In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 19: The Majority Vote Cannot be the Standard of Choosing the Infallible Imam

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lesson Nineteen: The Majority Vote Cannot be the Standard of Choosing the Infallible Imam  


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.


The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا [1]

 O you who believe, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Then if you have any dispute over anything, refer to Allah and the Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day – for that is better and becoming in the end, (Qur’an: 4/59).’


It was already mentioned that the creation of the heaven and the earth as well the whole existing within them both and the creation of man, the revelation of the Divine Book and also the commission of the Holiness Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants were based upon the truth. The explicit verses of the Qur’an prove that never ever void and vain have way to interfere in the organization of the creation and the guidance of man to Perfection. Therefore, Allah’s command and prohibition are also based on the fact and leading to the truth; it is because these rules and preventions are the very principles of genesis and the confirmer of the creation. It is not viable to Allah to command to the null and void for it misleads man from the straight path; it diverts man from the course to perfection and blessing. It is concluded that the law of Allah is according to the genesis not against it. As it is stated:

وَاللَّهُ يَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَهُوَ يَهْدِي السَّبِيلَ [2]

‘… and Allah states the Truth and He guides to the [Straight] Path, (Qur’an: 33/4).’

وَيَرَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ هُوَ الْحَقَّ وَيَهْدِي إِلَى صِرَاطِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَمِيدِ [3]

And those who have been given knowledge see that whatever has been sent down to you from your Lord is the Truth, and it guides to the main Path of the Praiseworthy All-mighty, (Qur’an: 34/6)’.


Therefore, Allah never commands to null and void and never does He enjoin to follow the crime and oppression, or anything against the truth.

Following ‘those in authority’, whose obedience, without condition, is mentioned in the foregoing verses, is exactly following Allah and obeying Him, otherwise, it is against the Divine will – thus, they are innocent whose sayings and actions are the same and based on the truth.

Great many of the Sunnite, or even all of them, say that it is not necessary for ‘those in authority’ to be innocent, an Imam can be chosen by the board of management and then, according to the sense of the verses he can be obeyed and followed. This suggestion is against the sense of the Qur’an and the laws of the religion, it is because an Imam owns specified Divine Nature which is impossible to anyone to know it except Allah, the knower of the secrets and aware of the manifest and the unveiled. The Divine Nature is: innocence, the pureness of the soul, the inward sanctity that is only for the Imam and it immunes him against anything unpleasant. It is a-know-how that every unknown becomes apparent to him, and also he owns many attributes that they cannot come to sight and no

one is aware of them; as it is stated:                                                                                     

وَرَبُّكَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُكِنُّ صُدُورُهُمْ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ [4]

 ‘… and your Lord knows whatever their breasts conceal and whatever they may disclose, (Qur’an: 328/69).’

اللّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسَالَتَهُ [5]

‘… Allah knows as to where He should place His message, (Qur’an: 6/124).’

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The Weakness of the Majority in Choosing the Imam

Therefore, how can the people who are blinded to the virtues and the Divine Knowledge choose one who is honoured the fairest virtues and the spiritual attributes? If they decide to do so then they absolutely lose the track and go astray.

It is similar to that of Moses, upon him and his Descendants be peace, who among thousands of people chose only seventy persons and they proved to be so proud that they asked Moses to see Allah in their appointment. They said:  

أَرِنَا اللّهِ جَهْرَةً [6]

‘… show us Allah directly, (Qur’an: 4/153).

What is expected by the choice the common people, those who choose the low worldly people like their own who are after their passions and accumulating things? Then, there remains no logical reason to believe that they do not make mistakes in their choosing the wrong person as the ruler – they will surely do so.

How often they vote the treachery people who are hiding behind the curtain of honest, in this way, their crimes are secured and no one gets aware of their aim and action. The poor people are unable to read their tricks and what in their minds is going on, then, at a proper time he pops up to ruin the unaware people. As it came to sight when people were paying homage Mua‘wiyah, Yazzid and the Omayyad Caliphs.

Allah, Who has created the whole creation right and with truth, then how can He leave the choice of Imam with His creatures, the people who are unable to run their lives and they are in the need of the guides and instructors; it is stated:

وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ [7]

‘… and your Lord creates whatever He desires, and the decision remains only with Him, (Qur’an: 28/68).’

Due to the fact, since the very beginning, the Messenger of Allah announced his invitation to the Truth; he propagated among the tribes and let them know. When it was the turn of Bani Aamer bin Sa’sa’a, one of them asked the Messenger of Allah: ‘If we follow you and by our following you Allah may prevail you over your enemies then, after you are passed away, is there any share for us in your government-ship?’ The Holiness said: ‘The whole affair is with Allah, He sets it up wherever He desires.’[8] [As He has stated]:


وَ ما كانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَ لا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَ مَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلالًا مُبِينا. [9]

‘… It is not for any believing man, nor believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter, to have any choice in their affair, once Allah and His Messenger have decided upon some matter. Anyone who disobeys Allah and His Messenger has wandered off into an obvious error, (Qur’an: 33/36).’


How can people choose the Imam of theirs while being involved in the enmities, fighting, lust and passion, differing in the views and with numerous opinions and beliefs? In this situation, it is impossible to choose a rightful one, especially with the countless sects and groups which each one has its own rogues within – this is the serious chronic problem forever.  

It is occasionally seen that how often the rights of the innocent people have been lost, and the chaos has erupted. They have had fighting, blood-shedding, plundering the properties of the weaker people, defaming the opposite parties and ignoring the rule and law in their lands. They have violated the limitation and spoiled the rights of the others, and they have altered the righteous religion, Islam, whose blissful branches and leaves spread everywhere upon the nations into a sight of chaos and disaster. Then the dishonest oppressive rulers have usurped the power and started to govern the miserable people – they have done the most witched things for the poor nations.

The question is that a Caliph must be an innocent person who has been appointed by Allah. Apart from this, a Caliph may come across with the most serious question or the scientific problems of his time which he must have answer to them. It is then he says something at random or gives a piece of his mind, or is he thinks he is too wise, he refers to someone wiser than him to ask the question to the problem. Anyhow, in the first case, he damages the rules and commands of Allah; and then he defames himself in the society. The Imam, who is the spiritual statesman in authority for the people, is the same as Messenger and he must be obeyed – as it is stated:


وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ [10]

‘…and We did not send any messenger(s) but to be obeyed with the permission of Allah, (Qur’an: 4/ 64).’  

It is because he must carry out the Divine rules and limitations and do away with the null and vein. On the other hand, his inability in solving a problem may prove his weakness and cause hesitation among the nation. As it is stated:

قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُونَ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُوْلُوا الْأَلْبَابِ [11]

‘… say, ‘Are those who have knowledge equal to those who do not know? Only those who are sensible take admonition, (Qur’an: 39/9).’  


قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الأَعْمَى وَالْبَصِيرُ أَمْ هَلْ تَسْتَوِي الظُّلُمَاتُ وَالنُّورُ [12]

‘… say, ‘Are the blind and the sighted equal, or is darkness equal to light, (Qur’an: 13/16).’  


In this case, the inferior will rise against the superior, the in the wrong against the right and the ignorance against the awareness and then hand n hand they will create corruptions. As stated:


أَمْ يَقُولُونَ بِهِ جِنَّةٌ بَلْ جَاءهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ لِلْحَقِّ كَارِهُونَ﴿70 وَلَوِ اتَّبَعَ الْحَقُّ أَهْوَاءهُمْ لَفَسَدَتِ السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ بَلْ أَتَيْنَاهُم بِذِكْرِهِمْ فَهُمْ عَن ذِكْرِهِم مُّعْرِضُونَ [13]

 ‘… do they say, ‘Some sprit possesses him!’ No, [neither], but he has brought them the Truth, while most of them hate the Truth. Had the Truth followed their desires, the heavens and the earth and whoever is therein would have surely collapsed in chaos. The truth is that We have brought them their Reminder, yet they turn away from their Reminder, (Qur’an: 23/70-71).’  

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The Majority of the people are after their own benefits

The majority of the people pay no heed to the truth, they are after their interests but how that majority understands? They want to cast their ballots for those who are after their worldly material and sensual interests. How can an infant pupil appreciate his instructor and the school principal? By his correct policy and determination a principal make the kids study their related subject, and by his well organized plan, which the pupils know nothing about, he instruct them and prepares each one to find his correct way in life. This is a fact that dominates their passions and desires, and according to this fact the school is organized and everything is in its right place and goes smoothly. 

Let’s suppose that the pupils were free to choose their principle then what would happen? They would choose a principle to stand on their sides, to stop teaching and let them play on their own! If the children were asked what was good for them to do at school their answers would be: ‘to shut down the school.’ So what! Should the adults be condemned to do what the kids demand, to dismiss sympathetic expert principle and employ a clumsy one to amuse the kids! Or hundreds votes of them cost nothing and hundreds schools without a wise principle are worthless.

People are the same, they are mostly suffering from their ruinous passions, material things and lusts, their minds are occupied with personal revenge, ignorance and the temporary enjoyments. Therefore, as they are narrow-minded and cannot foresight the future of the nation’s affairs, if they are given authorities they lead the people into a dead-end alley. As it is stated:

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The Show of People's Wishes and Desires in the Holy Qur'an

وَإِن تُطِعْ أَكْثَرَ مَن فِي الأَرْضِ يُضِلُّوكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَخْرُصُونَ [14]

‘… and if you obey most of those who are on the earth, they will lead you astray from the Path of Allah; they only follow conjecture and are merely guessing, (Qur’an: 6/116).’  

وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا لَّيُضِلُّونَ بِأَهْوَائِهِم بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ [15]

‘… and many lead [the others] astray through their own passions without having any sense to think, (Qur’an: 6/119).’  

If the votes of the majority are considered to be reliable and right, then it would be better to ask for the votes of the disbelieving Ghoraish of Mecca for the benefit of the Respectable Messenger. It is a certain fact that their attitude was to cut that Holiness into pieces, because all the members of the board of management and those in authority in Mecca gathered in one place at “Dar al-Nadva’, and by casting their bailouts they unanimously decided to kill the Holiness. Therefore, they chose the courageous men of them among the army to fulfill the task.

And also the majority of the Ghoraish’s disbelievers, such as Abu Sofian who was after murdering the Messenger of Allah, and the Muslims who had in their minds to uproot the Islam, and do away with the Qur’an and oppress the chastity of the women – after taking votes and following the will of the board of management - they mobilized their armies and set out to Medina. There, they started war and cause enormous loss and disasters to the people. 

This is how the ignorant and the heedless people think, and these kinds of tragedies have been recorded differently among the bygones. It was the same with the tribe of the Messenger of Allah, and also, more or less, it was the same among the ignorance in the past. 

Their theory was based on fake voting and following their worldly desirers and passions. It was why they used to be the enemies to the Messenger of Allah and always acted against his will. It is stated:


وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِ بِالرُّسُلِ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَاءكُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لاَ تَهْوَى أَنفُسُكُمُ اسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ [16]

‘… and We did give Moses the Book, and then followed him up with the messengers; and We gave Jesus, the son of Mary, apparent proofs and confirmed him with the Holy Spirit.

So why when a messenger brought you a thing against your desire you grew arrogant – calling some liars, and killing some others, (Qur’an: 2/87).’

Therefore, almost always most of the people have been deviated and have become usurers. In the Verse of the Poet, Allah has stated in eight different parts about the bad behavior of the folks of eight messengers: the folk of Muhammad, the seal of the messengers, the folk of the Holiness Moses, the folk of Abraham, the folk of Noah, the folk of Hu:d, the folk of Salih, the folk of Lot and Shuaib. He states their grudges and wron points against their messengers, and in the end, He states: 

 وَمَا كَانَ أَكْثَرُهُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ [17]

‘… and most of them are not believers, (Qur’an: 26/ 8, 67, 103, 121, 139, 158, 174, 190).’

And also He states:

فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلُ كَانَ أَكْثَرُهُم مُّشْرِكِينَ [18]

‘… and see what the outcome was with those whose majority were idolaters, (Qur’an: 30/42).’

And He also states concerning the folk of the Messenger:

 وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّهِ إِلاَّ وَهُم مُّشْرِكُونَ [19]

 ‘… most of them do not believe in Allah unless they associate other [deities] with Him, (Qur’an: 12/106).’

 لَقَدْ حَقَّ الْقَوْلُ عَلَى أَكْثَرِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ [20]

‘… true, the word [of chastisement] has been confirmed about most of them, yet they do not believe, (Qur’an: 36/7).’

وَمَا أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتَ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ [21]

‘… but most people will not believe; no matter how eager you may be, (Qur’an: 12/103).’

 And in another occasion He states:

وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ [22]

‘… though most people do not believe it, (Qur’an: 11/17).’

And He states:

 بلَ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ [23]

‘… no, but most of them are not believers, (Qur’an: 2/100).

And He also states:

 بَلْ جَاءهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ لِلْحَقِّ كَارِهُونَ [24]

‘… no, [neither], but he has brought them the Truth, while most of them hate the Truth, (Qur’an: 23/70).’

 لَقَدْ جِئْنَاكُم بِالْحَقِّ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ لِلْحَقِّ كَارِهُونَ [25]

‘… We did indeed bring you the Truth, but most of you detested the Truth, (Qur’an: 43/78).’

 وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ بِلِقَاء رَبِّهِمْ لَكَافِرُونَ [26]

‘… but indeed many people disbelieve in meeting their Lord, (Qur’an: 30/8).’

 وَأَكْثَرُهُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ [27]

‘… and most of them are the disbelievers, (Qur’an: 16/83)

.فَأَبَى أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلَّا كُفُورًا [28]

‘… however most people remain thankless, (Qur’an: 25/50).

 And also He states most people are running their lives in debauchery:

 وَأَنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ فَاسِقُونَ [29]

‘… thus, most of you are corrupt, (Qur’an: 5/59).

 وَإِن وَجَدْنَا أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَفَاسِقِينَ [30]

‘… but We did find most of them to be the corrupt, (Qur’an: 7/102)

.وَأَكْثَرُهُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ [31]

‘… but most of them are corrupts, (Qur’an: 3/110 – 9/8).

And also He states that most people are ungrateful, they are not thankful:

 وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَشْكُرُونَ [32]

‘… and most people are not thankful, (Qur’an: 2/243 – and 12/38 and 40/61)

.وَلاَ تَجِدُ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شَاكِرِينَ [33]

‘… then You will not find most of them to be grateful, (Qur’an: 7/17)

.وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَشْكُرُونَ [34]

‘… but most of them are not grateful, (Qur’an: 10/60 and 27/73).

 َمَا وَجَدْنَا لأَكْثَرِهِم مِّنْ عَهْدٍ [35]

‘… and We did not find most of them to keep agreement, (Qur’an: 7/102).

And He states most of them follow their conjecture and are not determine in their affairs:

وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ إِلاَّ ظَنًّا [36]

‘… and most of them follow but conjecture, (Qur’an: 10/36).

He also states they are ignorant:

وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ يَجْهَلُونَ [37]

‘… but most of them act out of ignorance, (Qur’an: 6/111).

And He states that most people are heedless and do not use their reasons:

وَأَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ [38]

‘… and most of them have no sense, (Qur’an: 5/103).’

 بلَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ [39]

 ‘… no, but most of them have no sense, (Qur’an: 29/63).’

And He states that most people do not listen to the truth and the true invitation:

كِتَابٌ فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿3 بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا فَأَعْرَضَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ [40]

  ‘… [and We have sent] a Book, whose signs have been spelled out in Arabic Reading, to the people who have knowledge,

 [It is] a Good-News Bearer, and Warner, but most of them do not heed it and do not listen, (Qur’an: 41/3-4).’

أَمْ تَحْسَبُ أَنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ أَوْ يَعْقِلُونَ [41]

‘… Do you think that most of them hear or use [their] reason, (Qur’an: 25/44)?’

And He states that many of them take no notice of Our Verses:

وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا لَغَافِلُونَ [42]

‘… yet many people are quite unaware of Our signs, (Qur’an: 10/92).’

And in twenty-four separate occasions He states that most people do not understand; and He states similar phrases in nine other Verses:

 وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ [43]

 ‘… though most people do not know, (Qur’an: 7/ 187,  12/21,  16/38,  30/6-30,  34/28-36,  40/57,  45/26).’

And in nine different places He states:

وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ [44]

‘… yet most of them do not know, (Qur’an: 6/37,  7/131,  8,34,  10//55,  28/13-57,  39/49,  44,39,  51/47).’

And He states in five different Verses:

بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ [45]

 ‘… rather most of them do not know, (Qur’an: 16/57-101,  27/61,  31/25,  39/29).’

And in another occasion He states:

بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْحَقَّ فَهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ [46]

 ‘… no, but most of them do not recognize the Truth – that is why they are turning away, (Qur’an: 21/24).’

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The rightful Imam’s being for the guidance of the people is necessary

Anyhow, according to what Qur’an mentions, it has been the story of the people in the past. Now, can such people with their way of thoughts, their desires and their senses of feelings choose their Imam to guide them? Such an Imam that to be free from sins and crimes and his dignity to be similar to the dignity and the obedience of Allah. Such and Imam that to guide the people to the Truth and their Perfection; an Imam that to purify their souls and illuminate their hearts with the Light of the Divine, the Creator.  Such an Imam that to remove their worries, depressions and complexity and then lead them to the state of the Certainty. And finally, such an Imam that to bring them out of disbelief and guide them towards the Monotheism.

Imam is one who always stands by the Truth and contrary to what the people are interested in, he guides them to the straight path, brings them out of their lust and passions; and he leads them towards piety and Monotheism. Of course, this is what the people oppose with, they have always resisted against the messengers and their instructions and guidance.

Imam must be serious in fulfilling his task; he must teach and instruct the people with good intention and determination. He must not take to account their passions and material desires; as it is stated:   

 فَلِذَلِكَ فَادْعُ وَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَا أُمِرْتَ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءهُمْ وَقُلْ آمَنتُ بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِن كِتَابٍ وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَعْدِلَ بَيْنَكُمُ [47]

‘… therefore you call, and stand firm as you have been commanded, and do not follow their desires, but say, ‘I believe in whatever Book Allah has sent down, and I am commanded to do justice among you, (Qur’an: 42/15).’

 قُلْ أَنَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللّهِ مَا لاَ يَنفَعُنَا وَلاَ يَضُرُّنَا وَنُرَدُّ عَلَى أَعْقَابِنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَانَا اللّهُ كَالَّذِي اسْتَهْوَتْهُ الشَّيَاطِينُ فِي الأَرْضِ حَيْرَانَ لَهُ أَصْحَابٌ يَدْعُونَهُ إِلَى الْهُدَى ائْتِنَا قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىَ وَأُمِرْنَا لِنُسْلِمَ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ [48]

‘… say, ‘Shall we call, instead of Allah, on something that can neither benefit nor harm us? Shall we turn back on our heels after Allah has guided us: bewildered like someone the devils have enticed away on the earth, while his companions are calling him to guidance, ‘Come to us!’ Say, ‘Guidance of Allah means real guidance. We have been ordered to commit ourselves peacefully to the Lord of the Worlds, (Qur’an: 6/71).’

 وَلَن تَرْضَى عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلاَ النَّصَارَى حَتَّى تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَى وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءهُم بَعْدَ الَّذِي جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلاَ نَصِيرٍ [49]

 ‘… and never will the Jews or the Christians be pleased with you until you follow their religion. Say, ‘It is but the guidance of Allah that is the [true] guidance!’ And if you follow their desire, after the knowledge has come to you, you will have no protector or supporter beside Allah, (Qur’an: 2/120).’

 وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ الَّذِينَ أُوْتُواْ الْكِتَابَ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ مَّا تَبِعُواْ قِبْلَتَكَ وَمَا أَنتَ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَتَهُمْ وَمَا بَعْضُهُم بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَةَ بَعْضٍ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءهُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِنَّكَ إِذًَا لَّمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ [50]

‘… and even if you bring any sign to those who have been given the Book, they will not follow your Direction; neither are you the followers of their direction – not even any of them will follow one another’s direction. However, if you follow their desires, after the knowledge has come to you, then you will surely be of the wrongdoers, (Qur’an: 2/145).’   

All these Verses are clear and they mean that we must obey Allah only and not to let the others take our controle and lead us to nowhere according to the ir will; such people mislead the whole society and impose their authorities on them. They never support the Truth and nor do they stand by right people – they always keep away from the descent people. Now, in this case, can such narrow minded people with little knowledge choose their own Imam so that to guide them to reach the ideal destination of theirs? The answer is never, ever!

Most people are the captives of their passions and they do not reach the Perfection and their uppermost of wit and wisdom. Therefore, if they are given authority to vote for their leader or Imam, their choice will be based on their passions and imaginations. By seeing the banners and the proclamations of the general election, or by hearing an exciting lecture they lure to cast the bailouts; so often such banners and the lecturers are deceitful and they their aims are to cheat the common citizens. In our life span, we have come across with such propaganda, banners and sensual lectures delivering for the benefit of a certain party, and so often we have noticed how common people have got excited and voted for the benefit of the most deceitful one. Once again, when the condition changes and another election approach, some other rascals begin saying the same things, spending on buying baseless votes and lecturing for the oncoming bright lives for the nations.

 Now, can the voting for Imam in Islam, which is based on the fact and obedience, be put in the disposal of the lowly people who know nothing about the Divinity? The choice of such an Imam that who is the source of blessing, generosity and the mercifulness. It is absolutely impossible! Most people choose someone that to taste their desires, being like them in manner and behavior. Otherwise, the society will collapse and the nation will perish, the base of justice will give way to injustice.

The question is that: in any nation, a group of the people is different from another group; the people in that group are different in thoughts, behavior and actions. Some of them are hard working and perseverance, they struggle and work hard to make progress in life and increase their knowledge. They start from the scratch and by riding in the right course they may become as intelligent as a philosopher, and to be able to solve their problems as well as the problems of their societies. They own clear conscience and are clever to understand what is going on about them; they are aware of the facts and easily make out bad from worse and the worst from the best. With their vast knowledge and cleverness it becomes easier for them to recognize the wise and intelligent people among the people; then, when an election is on the way, they can choose the right person in the right way.

Of course, in every society, such people are rare and it rather difficult to find them among the huge public.

Another group includes the people who are on the way to the destiny, they have not yet approached the Perfection, however, they are on the move to correct them-selves – they always try to reach the ideal destination by studying and attending the different training classes to increase their knowledge.

These types of people are numerous and they are found among the nation in every society. However, comparing with the outnumbered common people in every nation, they are still in minority. Although they are not at the level of those in the first group, they have the privilege of enough knowledge and their own awareness.

The third group includes the ordinary common public. They have neither knowledge nor the sense of perceptive nor do they try to learn and get to know well. They are just after gaudiness. They are lured by every single attractive thing, no matter how trifle it may be. They are the ones who are gullible, and in an election they cast their ballots for the benefit of anyone they come across with. The members in this group are after the people whose propagandas are bombastic and their lectures are broadcast more in the mass media, and of course, their pictures are put in the papers or stuck on the street walls and tree trunks.

Let’s suppose that every single man is going to be voted in an election as a Leader; in that case the account should be according to the intelligence of every individual. For example, every ordinary common people has only one right of vote, a student has ten rights to vote, and the one who is searching to increase his knowledge has a hundred rights to vote, a scientist and the learned man has one thousand rights to vote, a sage man with the Divine knowledge has ten thousand rights to vote, a Gnostic who has abandoned himself and trusted himself to the Divine will has a hundred thousand rights to vote; and then finally the Imam, who is at the position of the Guardian, and constantly receiving the Divine illumination and he is the source of the religion, has the whole rights to receive all the votes – he is the only agent from Allah – even in choosing the Leader.

This is the main logic of the Shiite who says: the choice of Imam, who has been assigned by the Messenger or the former Imam, is only by Allah.

Now, you the ignorant liberal of the time of ignorance! Do you allow the people vote in this manner? Do you divide the people in different ranks and groups, and then give them chance to vote according to their stages and will! It is obvious that the answer is something else!

It is obvious that you consider one vote to every individual no matter what his or her background is, what is important to is the count: whether one is a scientist or an ignorant person, or he is the most learned or dull – for you the number counts.

This is absolutely wrong; logically it is not right. This theory and tradition ruins the value of the wisdom and does away with the knowledge of the learned and the scientists. In the balance of standard, it evaluates the cost of a scientist and an ignorant the same; and it put the wise people in the line of the most common people.

How are you going to answer this question?! What is your answer in the justice and noble presence of the humanity? How do you spoil the humanity, the social order and corrupt the society in the presence of the Divine Justice by ignoring the rights of the innocent people to elect their Leader, and then you are choosing your Leader!

This is my objection against those who are supporting the ignorance broadmindedness. Allah, the Highest, has stated: ‘Rise up and respond them!’ Far be it from you! How can you respond it!

There have been great debates and discussions by the different people which almost all of them are put in the history books and ecclesiasts. Most of them explain the stories in such a way that every man gets astonished by reading them. Now, in here, we bring some of them which the honest Shiite historian, Abi Al-Hasan Ali ibn Al-Hossein bin Ali Mas‘ōōdi , passed away in 346 Hijri, has put it down in his book.

He says: ‘One of Mua‘wiyah’s shrewdness and cleverness was that capturing the hearts of those closer to him as well as the common people;’ he adds, ‘When, after fighting in Siffin Battle with Ali Bin Abī Tālib upon him be peace he was returning to Damascus, one man from Kofa who was riding on camel also arrived with him in Damascus, right then, a man stood on his way claiming: “This camel is mine, it is take away from me in the Battle of Siffin.”’

They both quarreled and at last they were taken to Mua‘wiyah; the man from Damascus presented fifty men of his as the witnesses who altogether gave their witnesses that the camel belonged to the claimant from Damascus, therefore, Mua‘wiyah commanded against the man from Kofa, and he ordered to give the camel back to the main owner.

The man from Kofa said: ‘O Mua‘wiyah, may Allah correct you! This camel of mine is male, it is not female; so how did these fifty men gave their witnesses that it is female and you too accepted what they said!’       

Mua‘wiyah said: ‘O man! This is what has been ordered and now it is not returnable. Then, later on when those men left them, Mua‘wiyah privately told then, “Now, how much is the price of your camel?’

Mua‘wiyah paid the man double instead, and he did more generosity to him and saying: ‘Take my message to Ali Bin Abī Tālib and tell him that I fought with him with my hundred thousand fighters among whom there is not one to distinguish a male camel from the female one!’

The obedience of the people and their following Mua‘wiyah was so much that, after returning from the Battle of Siffin, they gathered for the Friday mass prayer with Mua‘wiyah but on Wednesday! No one objected him. The people of Damacus would sacrifice themselves to support and secure him. By offering their souls, they would insure his safety – they protected him for the loss of their souls.

As Ammar, who was one of the companions of the Commander of the believers, was killed by the army of Mua‘wiyah and the people of Sham reported it to the Messenger of Allah that he was killed by the cruel men of Mua‘wiyah, and on the other hand, Amro Aas, the chief army commander of Mua‘wiyah said: ‘The murderer of Ammar is Ali Ibn Abī Tālib, because it was he who called Ammar to battle for his own victory,’ everyone accepted it and took his serious and began calling Ali and his followers the oppressor.

The people of Sham so much loved and adored Mua‘wiyah that they made it their custom to curse Ali, and naturally their children grew this way and they would also follow the elderly, they would even curse him when passing away.

Mas‘ōōdi says: ‘This example is enough to prove the ignorance of the people of Sham, that is, some people asked a great leaned man of Sham, “’Who is Abī Tālib (Ali Ibn Abī Tālib) whom Mua‘wiyah, the Leader and Imam of Sham always curses when he is lecturing on the pulpit?”’

To his expression, the man said: ‘I know that he is a thief among the seditious thieves.’

And Haeez says: I myself heard from a man who was going to the Hajj Pilgrimage say, “If I go closer to Allah’s House then who is going to speak to me from inside the House?”’

And also Haeez says: One of my friend told me, ‘Once when I offered my blessing upon Muhammad, a common man heard it and he asked me, “What is your opinion about this Muhammad? Is he our Creator?”’

Tham‘mah bin Ashrath says: One day, when I was passing through the market in Baghdad suddenly I noticed a man was lecturing and some people were gathering around him and listening.

I dismounted my mule, went closer to the people and asked what the gathering was about. In the mean time, I found my way to get even closer where I saw a man was speaking highly about the collyrium he was going to sell, he was saying: Whoever rubs a bit of that stuff on his eyes he eyes are cured from all diseases.

To my great surprise, when I caught sight of the man’s eyes I noticed that one of his eyes was covered with tiny spots,[51] and his another eye was quiet defected.

I asked: ‘O man! ‘If this stuff of you is in such quality as you say and it cures all diseases, so why do you not cure your eyes with?’

To my question the man answered: ‘O you the ignorant man! ‘Do you think that my eyes have been damaged in this town so that to be cured here?! My eyes were defected when I was in Egypt!’

All the people gathering there accepted what the man said and some of them said: ‘His eyes are have been defected in Egypt so you speak nonsense!’

Tham‘māma says: ‘When I wanted to make them know that the man was misleading, because even if his eyes had been defected in Egypt now the stuff was in Baghdad and he could cure them with it, but they did not understand me. Contrary to what I said, they rose against me, some of them took off their shoes and sandals and started biting me on the head so hard that I could hardly get rid of them.’

After relating this story of Haeez and Tham‘mah, Mas‘ōōdi says: ‘Some of my brothers have told me that a man from among the common people of Baghdad reported a neighbor of his, who had become a fire-worshipper, to some of the learned chiefs and the governor of the town.

The governor asked: ‘What religion does this man whom you are complaining about follow?’

The man answered: ‘He is untouchable, atheist, returner and heretic.’

The governor asked his why he had chosen such religion.

The man answered: ‘Because he dislikes Mua‘wiyah, the son of Khattab, who had a quarrel with Ali, the son of Aas.’

The governor said: ‘O man! Your perfections are so high that I feel jealous of you: to be jealous of your knowledge, your way of speaking or your breeding and back ground.’      

And in another occasion Mas‘ōōdi says: ‘One of our brothers, who was a learned man, so related his story to me: ‘Our custom was that in our gathering, we used to speak about Abu Bakr, Omar, Ali and Mua‘wiyah, and most of the time, the ordinary people used to join us and listen what we were discussing about.

Once one of them, who was wiser among them and wore long beard, told me: ‘How much are you talking about Abu Bakr, Omar, Ali and Mua‘wiyah and such and such?’

I told him: ‘What do you have to say about them, and what is your opinion about them?’

He said: ‘Which of them do you mean?’

I said: ‘My opinion is Ali Ibn Abī Tālib, so what is your opinion about him?’

He asked: ‘Is Ali not the son of Fatima?’

I asked: ‘Who is Fatima?’

He said: ‘Fatima was the wife of the Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants, the daughter of Aisha, and Mua‘wiyah’s sister.’

I asked: ‘What was the story of Ali?’

He said; ‘He was killed with the Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants in the battle of Honain.’          

After bringing up the story, Mas‘ōōdi relates the story of Bani Omayyad and Abdullah Saffah:

'In the time of Haroon Al-Rashid, in Baghdad, one of the materialists who had the knowledge of medicine began curing diseases and illnesses. He pretended to be the best physician and he declared that he was of the Sunnite and belonged to the community; therefore, he always cursed the innovators. He was known as a hard-line Sunnite among the common people who were obedient to him. Every day, a great many of them, with a bottle of urine in each one's hand, [52] came to him to cure them.

When they all were present, the man would stand up saying: 'O you the community of the Muslims, is that not you who say that 'there is no one to do good or bring harm except Allah?', so why have you come here to tell me about your loss or benefit in life?

'Go to your Creator and beseech for your need! And rely on your Lord to correct you so that your saying to be as your actions!' In the mean time, some of the patients turned to their companions saying: 'Yes, by Allah, this man is quite right.'

Then, some of then left him and did not refer him any more until they died with their illnesses; but some others gave him a chance to speak until he was satisfied with what he was saying. When he was at peace, they showed him their bottles of urine, and after observing each bottle, he would prescribe a certain medicine for each patient and told him: 'O man! You are weak in your belief, if it were not so you would rely on your Creator, because Allah can cure you in the same way He has made you sick.'

In this manner, by preventing the patients to cure their illnesses, he caused most of them die.

After telling this story, Mas‘ōōdi says relates: 'People are usually used to giving the authority, and governorship to such people that they know not about rules and laws of the guardianship and authorities; they give the title of greatness and superiority to those who do not have senses to feel it. They follow the unlearned ones; they follow someone who is expert only on one subject but without knowing about anything else around him; who cannot make out between the learned and the most learned ones, let alone knowing between the worst and the best – they have not the power of distinguishing between the wisdom and void.'

Therefore, o you the man of rightful, cast a glance at the assembly of the learned and see what kind of men of knowledge, great and wise are sitting there, and in the mean time, see how the common people are unaware of them, they do not care to take part those sessions – they are unwilling to be seen in such assembly.

Open your eyes and consider well, the majority of the common people always haste to go after the bear in the leash to see if his owner makes him dance. Or they go after the baboon-man with a tambourine in hand and playing it to make the trained animal move side to side as dancing; or they keen on pleasures: going to a magician who falsely makes something out of nothing, and lies after lying, or they listen to the story-tellers, or they stand in the middle of the road and watch a man being lashed a hundred lashes or more in the hope to be corrected, and even worse, they wait for hours to witness a certain man being hanged in public.

When they hear a null and void utterance they follow it but while hearing the truth they take no notice of it – they do not leave the null and void. They do not consider an ugly affair to be so ugly in their point of view, nor do they take a decent affair for upright.

They do not fear to call a righteous man as a corrupt and accused him to be crooked; and also calling a believing man a disbelieving and branding him as infidel.

The Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants has unveiled this secret by stating:

النّاس اثنان: عالِمٌ و متعلِّمٌ، و ماعدا ذالِک همجٌ رعاعٌ لا يعبأ الله بِهِم

'People are in two groups: the learned and the learners; apart from these two groups, people are like the flies sitting on the droppings and on the faces of the burden animals – they are very lowly and Allah takes no notice of them.'

And similarly it is narrated that when the people asked Ali Ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace about the common people he said: '

همجٌ رعاعٌ، أتباع کلّ ناطِِقٍ، لم يستضيئوا بِنورِ العِلم، ولم يلجاؤا اِلی رکن وثيقٍ.

'They are the mosquito and flies sitting of the faces of the animals, they are lowly ones who blindly follow every call, their hearts are not lighted with the illumination of knowledge and they are not reached to their ideal destination.'

Without exception, everyone knows that they are the young flies,[53] they are called 'the young flies' because if they assemble to deal a matter, they work on it without using their minds, and then, when they leave it they forget all about it – or they are so lowly that they even cannot notice it and are unknown to the society.'

O man! Think well and ponder upon your deeds to see to your manners, and observe how different and contradictory your manners are! Therefore, cast your glance at the great and the sages and see how their greatness and nobility settles awe in your hearts!

Be aware that the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants was assigned  by the Almighty and he rose up inviting the people to Allah for twenty-two years. Allah's revelations were being sent down to him, he was dictating them to the people and they were writing them. They were trying to make a Book from the revelations, they were separating the Words of Allah uttered by the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants and putting each word in a separate place.

During that time, Mua‘wiyah,s condition was getting worse, he was at such state that only Allah knows about him.

Apart from this, a few days before his demise, the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants wrote down whatever he wanted about Mua‘wiyah.

However, they highly adored Mua‘wiyah's name and gave so high rank and honour that as if he were the scripter of the revelation. Then, because of his falsely given title they went on elaborating him and giving most respect to him. They were not even satisfied with their reverence to him until they nominated him as the receiver of the revelation. They cut their connection with the others, and banned themselves to mention anyone's name but him; they totally wiped out the remembrance of anyone else.

The cause of this manner is the very habit and custom that the public are used to, and it is the very lowly nature that they have been born in and then grown up. Thus, at the age of puberty, they have recognized it and accepted it as their inborn nature.

The poets have composed poetries, and the men of letters have made so many speeches about the customs and natures of them that an anonymous rhymester says:

 لا تهِنّی بعد إذ أکرمتنی      فشديدٌ عادةٌ منتزعة

'After You have honoured me and given respect to me, do not hold me in humiliated.'

And, as a reprove, another poet to his friend has said:

ولکن فِطلم النّفسِ أثقل محمِلاٌ       مِن الصّخرةِ الصّمآء حين ترومها

However, weaning the soul from the specific habits is more difficult than moving the heaviest rocks from their fixed places.

The sages of Arabs have said:

ألعادة أملک بِالارِبِ

The domination of the habits over a wise person is more serious than his wisdom and insight.

And the wise none-Arabs have said:

ألعادة هِی الطّبيعة الثّانية

Habit is the second nature of a man.

Abu Igal, the writer, has written a book about the public's morale attitudes: he has written about morality, attributions, and habits and the way of discussions; he has mentioned them in detail and given it a title as 'Molhi'. And he goes on explaining that: 'If I were not worried about the length of my speech, and were not deviated from the main purpose of mine, I would like to write about the public rare moralities, their manners and their thoughts: I would explain in such a way that to surprise everyone; in it, I would determine the cause, and the the situation of every individual. [54]

Anyhow, we narrated this subject from the famous historian and sociologist who is confirmed by both: our own specialists and the common so as to be a proof for the familiar and the opponents. Therefore, the common people should know that with their worldly desires, wrong feelings and short knowledge they cannot choose the Imam.

The soul and source of the Imam upon him be peace is from where the Truth, the Perception of the Spirituality and the recognition of the wrong from the truth exist.

An Imam possesses the Divine distinction between the truth and falsehood; however he not only makes out the right from wrong but he has the highest status; he owns the power of distinction and never makes mistakes, and is he regretful of his deeds. It is stated:

اِن تتقوا الله يجعل لكم فرقاناً [55]

'… if you are heedful of Allah, He will grant you a standard [sense], (Qur'an: 8/29).'

He will grant you the same standard who give to Moses, peace be upon him.

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى وَهَارُونَ الْفُرْقَانَ وَضِيَاء وَذِكْرًا لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ [56]

'… and no doubt, We gave Moses and Aaron the criterion, and [their Book] as a Radiance and Reminder for the God-fearing, (Qur'an: 21/48).'

وَإِذْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَالْفُرْقَانَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ [57]

'… and when We gave Moses the Book and the Criterion so that you should be guided, (Qur'an: 2/53).'

The Imam owns such an insight and light that he distinguishes bad from worse and the worthy from unworthy, and the right from the wrong, and he walks on the straight path; and he plans his affair as well the affairs of his society according to him standard.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَآمِنُوا بِرَسُولِهِ يُؤْتِكُمْ كِفْلَيْنِ مِن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ نُورًا تَمْشُونَ بِهِ [58]

'… O you who believe, be heedful of Allah and believe in His Messenger; so that He may grant you double shares of His grace and grant you a light to walk by and also forgive you, (Qur'an: 57/28).'

It is quite clear that the Imam has the highest degree of illumination and no one can reach to that status to be able to recognise the Imam and choose him as the Leader. To bring this lesson to the end, we are quoting a superb narration about the Imamate which has been stated from the source of Guardianship and narrated by Ali Ibn Mosa al-Reza upon him be peace.  

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The Narrative of Imam Reza, Upon Him be Peace, Concerning the Condition of the Imam

The late Muhammad Bin Kolaini[59] relates from Abdul Aziz bin Muslim saying: 'We were in Marve along with Imam Reza and on our arrival to Marve I went to the mosque for the Friday congregational prayer. There were enough speeches about the Imam's status there, and they were solving and explaining the difference of the people. Some later, I went closer to Imam Reza and reported him what was going on among the people in the mosque.

The Holiness smiled and said: 'O Abdul Aziz, these people are ignorant and they have been beguiled by their own thoughts and opinions. Allah, the Honourable and Exalted, did not take away his Messenger until He completed his religion and sent down to him the Qur'an with clear explanation for everything in it. The lawful and unlawful are clearly explained in the Qur'an, and He has stated the limitation and permission of all things which are necessary for the people; He, the Honourable and Exalted has stated:

فقال عزّ و جلّ: مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِي الكِتَابِ مِن شَيْءٍ [60]

'… We have not left out anything in the Book, (Qur'an: 6/38).'

And at the time of 'the Farewell Pilgrimage', which was the final part of  the Messenger's span of life, He sent this Verse:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإِسْلاَمَ دِينًا [61]

Today, I have perfected your religion for you, and completed My favour upon you, and have granted Islam as a religion for you, (Qur'an: 5/3).'

The affair and the command for the Governorship is the completion of the religion, the Messenger of Allah did not passed away until he explained them the religion in details, and made it for them clear how to take the straight path. He assigned them the right way and appointed Ali upon him be peace as the rightful guide and Imam for them – and he made everything crystal clear which was necessary for his nation. So whoever thinks that Allah, the Honourable and Exalted, has not completed His religion, in fact, he is rejecting Allah's Book, and he who rejects Allah's Book he surely does not believe Allah. By the way, do they know the status of the Imam and his greatest position then to be able to choose the Imam? It is stated:

إِنَّ الْإِمَامَةَ أَجَلُّ قَدْراً وَ أَعْظَمُ شَأْناً وَ أَعْلَى مَكَاناً وَ أَمْنَعُ جَانِباً وَ أَبْعَدُ غَوْراً مِنْ أَنْ يَبْلُغَهَا النَّاسُ بِعُقُولِهِمْ أَوْ يَنَالُوهَا بِآرَائِهِمْ أَوْ يُقِيمُوا إِمَاماً بِاخْتِيَارِهِ

The dignity of the Imam is greater, his status is loftier, his position is more secured and is out of reach to one than to be able to capture him by wisdom and intellect, or to picture him with imaginations and then choose him as the Imam of the nation!

The Imamate is such a position that Allah, the Honourable and Exalted, gave the Holiness Abraham after had honored him the state of the prophet-hood and intimacy; and it is a high privilege Allah has honored him with. And then, through that privilege He has stated His praise to that messenger as:

قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا [62]

'… so He stated: I indeed chose you as the Imam for the people, (Qur'an: 2/124).'

While delighted, Abraham  said:

و مِن ذرِّيتي؟

'… and [what about] of my offspring?'

Allah, the Almighty, stated: 'My promise is not for the wrongdoers.'

Therefore, this Verse has canceled the Imamate of any oppressors until the Day of Resurrection and the Guardianship and Imamate specified only for the immaculate. Then, Allah, the Almighty has honored Abraham and assigned the Guardianship among his immaculate and the most rightful of spring, by stating:

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ نَافِلَةً وَكُلًّا جَعَلْنَا صَالِحِينَ ﴿72 وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاء الزَّكَاةِ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ [63]

 '… and We gave him Isaac, and Jacob in superfluity; and We made every one [of them] righteous. Also We appointed them leaders who guided [the people] by Our command, and We inspired them to perform good deeds, and to keep up prayer and pay the due welfare tax – and they kept worshipping Us, (Qur'an: 21/72-73).'

Thus, year in and year our, and century after century the Imamate was constantly among the of spring of Abraham until it was given to the main great Messenger of Allah; and Allah, the Honourable and Exalted stated:

إِنَّ أَوْلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهَذَا النَّبِيُّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَاللّهُ وَلِيُّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ [64]

'… In fact, the closest people to Abraham are those who have followed him, and [also] this Prophet and those who have believed; and Allah is the Lord of the believers, (Qur'an: 3/68).'

Therefore, this Imamate was specified to the Messenger of Allah and that Holiness appointed it for Ali bin Abī Tālib upon him be peace by Command of Allah, the Highest, and according to 'whatever Allah has obligated' it was transferred to the of spring of that Holiness who own the uppermost knowledge and the certain belief. Allah, the Highest, stated:

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ وَالْإِيمَانَ لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ فَهَذَا يَوْمُ الْبَعْثِ [65]

'… but those who have been given knowledge and faith will say, ‘According to Allah's Book, you have certainly hung around until the Day of Rebirth, (Qur'an: 30/56).'

Thus, Imamate belongs just to Ali upon him be peace and his of spring until the Day of Resurrection – it is only because there are not any messengers after Muhammad Bless be to him and his Descendants – so, how on earth these ignorance people choose their own Imams?!

In fact, the Imamate is at the position of the messengers and it is the heritage of the Guardians. The Imamate is Allah's Caliphate on land and the deputy of the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, and also the status of the Commander of the believers upon him be peace and the heritage of Hasan and Hussein. Imamate means the statesmanship of the religion, the discipline of the Muslims; and it is the moral soundness of the world and the dignity of the faithful. Imamate is the ever-living basis and the long fruitful branches of the Islam.

Prayers become correct and perfect through the Imams; the Poor rates, Pilgrimage to Mecca, Fasting and Jihad are complete through the Imams. It is also a cause to increase the charities and to make the command and probation run at their due laws and commands.

Imam knows the legitimates of Allah as unlawful and the prevention of Him as the prohibition, and he carries out the commandment of Allah. He keeps the enemies and oppressors away from the boundary of Allah, and with his wisdom and good advice calls people to Divine religion. Imam is like the world-illuminating sun rising to light the universe with its illumination. He has so high and lofty position in the firmament that no one's hands can reach or no creatures' eye can capture him. Imam is the full moon and the illuminator of the hearts, he is the rotating light and the guiding star in the pitch darkness and in the middle of the endless wasteland, he is the savor on the surface and the depth of the seas. Imam is the sweet water for the thirsty, he is a guide to the blissfulness, he is the savour. Imam is as fire on the hill-tp to give warmth to those who need affection to warm up, and he is a leader at the time of perishing, because whoever separates him perishes. Imam is like the rain-bearer cloud pouring down torrent upon the earth and he is the illuminating light and the generous shade spreading upon the growth, and the rivers and whatever on the earth exists.

Imam is the sympathetic friend, the most kind father, a just brother and as the affectionate mother taking care of her toddlers; and he the shelter of the creatures in the difficulties. Imam is the trustee of Allah to His creatures, he is the sign of Allah and His Caliph on the earth ; he is the inviter of the people to the Truth. He is the preventer of the corrupts – Imam is free from any sins and defects. 

Allah ahs specified the Imam with knowledge and made him be tolerant and so is he created to be the discipline of the religion, honour of the Muslims and the bully against the hypocrites  as well as the killer of the disbelievers. Imam is unique at his time and no one can reach at his position and not a sage can be at his level; there is not a comparable to him nor can anyone claim to own his knowledge. Allah, the Compassionate,  and Forgiving, has honoured him this privilege. Therefore, who possesses the power and the knowledge of the Imam, or can boast to be at his rank? Far be it from you!

Here, the intellects get lost and the wisdoms wonder,  so do the reasons become incapable and they marvel and the eyes cannot make out the fact and remain wide open! The great become lowly, the sages be in awe, the tolerant shortens, the orators are limited, the wise ones confess their ignorance, the poets become dumb to compose of his priorities, the literally folks become unable and the eloquence become powerless to count the attributes of the Imam.

How can all his attributes and priorities be explained, or to give explanation of his source and background, or even comprehend his position and set up someone with him in rand and status? No, never! It cannot be so. How can it be done while he is like a star in the dark sky? How can people reach the high sky to see him and attribute his fact and nature? In this situation, how can people choose the Imam, how can wisdoms realize this fact, and where can they find any person like the Imam?

Do you think that the Imamate can be found anywhere other than the offspring of the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad bin Abdullah Bless be to him and his Descendants? By Allah, they are beguiled by their souls and the false desires have surrounded them; therefore, they have climbed a dangerous and shaky high ladder  which will topple them down into the dark deep of the abyss! They decided to allocate the Imam with their defected and the captive-to-lust-and passions-minds, and the misleading votes of them. However, no matter how hard they tried they fell far away from their aspiration; so is it stated:

قَاتَلَهُمُ اللّهُ أَنَّى يُؤْفَكُونَ [66]

'… may Allah ruin them, how they have been astray, (Qur'an: 9/30)!'

 They indeed thought upon a hard subject, they lied, made mistakes and were mislead; they were involved in wonderings for they forsook the Imam deliberately; as it is stated:

وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ وَكَانُوا مُسْتَبْصِرِينَ [67]

'… Satan made their actions seem attractive to them and he diverted them from the path though they observed clearly, (Qur'an: 29/38).'

They turned away from the authority of Allah, the Messenger of Allah and the offspring and followed their own will and desires, though the Holy Qur'an says:

 وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ [68]

'… and your Lord creates whatever He desires, and the decision remains only with Him – while the others have no choice. All praise belongs to Allah; He is exalted over whatever they may associate, (Qur'an: 28/68).'

And also it states:

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ [69]

'… it is not for any believing man, nor believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter, to have any choice in their affair, (Qur'an: 33/36).'

And it is states:

مَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ ﴿37 أَمْ لَكُمْ كِتَابٌ فِيهِ تَدْرُسُونَ ﴿38 إِنَّ لَكُمْ فِيهِ لَمَا تَخَيَّرُونَ ﴿90 أَمْ لَكُمْ أَيْمَانٌ عَلَيْنَا بَالِغَةٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ إِنَّ لَكُمْ لَمَا تَحْكُمُونَ ﴿40 سَلْهُم أَيُّهُم بِذَلِكَ زَعِيمٌ ﴿41 أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَاء فَلْيَأْتُوا بِشُرَكَائِهِمْ إِن كَانُوا صَادِقِينَ [70]

 '… What is wrong with you? How do you decide matters? Do you have a book you read in it, that you shall have in that whatever you would like?

Or do you have a pledge binding on Us until the Day of

Resurrection that you shall have what you have decided upon

Ask them which of them guarantees that!

Or have they any partners? Then let them bring forth their partners if they are so truthful, (Qur'an: 68/37-42).'

And also Allah, the Honourable and Exalted, states:

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَى قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا [71]

'… Do they not ponder on the Qur’an; or are their hearts locked up, (Qur'an: 47/24).'

And He states:

وَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لاَ يَفْقَهُونَ [72]

'… and their hearts were stamped thus they do not understand, (Qur'an: 9/87).'

Also He states:

وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ كَالَّذِينَ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَهُمْ لاَ يَسْمَعُونَ ﴿21 إِنَّ شَرَّ الدَّوَابِّ عِندَ اللّهِ الصُّمُّ الْبُكْمُ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ ﴿22 وَلَوْ عَلِمَ اللّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لَّأسْمَعَهُمْ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ [73]

 '… we heard,’ while they were not listening.

Surely the worst of the living creatures, in the sight of Allah, are the deaf and dumb who do not use their reason.

If Allah had noticed any good in them, He would have made them hear; yet even though He was to make them listen, they would still turn away with disdain, (Qur'an: 6/21-23).'

Or they said:

قَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا [74]

'… They said, 'we listen but disobey, (Qur'an: 2/93).'

However, the [position of] Imamate is the favour of Allah, He bestows it to anyone He desires. Then how dare they choose the Imam! Imam is the source of knowledge and nothing is hidden from him, and he is such a Guardian and Protector that there is never ever weakness in him. He is the spring of Holiness and pureness, so is he the source of the piety, knowledge and worshipping, he is specified to the invitation of the Messenger, he is the pure progeny of Batool; there is no doubt in his linage, and no one is parallel with his lofty status.

He is from the family of Ghuraish, and he is from the high degree Household of Hashim and the offspring of the Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants and so is he approved by Allah, the Honourable and Exalted. He is the most noble of the nobles and is a part of deity.

His knowledge is always fresh, his tolerance is stable and he has power and ability to deal with the affairs effortlessly. He is wise and awake in politics. Following him is incumbent by Allah to everyone; he has been fixed and assigned by the Honourable and Exalted Allah, he is the counselor of the worshippers of Allah, and so is he the protector of the rules and religion of Allah.

Allah, the most High, has honoured special blessing to the messengers and Imams, peace be upon them all, and He has provided them such natures that no one else has been given so far, therefore, their knowledge is the best and highest among the whole creatures of the world. Allah states:

أَفَمَن يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ أَحَقُّ أَن يُتَّبَعَ أَمَّن لاَّ يَهِدِّي إِلاَّ أَن يُهْدَى فَمَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ [75]

'… so is someone who guides to the Truth worthier to be followed or someone who does not guide unless he himself is guided? What is the matter with you? How do you judge then, (Qur'an: 10/35).'

And He also states:

وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا [76]

'… and anyone who is given wisdom receives an abundant boon, (Qur'an: 2/269).'

And concerning Saul He states:

إِنَّ اللّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ وَاللّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ [77]

'… Indeed, Allah has chosen him for you and given him plenty of sovereignty and corporal competency.

And Allah gives His kingdom to anyone He wills; for Allah owns the Bounteous knowledge, (Qur'an: 2/247).'

And to His Messenger Bless be to him and his Descendants He has stated:

وَأَنزَلَ اللّهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمُ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا [78]

'… and Allah sent the Book and Wisdom down to you and taught you what you did not know; thus, the Grace of Allah is great to you, (Qur'an: 4/113).'

He has also stated about the Imams from his progeny, his Household and kinfolks:

أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لاَّ يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا ﴿53 أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَى مَا آتَاهُمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ فَقَدْ آتَيْنَآ آلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْنَاهُم مُّلْكًا عَظِيمًا ﴿54 فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنْهُ وَكَفَى بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا [79]

'… Have they a share in the kingdom? Even it was so they would not give to people a speck on a date-stone!

Or are they jealous of the men whom Allah has bestowed out of His grace?

We have certainly given Abraham’s family the Book and wisdom, and We have also given them a mighty sovereignty

So some of them believed [him], but some of them rejected it; therefore, the blazing Hell is sufficient [for them], (Qur'an: 4/ 53-55).'

When Allah, the most High, prefers one of His obedient worshippers for the Guardianship and authority upon His creatures, He enlarges his chest to bear the heavy tasks he is being trusted. He sets up in his heart the main sources of wisdoms, and He constantly inspires him of His Own Knowledge so as not to hesitate in answering to the questions of the people. Thus, he will not wonder on his straight path and he will succeed by the Divine-given blessings and boons – he is always immune from errors, sins and making mistakes. Allah, the most High, specifies this rank and position to him so that to be a sign and proof from Allah to His creatures; as He states:

ذَلِكَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ يُؤْتِيهِ مَن يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ [80]

'… such is the grace of Allah that He grants it to anyone He desires, for Allah is the Owner of bounty abounding, (Qur'an: 62/4).'

Can anyone have this quality and to save this nature, and have the power of Imamate to be nominated as the Imam? Or have the chooser one and the chosen such attributes so that to be respected and honoured?

I swear by the House of Allah that they were oppressive; and they threw the Book of Allah away as if they knew nothing about it. The straight path was clear in Allah's Book and so was the protection against the threats but they ignored it and followed their own wills and passions. Allah has cursed them and He has taken away their wisdoms and insight, and has toppled them down on faces. He has made them blind and has perished their hearts.

Allah, the most High, has stated:

وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنِ اتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ بِغَيْرِ هُدًى مِّنَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ [81]

'… and who is further astray than one who follows his own desire without guidance from Allah? Surely Allah does not guide the wrongdoers, (Qur'an: 28/50).'

And so has He stated:

فَتَعْسًا لَّهُمْ وَأَضَلَّ أَعْمَالَهُمْ [82]

'… let them fall in perdition, for He will make their actions vain, (Qur'an: 47/8).'

Moreover He has stated:

كَبُرَ مَقْتًا عِندَ اللَّهِ وَعِندَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كَذَلِكَ يَطْبَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ قَلْبِ مُتَكَبِّرٍ جَبَّارٍ [83]

'… It is greatly hateful and disgusting to Allah and those who believe. Thus Allah seals up the hearts of overbearing oppressors, (Qur'an: 40/35).'

Anyhow, as this narration has been strung up from the gushing spring of the Guardianship and Imamate, and it has been uttered by the Holiness Eighth Imam, therefore, each word of it counts as a pearl amid the endless ocean, and there must be pondered upon each word for months to capture the sense of it. We did implore Allah to comprehend the fact to write them down, then, with His assistance, we did bring it up so that to be the light of the hearts and the illumination of the eyes.

In the end, we came to the conclusion that 'Assigning the Imam’ is absolutely impossible for man; it is because his wisdom is limited and that makes him unable – so he cannot reach the lofty status of the Imam.

Some people have said:[84] 'As there is probability of error in a piece of news but there exists none in the successive news – the successive news is certain; it is the same when one wants to choose the Imam. It is expected mush mistakes in his choice, but as many as the choosers are the probability of making mistakes decreases. Similarly, if still they increase in numbers and then set up a board of management, errors disappear and the result of voting proves to be innocent.

So far, by our discussion,  the question became clear that it is not only the single news or the successive news the term of choosing the Leader; it is but, if the report of one is about the sensible and tangible and he makes mistakes about it, then the rest are there to correct him, however, if it is of the rational ideas then it is hard for them to find the correct answer to it and it cannot be carried out. The question of the selecting the Imam is the same, as the members in the board of management cannot comprehend the main virtue and the lofty status of the Imam, they cannot choose an Imam – either one person or a hundred be, they are all in the same boat. By discussion and voting they cannot reach an ideal agreement to choose one with such attributes. Thus, their choice will be blocked and their struggle will not be free from mistakes.

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[1] Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 59.
[2] Surah 33, "احزاب", Verse 4.
[3] Surah 34, "سباء", Verse 6.
Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 69.
Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 124.
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 153.
Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 68.
[9] Surah 33, "احزاب", Verse 36.
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 64.
[11] Surah 39, "زمر", Verse 9.
Surah 13, "رعد", Verse 31.
[13] Surah 23, "مؤمنون", Verses 70-71.
Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 116.
Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 119.
Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 87.
[17] Surah 26, "شعراء", Verses 8,67,103,121,139,158,174,190.
Surah 30, "روم", Verses 42.
[19] Surah 12, "یوسف", Verse 106.
[20] Surah 36, "یس", Verse 7.
[21] Surah 12, "یوسف", Verse 103.
[22] Surah 11, "هود", Verse 17; and Surah 13, "رعد", Verse 1; and Surah 40, "غافر", Verse 59.
Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 100.
[24] Surah 23, "مؤمنون", Verses 70.
Surah 43, "زخرف", Verse 78.
Surah 30, "روم", Verses 8.
[27] Surah 16, "نحل", Verse 83.
[28] Surah 25, "فرقان", Verse 50.
[29] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 59.
[30] Surah 7, "اعراف", verse 102.
[31] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 110; and Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 8.
[32] Surah 2, "بقره", Verse 243; and Surah 12, "یوسف", Verse 38; and Surah 40, "غافر", Verse 61.
[33] Surah 7, "اعراف", verse 17.
Surah 10, "یونس", Verse 60; and Surah 27, "نمل", Verse 73.
[35] Surah 7, "اعراف", verse 102.
Surah 10, "یونس", Verse 36.
Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 111.
[38] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 103.
[39] Surah 29, "عنکبوت", Verse 63.
Surah 41, "فصلت", Verses 3 & 4.
[41] Surah 25, "فرقان", Verse 44.
Surah 10, "یونس", Verse 92.
[43] Surah 7, "اعراف", verse 187; and Surah 12, "یوسف", Verse 21; Surah 16, "نحل", Verse 38;
Surah 30, "روم", Verses 6,30; and  Surah 34, "سباء", Verse 28,36; and Surah 40. "غافر", Verse57; and Surah 45, "جاثیه", Verse 26.
Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 37; and Surah 7, "اعراف", verse 131; and Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 34; and Surah 10, "یونس", Verse 55; and Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 13,57; and Surah 39, "زمر", Verse 49; and Surah 44, "دخان", Verse 39; and Surah 51, "طور", Verse 47.
[45] Surah 16, "نحل", Verse 75,101; and Surah 27, "نمل", Verse 61; and Surah 31, "لقمان", verse 25; Surah 39, "زمر", verse 29.
[46] Surah 21, "انبیاء", Verse 24.
[47] Surha 42, "شوری", Verse 15.
Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 71.
[49] Surah 2, "بقره", Verse 120.
[50] Surah 2, "بقره", Verse 145.
[51] The main clause is as: "نظرتُ فاذا عينه الواحدة بَرْشاء و الاخرى مأسُوكَة". It is so explained in "شرح قاموس‏"as: the word "بَرَش‏"and "بُرشَه‏" mean that there are tiny spots on the hair horsesquite different from the skin and the other parts of the body; in Persian, it is called "Chapar", and such a horse is called "æbræsh", however, "berish" pronounces "Emir". Berish is whitness seen on the nails. Therefore, the berish eye represents that spots are found in one's eyes, or the eyes are blure.
[52] In the Encyclopedia of Deh'Khoda, the word "ghaghora" is said to be a small round bottle within urine is kept, and concerning this, Masnavi Moulavi says: 'The bottle which has nolight of the world in it, is a bottle of "gharora, call it not a lantern!" On this base, as in ancient time they kep urine in such bottle for the purpose of the treatment, this kind of bottle is name after it. And it has been explaine in At'tar's "تذكرة الاولياء"that: 'The Caliph had a Christian physician who was very expert in his job, the Caliph sent him to cure common people, but when he saw the Ghaghora, he said: 'He is a man who has greatly moved with compassion; his liver was torn apart.
[53] Here, the young fliesrefers to the young of the locusts which re ready to fly, or after growing wings; but in here, it means the crowd of people mixing together and are besy in making mischief.
[54] "مروج الذهب‏", volume 3, mentioning the days of Mua‘wiyah bin Abi Sofyan, page 41-45, the publication of "Matba'a Saadat" in Egypt, with the investigation of Muhammad Mohi-ad-Din Abd-ul-Hamid.
Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 29.
[56] Surah 21, "انبیاء", Verse 48.
[57] Surah 2, "بقره", Verse 53.
[58] Surah 57, "حدید", Verse 28.
[59] "اصول کافی", volume 1, page 198.
Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 38.
[61] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 3.
[62] Surah 2, "بقره", Verse 124.
[63] Surah 21, "انبیاء", Verse 72,73.
[64] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 68.
Surah 30, "روم", Verse 56.
[66] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 30
[67] Surah 29, "عنکبوت", Verse 38.
Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 68.
[69] Surah 33, "احزاب", Verse 36.
[70] Surah 68, "قلم", Verses 37-42.
[71] Surah 47, "محمد", Verse 24.
[72] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 87. "فهم لایعلمون".
Surah 8, "انفال", Verses 21-23.
[74] Surah 2, "بقره", Verse 93.
Surah 10, "یونس", Verse 35.
[76] Surah 2, "بقره", Verse  269.
[77] Surah 2, "بقره", Verse 247.
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 53-53.
[80] Surah 62, "جمعه", Verse 4.
Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 50.
[82] Surah 47, "محمد", Verse 8.
[83] Surah 40. "غافر", Verse 35.
[84] The Commentary of "Al-Mizan", volume 4, page 418.

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