In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 16: The perfectness of the Commander of the believers (upon him be peace in all virtues)

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lesson Sixteen: The Perfectness of the Commander of the Believers (upon him be peace in all virtues)


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.


The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا [1]

'… O you who believe, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Then if you have any dispute over anything, refer to Allah and the Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day – for that is better and becoming in the end, (Qur’an: 4/59).’


It was earlier mentioned that the intention of “those in authority” in this blessed verse is the immaculate Imams upon him be peace, and as the verse says their obedience is incumbent and they have been introduced at the stage of the Messenger of Allah so it means they must be innocent. Even if, supposedly, they are not innocent and they act contrary to what the Messenger say, it needs obeying Allah what He has said about them. It is because, on the one hand, they command according to Allah and the Messenger’s words and on the other hand, they reject it by their words or actions – so this is impossible.

Those in authority” are the people in whose words or actions are never objections against the Book or the rules and traditions of the Messenger of Allah, their words or deeds are approved by the people and this is the necessity of their chastity. As all the Muslims society – either the Shiite or the others – do not consider anyone except the Imams to be innocent, therefore, the above verse commands them the necessity of obeying the immaculate Imams upon them be peace.

Some of the Sunnites have said [2] that this verse denotes to neither the chastity of the Messenger of Allah nor the chastity of “those in authority”.

However, if the chastity of the Messenger of Allah is proved by this verse it is another reason, but the chastity of “those in authority” is drawn while this verse does not hold its meaning but we see that if “those in authority” are not considered innocent the verse is still stable, and it is not an impossible thing in the verse. In other words, this verse has only made the obedience of “those in authority” necessary for the sake of the Muslims unity and bringing them together – like the promised governorship which has the other assemble nations within. Those assembles choose their own chiefs and leaders, give them authorities and make the nation obey them. Then, if a leader deliberately rebels and does against the rules of that assembly, they do not follow him anymore; that is because they have chosen him to protect the rules not as a legislator. And if that ruler makes a mistake his obedience is not incumbent on them and even they must make him aware of his mistakes; however, if his mistake is not certain and they are also uncertain about it, then because of safeguarding the government and securing the unity among the people they have to settle down the case – in this verse too, “those in authority” have the same authority among the nations. If they, in certain, acts upon an affair against the desire of Allah, concerning that affair, they must not be followed, because the stipulations such as:

انَّ اللهَ لا يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشآء [3]

‘…, Allah does not order to indecency, (Qur’an: 7/28);’

and according to the word of the Messenger of Allah:

لا طاعة لمخلوق في معصية الخالق [4]

‘…, Allah does not order to indecency, (Qur’an: 7/28);’

and according to the word of the Messenger of Allah:

لا طاعة اِلّا في المعروفِ[5] 

 ‘There is no obedience to the creation in the disobedience of Allah.’

The Shiite and Sunnite have commonly related this narrative, and also this saying of the Messenger: ‘Do not obey except the well-known’, and some other [quotations] which specialize the necessity of obeying them; and if they make a mistake in their command they must be noticed to refer to the Book and traditions. It is but when their mistake is confirmed otherwise it does not matter, because they know whatever they are doing is for the benefit of Islam and the Muslims and they are better to be followed.

However, by considering the revelation and the style of the blessed verse well then it is useless to doubt about it, that is: although it is not impossible to doubt about the common people, and in the case of a certain error their mistakes come to sight, and in a probable mistake it is ignored for the benefit of the society. Similar evidences have been seen in the commanders of the Messenger of Allah when he sent them for jihad, and about the commanders that the Holiness or Ali, the Commander of the believers, assigned for the cities, and about the word of an Imam to his follower and also can be found in the narratives and the stories. However, forging the proof of “those in authority” in this way is something and the revelation of the blessed verse concerning the necessity of obeying them is something else, these two do not relate each other. We, by our own will, do not renounce the commanders’ and the chief’s probable proofs but what we say is that the revelation of the blessed verse quite away from this course.

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The necessity of the unconditional obedience of “Those in Authority” 

The revelation of the blessed verse is absolutely about following them, and this means impossible without their chastity, because the style of the verse is not fit to be allocated. The verse has compared the necessity of obedience of “those in authority” and the obedience of that Holiness with Allah; as in obedience of Allah and the Messenger of Allah allocation has no meaning, and so is the obedience of “those in authority” which is mould the same and has been expressed in the same way. Concerning this, if there were any allocation it would be joined to this sentence and it would assign the necessity of obedience and not-obedience. Or, at least, there would be another verse in the Qur’an to clarify it as:

لا تطيعوا أمرهم في مخالفةِ اللّهِ.

Obey not their command against Allah’.

However, the verse: ‘…indeed, Allah does not command any indecency, (Qur’an: 7/28);’

إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشَاء [6]

and the similar verses have no purpose in this case; by the apt-to-sin people obedience, the word of the Messenger of Allah will not be the raiser of the blessed verse of “those in authority”. On the whole, according to the general rule, a command can be allocable when the raiser can totally raise it, but if the raiser cannot raise it then, it means that it not erasable. Moreover, we see that in many less important affairs too, Allah has assigned it as incumbent to obey “those in authority”, and He has allocated their obedience as the blamelessness.

Concerning the favour and obeying the parents He states:


وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حُسْنًا وَإِن جَاهَدَاكَ لِتُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا [7]

‘…and We have enjoined man to treat his parents kindly, but if they should urge you to associate with Me one that you have no knowledge about, then do not obey them, (Qur’an: 29/8)!’


Concerning this, which expresses the necessity of following the parents, He immediately cuts it short by ‘other than rebellion against Allah’; now, this one is important or the governorship of the whole Muslims!

If there were restriction in the verse of “those in authority” there had to be a specified adverb as attachment, but now it indicates that the obedience of “those in authority” is incumbent, and the style of the sentence allocates it. Thus, the clearness of the verse denotes their chastity, and praise be to Allah everything is clear in its place.

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The title of “The Commander of the Believers” is the best title of Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace    

The phrase: “those in authority” is collective, and it means: ‘the owners of commands’ and the purpose of ‘the owners of commands’ are the believers, because He states: those in authority among you”. This is the first title that the Messenger of Allah gave Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace by the permission of Allah; because the singular form of those in authority among youis “the command owner” among the believers – in meaning, it refers to the Commander of the believers who is the command owner. This title is the most important title of that Holiness; it is more important than “The Master of the Muslims”, “The Drone of the Religion”, The Leader of the Pride of the Light-footed”, “The Imam of the Justify”, “The Murderer of the Dissipated”, “The Caliph of the Messenger of Allah”, “The Guardian”, “The Minister” and so on. The initial title is the most important and the Messenger of Allah commanded the people to salute the Commander of the believers and call him with this title. This title is not as the validity but it is the fact expression, it was a secret and came to the Holiness at the present of the Messenger of Allah; and when the title of the chief and commander is fixed to a name it becomes the virtue of it: the commander of the army means he is expert in controlling the army, and the Emir of the Emirs means he has authority over the towns.

Ali, the Commander of the believers, means one, in the view of belief, is the Chief and the Commander of the believers. In this case, ibn Abbas says:


قال رسول اللّه: ما أنزل اللّه آيةً فيها يا أيّها الّذين آمنوا ألّا و عليٌّ رأسها وأميرها. [8]

‘The Messenger of Allah said: “Allah has not sent down any verse initiating with ‘O you who believe… ’ but Ali is at the top and the Emir.”


قال مجاهِدٌ في تفسيرِهِ: ما كان في ا لقرآنِ يا أيّها الّذين آمنوا فإنّ لعليٍّ عليهِ السّلام سابقة ذالِك لِانّه سبقهم إلي الاسلامِ فسمّاه اللّه في تسعين و ثمانين مؤضِعاً آمير المؤمنين و سيِّد المخاطبين إلي يؤمِ الدّينِ. [9]

And also ibn Aashub commonly relates that: ‘Mojahid has said in his documentary: “In the Qur’an, there is not a verse of “O you who believe… ” but indeed Ali upon him be peace is already in it, it is because he was prior in Islam and Allah named him in ninety-eight different positions as the Commander of the believers and the Master of the orators until the Day of Resurrection. (Ghāyat al-Maram, page 26)

Thus, wherever in the Qur’an the phrase “O you who believe… ” has been stated, it is either for the believers or in the praise of the Commander of the believers – Allah has praised the believers with certain attributes and placed the Commander of the believers on the top.

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The Commander of the believers is the most perfect in all virtues

And by this title, it can be understood that, in all aspects: the perfection of soul, the morality, the generosity, the virtue, the belief and the desire in the Unity that the Holiness was the most perfect. He must certainly be the most asceticism in ascetic which is the attribute of the believers; otherwise he cannot own the title of an Emir. If we assume that only one person’s asceticism among the nation is more or at the same stage of that Holiness, in that case, the Holiness cannot be his Emir. It is the same in other good attributions, such as the generosity, forgiveness, mercifulness, toleration, knowledge, patience, prayer, fasting, jihad, judging, commanding , fairness, pure in mind, cleanse in the heart, the Divine knowledge, aware of the secrets, attributed with the attributions of Allah and the Holy Names, reaching the rank of ‘Those close to Him’, the righteous, the martyrs, the illumination of the Essence of Unity and the stages of the death and life that all were with that Holiness because of his nobility and the title of the Leadership; and he was prior to all in everywhere.

At the final part of the Criterion He mentions fourteen attributions for the worshippers of Allah:


وَعِبَادُ الرَّحْمَنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا

وَالَّذِينَ يَبِيتُونَ لِرَبِّهِمْ سُجَّدًا وَقِيَامًا

وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اصْرِفْ عَنَّا عَذَابَ جَهَنَّمَ إِنَّ عَذَابَهَا كَانَ غَرَامًا

إِنَّهَا سَاءتْ مُسْتَقَرًّا وَمُقَامًا

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ قَوَامًا

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ وَلَا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا يَزْنُونَ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ يَلْقَ أَثَامًا

يُضَاعَفْ لَهُ الْعَذَابُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَيَخْلُدْ فِيهِ مُهَانًا

إِلَّا مَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا فَأُوْلَئِكَ يُبَدِّلُ اللَّهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ حَسَنَاتٍ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

وَمَن تَابَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَإِنَّهُ يَتُوبُ إِلَى اللَّهِ مَتَابًا

وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَشْهَدُونَ الزُّورَ وَإِذَا مَرُّوا بِاللَّغْوِ مَرُّوا كِرَامًا

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَمْ يَخِرُّوا عَلَيْهَا صُمًّا وَعُمْيَانًا

وَالَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا هَبْ لَنَا مِنْ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ أَعْيُنٍ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ إِمَامًا [10]


‘… and the sincere believers of the Mercy-giving are those who walk modestly on the land and when the foolish address them they gently respond them in peace.  

And those who spend their nights prostrating or standing [before their Lord], and those who say, ‘Our Lord, secure us from the chastisement of the Hell, for indeed its chastisement is everlasting. 

It is indeed evil as an abode and place;’ and those who, when they expend, they neither do it lavishly nor hold it back, but keep to a happy medium.

And those who do not call on other deities along with Allah, and nor ever kill anyone whom Allah has forbidden except through the law; and do not sexually misbehave: for whoever does so, receives penalty.

Chastisement will be doubled for him on Doomsday and he will remain disgraced in it, except for him who repents and has faith, and does the righteous deeds – those, Allah will change their evil deeds into good deeds, for Allah is the Merciful Forgiving.  

And whoever repents and acts honorably, he truly turns to Allah in repentance, and those who do not bear false witness, and when they pass by (people) gossiping, pass by in a dignified manner, those who when they are reminded of their Lord signs, do not fall down deaf and blind at them; and who say, ‘Our Lord, bestow the comfort of our eyes on us in our spouses and our offspring. Make us a Leader for those who do their Divine duties,’ (Qur’an:25/63-74).’


All along this verse, Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace is mentioned to be the Commander and Leader; he is also mentioned in other verses, as: ‘…and those who believe, have special affection to Allah,’ (Qur’an:2/165).’

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلّهِ [11]


And also: ‘…And those who have believed and migrated, and struggled for the sake of Allah, and also those who have granted them asylum and supported (them), are truly believers; they have forgiveness and full provision,’ (Qur’an:8/74).’


وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَهَاجَرُواْ وَجَاهَدُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آوَواْ وَّنَصَرُواْ أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ حَقًّا لَّهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ [12]


And: ‘…o you who believe, if you are heedful of Allah, He will grant you a Criterion,’ (Qur’an:8/29),’

يِا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إَن تَتَّقُواْ اللّهَ يَجْعَل لَّكُمْ فُرْقَانًا [13]

and: ‘…o you who believe, when you encounter forces, hold firm, (Qur’an:8/45),’

 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ فِئَةً فَاثْبُتُواْ [14]

 and: ‘…Allah confirms with firm speech those who believe in this world and in the Hereafter, (Qur’an:14/27),’

يُثَبِّتُ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الآخِرَةِ [15]

and: ‘… and spread news to those who believe that they are on a sound footing with their Lord , (Qur’an:10/2),’

وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَنَّ لَهُمْ قَدَمَ صِدْقٍ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ [16]

 and: ‘…to reward those who have believed and done honourable deeds in fairness, (Qur’an:10/4),’ 

لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّالِحَاتِ بِالْقِسْط [17]

and: ‘…those who believe and their hearts are certain by remembering Allah, (Qur’an:13/28),’ 

الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُم بِذِكْرِ اللّهِ أَلاَ بِذِكْرِ اللّهِ [18]

and: ‘…Allah may promote those of you who believe and those who have been granted knowledge, (Qur’an:58/11),’

يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ [19]

and: ‘…surely those who have believed and done honourable deeds will have such reward that it will never be withheld from them , (Qur’an:41/8),’ 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍ [20]

and: ‘…indeed those who have believed and done honourable deeds are the best of the creatures, (Qur’an:98/7),’ 

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ [21]

and: ‘…except for those who believe, and do honourable deeds and encourage one another unto the Truth; and recommend one another to be patient, (Qur’an:103/3),’ 

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْر ِ[22]

and: ‘…and those who say their prayers and spend something out of what We have provided them with, (Qur’an:22/35),’ 

وَالْمُقِيمِي الصَّلَاةِ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ [23]

and: ‘… and ward off the evil with good, and spend out some of what We have provided them, (Qur’an:28/54),’

وَيَدْرَؤُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ [24]

 and: ‘… they call upon their Lord in fear and anticipation, and spend what We have provided them with, (Qur’an:32/16).’

يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ [25]

And apart from these, there are many other similar verses which are seen in the Holy Qur’an. Of course, in these verses, only the attributes and deeds of the Commander of the believers upon him be peace has been explained as the eminent figure, but the other verses that in the Holy Qur’an are specified for that Holiness, and they have been revealed for the status of him, are many.

Therefore, the Holiness Commander of the believers had the reciprocal the antithetical attributes, because he was courageous, stable and firm decision in jihad for the sake of Allah, and so was he merciful, compassionate, ascetic and constantly in prayer; he was the main subject for the greatest scholars to discuss about.

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The amassed antithetical attributes of the Commander of the believers upon him be peace

The compiler of “The Path of Eloquence”, (Nahj-ul-Balagha), the late Sayyid Radi, has written in the introduction to the Book: ‘Among the wonders of the Commander of the believers upon him be peace that no one has ever accompanied him are the wonders that if one attentively and thoughtfully listens to that Highness’ advice and sermon, he can gather his piety, his remembering Allah, and avoiding the world, and, apart from Allah, any creature in it. One can understand of his greatness and influence of his power and his dominating the whole nation, and there remain no doubts for him that all his saying is the word of an ascetic. He gathers that the Highness has no tendency on anything but ascetic, and has nothing to do except to worship. For he always used to sit in the corner of his poorly build home, or sheltered in the mount skirt. He never mixed with the people and had no one to consult with but to himself. One can never believe that the speech, advice and sermons are from one who has been fighting all through his life, he beheaded many brave men and the great commanders. He has murdered many courageous men and his sword was always blood-stained – in the mean time he was more ascetic than the ascetic of the world.

These facts are of the wonderful virtues and the fair attributes of that Highness who has gathered among the antagonists and made his own permanent attitudes. And many a time I have spoken to my religious brothers about this case and they have also become surprised – it is really surprising. [26] Under the word of Sayyid Radi, ibn Abi al-Hadid Shafiee says: ‘The Commander of the believers upon him be peace owned the antithetical characters.’   

 It is noticeable that whatever Sayyid Radi has said is very surprising, because that which influences the common brave men and the bold men in the world is the hard-heartedness, boldness and rebel, but whatever dominates the ascetic men and those who have totally ignored the passions and the charms of the world but instead, has attended the people by lecturing them and mentioning the death and warning them of the chastisement of the Hereafter – thus, these are the compassion, the fairness and being away from the devil. These two different kinds of adjectives are the antithetical attributes of the Commander of the believers.

Secondly, that which influences the bold and the blood shedding men, is due to his insulting character, rebellious manners, uncultivated passions and wild attributes. And also which influences the ascetic, the wise advisers, and unwilling ones to the world is of his morale attitudes. The Commander of the believers upon him be peace was more courageous than all people, he was a fighter for the sake of Allah, was more ascetic than all, was away from the delights of the world, his advice about the death, the morality of the world, and taking good lessons from the conditions of those past away before was more effective than anyone else. His effort in praying was more than all, he was more careful of his behaviour than the others; it was why his character was better than the entire world, and he was always cheerful, he was bright and always wore a pleasant smile on the face. He was never crossed and never looked dull; he was never in a bad mood to depress the others. He even was witty that those close to him found faults with him, they said, the Holiness was too witty to be as a Caliph! Therefore, this is of his fair strange characters.

On the other hand, those who try to have authority, supremacy and leadership upon the Household are proud, haughty and selfish, lacking of decency; while the Commander of the believers upon him be peace was the source of nobility. Without doubt, the friends and enemies believe that after the Messenger of Allah, his cousin, may Allah’s peace be upon him, was the noblest among the creatures of Allah. Apart from the proportional attribute of his he possessed numerous characteristics, however, his humbleness and curtsy was more than the others towards the poor, week and abject people – he was lenient towards them. He was good tempered, fair, wiser about the truth and was away from selfishness.

Therefore, this was the characteristic of the Holiness during the two different periods of time: during his Leadership and before his Caliphate. The Leadership and Chairmanship did not affect his pleasing morality.  By the way, how could the Leadership change his attitude and morality while he was always the spiritual leader of the nation, and how the Governorship would affect him who was the permanent Emir upon the people? He did not attain his nobility from the Caliphate and did not become pompous with it; according to what Abu Abdullah Ahmad bin Hanbal says, he was the same by nature.

Sheikh Abul Faradj Abdur-Rahman bin Ali ibn al-Jouzi, in his well-known history book, “Montazem” has said: ‘In the presence of Ahmad bin Hanbal, they spoke a lot concerning the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Ali. Finally Ahmad raised his head and said: ‘You spoke too much, in short, Ali was not adorned by the means of the Caliphate but the Caliphate was decorated by Him.’ His word denotes that those, apart from Ali, were adorned by the Caliphate and corrected their deficiencies by the Caliphate; while Ali upon him be peace had no deficiency so that to be in the need of Caliphate to correct it, to tell the truth, the defect was in the Caliphate which was corrected during the Governorship of Ali upon him be peace.          

On the other hand, what dominates those who endowed with courage, the murderers and blood shedders is that they are merciless, and less forgiving. It is because they are heartless and hot-tempered, and their anger towards the people excessive. However, the condition of the Commander of the believers upon him be peace is quite different, he secured his natural forgiveness, patience and tolerance even in the battles when was blood-shedding, and prevailing his enemies. [27]

And how well “Mahiar” the poet, has composed concerning that Holiness:

حتى اذا دارت رحى بغيهم                 عليهم و سبق السيف العذل
عاذوا بعفو ماجد معود                 للعفو حمال لهم على العلل
فنجت البقيا عليهم من نجا                 و اكل الحديد منهم من اكل
اطت‏بهم ارحامهم فلم يطع                 ثائرة الغيظ و لم يشف الغلل

And when the oppression of the firmament turned against their will and they were blamed and reproached, they took refuge in a great man and asked for his natural forgiveness which would lead them to the right path. It was then when some of them looked for security and the everlasting righteousness and a group of them were bate to the sword. However, after such forgiveness and mercy towards them, after the battle and turning to their families, their angers did not drop and their punishment was not lessened.

Anyhow, so far, it has not been seen a bold man to be generous and forgiving. Abdullah bin Zabir was bold and the meanest man among the people, so was his father, Zabair, bold, mean and greedy. Once, Omar told him: ‘If you become the Caliph in Batha, you will always give slaps to the people to take their measures and the revenues. And as Ali upon him be peace wanted to stop the financial dissipation of his brother’s son, Abdullah bin Ja‘far, he made a decision to make him a partner of  Zubair in his property and business, and after that, he keep saying: ‘Zubair got benefit from the dissipation of Abdullah, and in this way, he found a good shelter (he took the property undeniably for his benefit from him), and this partnership could not stop Abdullah from the dissipation and his extravagance.

And Talha was brave but he was very greedy and mean, he abstained giving away. He was so stingy that he left behind abundant rich after his demise – it was too much to be counted.

And Abd-ul-Malik was also brave, but so mean and greedy that he had become the centre of jest, joke and maxim, they would say of him: ‘The perspirations of his are banned, and his generosity is the jealousy and meanness.’ However, everyone has noticed how brave and generous was Ali, the Commander of the believers; why not, because it was the extraordinary character of that Highness. [28] And, concerning this, the man of letter poet, Sheikh Safi ad-Din bin Abdul Aziz, has composed:

جمعت فى صفاتك الاضداد                 فلهذا عزت لك الانداد
زاهد حاكم حليم شجاع                     فاتك ناسك فقير جواد
شيم ما جمعن فى بشرقط                 و لا حاز مثلهن العباد
خلق يخجل النسيم من اللطف         و باس يذوب منه الجماد
ظهرت منك فى الورى مكرمات           فاقرت بفضلك الحساد
ان يكذب بها عداك فقد                كذب من قبل قوم لوط و عاد
جل معناك ان يحيط به الشعر         و يحصى صفاته [29] النقاد [30]

“O Ali, antagonists are within your attribute, and because of this, there is no comparable unto you. You are accompanied with the ascetic, governorship, patience, bravery, power, prayer, poverty, generosity and the attributes that cannot be found in anyone but only you – and none of the obedient worshippers has such qualities.

The breeze blushes in shame by seeing the fairness of your temper, and so does the rock melts away seeing you awe. O Ali, you have done so many great things that the mean admit your greatness and generosity. If the enemy has rejected you, let him do, for the folk of Aad and Lot so did with the messengers.

O Ali, great is your position to be put in the poem or the critics and orators to count your attributes.”

After quoting this poem, Ghazi Nourul-allah says that: ‘The whole attributes of the Commander of the believers upon him be peace are based on his similarity to the Highness Being; in the amplitude of Perfection and his full knowledge upon things which is just – not discrimination; that is he considers both sides of the matter. It is because the perfection of every attribute is clear for a fair investigator, as it is seen in Allah’ attributes: “And He is the First and the Last, and He is Manifest and Invisible”, therefore, the different aspects in the Attributes of Allah and the similarities of the perfection attributes are not hidden.

And how well the Persian Poet has composed this

“Ali, the Guardian, was not the captive of his soul for an instant, and because of his ‘not being captive’ he became the Emir of the believers.

How far distance is between the emir of the soul and the Emir of the people, proud is for the humble Emir.

Ali had never enough food when he was dining, but he dined him who came to him with the empty stomach.

He was not oppressed and never was he humble to oppression, for his not being humble, everything looked humble to him.

Ali did not give away in vain whatever belonged to the Treasury of the Nation, for he was well aware of the Awareness of Allah.

Blessed is the nation whose Leader is such a dignified man, and is so aware!”

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[1] Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 59.

[2] The Commentary of "الميزان‏", volume 4, page 415.

[3] Surah 7, "اعراف", Verse 28.

[4] The Commentary of the "الدر المنثور", volume 2, page 177, and it has also benn related from Imran bin Hasin saying: 'I heard the Messenger of Allah say: do not act sins against Allah, and so is it in "وسائل الشيعة", volume 11, page 422.

[5] The commentary of ‘Addur al-Mansour’ volume2, page 177.

[6] Surah 7, "اعراف", Verse 28.

[7] Surah 29, "عنکبوت", Verse 8.

[8] It has been quoted from ibn Abbas and explained in "مطالب السؤول‏", page  21, and "حلية الاولياء", volume 1, page 64, and in "ينابيع المودة", page 212 that:

 " ليس من آية فى القرآن يا ايها الذين آمنوا الا على راسها و اميرها و شريفها و لقد عاتب الله اصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم فى القرآن و ما ذكر عليا الا بخير"

that is: 'there is not a verse in the Qur'an to begin with: 'O you who believe' but without having the noble names of the Messenger of Allah and his Household; and Ali's name has not mentioned but with fair and goodness in the Qur'an.

[9] "غاية المرام‏", page 26.

[10] Surah 25, "فرقان", Verses 63-74.

[11] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 165.

[12] Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 74.

[13] Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 29.

[14] Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 45.

[15] Surah 14, "ابراهیم", Verse 27.

[16] Surah 10, "یونس", Verse 2.

[17] Surah 10, "یونس", Verse 4.

[18] Surah 13, "رعد", Verse 28.

[19] Surah 58, "مجادله", Verse 11.

[20] Surah 41, "فصلت", Verse 8.

[21] Surah 98, "بینه", Verse 7.

[22] Surah 103, "عصر", Verse 3.

[23] Surah 22, "حج", Verse 35.

[24] Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 54.

[25] Surah 32, "سجده", Verse 16.

[26] The Path of Eloquence by ibn al-Hadid, volume 1, page 16.

[27] About the patience, tolerance and the forgiveness of the Commander of the believers upon him be peace he says: The Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, forgave Aisha – though she spited the Holiness, he forgave her. It is said in Nahj-ul-Balagha 'Aishas ahd her own weakness, as the women. He also forgave Marwan Hikam though he was aware of his spite toward Ali. “Nahj-ul-Balagha, volume 1, page 123.

[28] The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha of ibn Abi al-Hadid, volume 1, pages 16-17.

[29] صفاتک

[30] "مجالس المؤمنين‏", page 493, and "سفينة البحار", volume 1, page 437.

The poet Sheikh Safi ad-Din was the student of Mohaq'qigh Hilli, and Sheikh  Majd ad-Din Firouz Abadi Shafiee, who was of the greatest narrators and so is he among the present ones, has acknowledged him.

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