it incumbent for everyone to search his needs in it. And it exists in the “Path of Eloquence” from the page 257 to 281/286 from volume 3, at the final part of Ghaseiah Sermon.

[17] Al-Ghadir, volume 2, pages 279-280.

[18] The summary of Alghadir, Volume 2, pages 280 - 284.

[19] Al-Ghadir, volume 2, page 287.

[20] Taken from the book of "شیعه و اسلام", first section, pages 5 - 6.

[21] "سیرة الحلبیة", Volume 1, page 312.

[22] The previous Educational Minister of Egypt and the Chief Secretary of al-Ahram Magazine.

[23] In the book of "على و الوصية", from the page 4 to 19, there are lots of narratives which are mentioned in different ways by the means of authentic documents, as well as the extraction from the books of the scholars. And also he has explained the sources of these document in details, and on the page he explains the perceptions of the book, which under the title of "the fourth nNarratives"he relates a strange narrative from Abu Bakr Khattab to Abbas ibn Mottalib. In that narrative, Abu Bakr says: 'when the Messenger of Allah called all the members of the Clan together, he stated: "… فمن يقوم منكم يبايعنى على ان يكون اخى و وزيرى و وصييى و خليفتى فى اهلى، فلم يقم‏". He also relates the similar narrative. He relates these two narratives from the History of ibn Asakar which has been photographed and saved in the "Public Library" of Imam Ali, the Commander of the believers in Najaf. And he relates this narrative in the "مناقب‏ " of ibn Shahr Aashub, volume 1, page 544 – and also Abu Bakr has related this narrative.

[24] Sheikh Muhammad Javad Maghneiiah in the boo “Ash-Shiite and Tashayyo”, which is published (Tab‘ Maktaba al-Madrasa) and the Dar al-Ketab al-Lobnani – Beirout says: Sheikh Muhammad Hassan Mozaffar in the book “Dalaiel al-Sedgh” volume 2, page 233, from the book Kanzal Ammal volume 6 page 397 relates that: The Messenger of Allah said to his clan, “I have indeed brought you the benevolent of the world and the Hereafter, and Allah enjoined me to invite you to that, so which of you is going to support me in this affair?” Ali said, ‘O, the Messenger of Allah, I am’ I am going to be your Minister, so the Messenger of Allah hold him on his arm and said: “He is indeed, my executor, my Caliph among you; so listen to him and carry out whatever he says!’ Therefore, the people present there, began laughing and saying to Abī Tālib, ‘Certainly you have to listen to your son and follow him.’ Then, he says in Ta‘lighah:

Muhammad Husein Heikal has put this subject in the first the book “The Life of Muhammad”, but in his second publication, he has omitted it by receiving 500 Jinyah – we judge it by the comparison of the two editions. Compare the Ta‘lighah, page 114 from the “A‘yan Ash-Shiite”, volume 1, part a, edition 1960 onward. (Jinyah was the currency in circulation in Egypt).

[25] The translation of what has written in the book of Alghadir, Volume 2, pages 287 - 289.

[26] It is worthy of attention that in this narrative, he has not only nominated the Commander of the believers upon him be peace, as the Imam and a Leader after his demise but also in his life time; it is because he has stated: ‘So listen to him and follow him.’ These kinds of phrases prove the necessity of listening and following that Holiness in the period of the Messenger of Allah, and they confirm they chastity of the Holiness – because there is relation between the chastity and following. As the Messenger of Allah stated in his time that the Holiness was as Aaron to Moses except that there was no messenger after him.

And the word of Allama Ayat-u-llah Sayyid Sharaf addin Amoli,in his book “An-nass wa al-Ijtehad (the second publication, in Dar an-Nahj Beirut) page 376 in the first Ta‘lighah, relates to this saying.

[27] Ibn abi-al-Hahid, volumes 2, page 119, and volume 1, page 134, and al-Imamate and al-Seiasat, volume 1, page 113.

[28] Ibn abi-al-Hahid, volumes 2, page 20, and abu-al-Feda, volume 1, page 156, and ibn Abd'arbeh, volume 3, page 64.

[29] The explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha, of ibn abi-al-Hadid, volume 1, page 131, extracted from the book of Saghifa.

[30] This is the remark of Abu Sofyan, ibn Abi al-Hadid volume 1, page 130.

[31] Al-Imamate and as-Seiasat, volume 1, page 13.

[32] This elegy is mentioned in Hemyari's Poetic Works, page 436 and they have written the original copy from "Al-Ghadir", volume 2, pge 250, and "اعيان الشيعة" volume12, page 268, and "مناقب‏ " volume 2, page 26-177, and volume 3, page 55.

[33] The poetic works of Hemyari, page 203 which is nebtioned, and he has mentioned the original text of this works in “اعيان الشيعة”, 12, page 248, and “الغدير”, 2, page 250, and in “مناقب‏”, volume 2, page 26.

[34] The poetic works of Hemayri, page 117 and his original text has been writtern in the book of Alghadir, volume 2, pages 251 & 26 & 318.

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