In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful
And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.
The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:
يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا 
‘… O you who believe, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Then if you have any dispute over anything, refer to Allah and the Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day – for that is better and becoming in the end, (Qur’an: 4/59).’
By the forgoing discussions, it became quite clear that the Verse “those in authority” refers only to the infallible Imams, peace and blessing be upon them all; and it is not allowed transferring this title to the well-known Four-Caliphs who took the Leadership immediately after the demise of the Messenger, and it is not right giving this title to the commanders or the theologians because they are far away from chastity.
And so far, no one among the Muslims has believed in their chastity except the Shiite who believes the Commander of the believers and his progeny own chastity and all are infallible.
Thus, giving this title to the rulers is not permissible; it is because: if their obedience is strictly necessary then it turns out to be against the religion and the clear Verses of the Holy Qur’an. Certain Verses clearly recite: the obedience of the liars and the extravagant and any kind of sins and crimes and opposing the Commands of Allah are prohibited. And if in case, their obedience is necessary then it turns to be against the noble Verses, and it is why Fakhr Razi, in his commentary, has confessed the necessity of the chastity for “those in authority”. However, as he believes not in the immediate Caliphate of the Commander of the believers and his progeny, he says: ‘the meaning of “those in authority” refers to a group of the most leaned men among the board of Management whose thoughts, arguments and verdicts are accompanied with chastity.
Of course, in our previous discussions, we proved that this theory was totally void and we explained the defects of it in details.
The perplexity of the Sunnite in comparing the Verse of “those in authority” to the infallible Imams
However, their difficulties in relating the Verse of “those in authority” to the infallible Imams are seven questions which all of them are baseless. Now, we are to explain each of them in details and then provide reasonable answers to them.
The first difficulty: in the forgoing blessed Verse, the phrase “those in authorities” is bound with the phrase ‘among you’, which means the very “those in authority” who are at your level and quality. This statement clearly denotes that each member of “those in authority” is a common person like the others – and similar to other people, they are faithful men but without the privilege of chastity.
Answer: this reasoning can be completed but when the phrase of ‘among you’, according to the grammar and literature, stands by its own, however, the appearance of the Verse denotes “those in authority” which you are among them اولِى الْامْرِ كائِنينَ مِنْكُم) ) and this leads to that “those in authority” which its quality is human being but not anything else; as Allah the most High states:
هُوَ الَّذى بَعَثَ فِى الْامِّييَّن رَسُولًا مِنْهُم 
‘… He is the One Who sent a Messenger to an unlettered from among themselves, (Qur’an: 62/2).’
Or like the Verse that the Holiness Abraham had the honour to inform Allah:
رَبَّنا وَ ابْعَثْ فيهِمْ رَسُولًا مِنْهُمْ 
‘O my Creator, raise a messenger from among them, (Qur’an: 2/129).’
And like the Verse:
رُسُلٌ مِنْكُمْ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيْكُم آياتي 
‘… the messengers, from among yourselves, come to you to recite My signs to you, (Qur’an: 7/35).’
As it is seen, the Verse only denotes that “those in authorities” are from among the people and it quite clear that the infallible Imams are the same quality of human being – they are not angels or anything else.
The second difficulty: is that the phrase of “those in authorities” is in plural case which means the phrase refers to various people, so when we want to say that it is about the infallible Imams then we face a problem, that is, in any certain period of time, we had only one of the Imams to rule us so it would be much better to use the phrase in singular and in that case it is opposite the main phrase.
Answer: true, the phrase apparently looks plural but we draw the singular meaning out of it, but the blessed Verse says something else. The phrase: “those in authorities” refers to all twelve infallible Imams and applying the names in collective does not change the case; and it is not necessary their being together at the time of using their names, when they come one after another and they are related to each other, we can apply the phrase in plural when referring to them. It is like to say: a pupil must clean the classrooms, in that case the word ‘classrooms’ is in plural case but the cleaning process is not at a single moment but they are going to be done one after another . Therefore, such expressions are numerous in daily life. For example, someone says to someone else: ‘Obey your chiefs,’ however only one chief is obeyed at a certain tome. There are numerous similar expressions in the Hoy Qur’an.
فَلا تُطِعِ الْمُكَذِّبينَ 
‘… so do not obey the deniers, (Qur’an: 68/8).’
فَلا تُطِعِ الْكافِرين 
‘… so do not obey the disbelievers, (Qur’an: 25/52).’
حافِظُوا عَلَى الَّصلواتِ وَ الصَّلوةِ الْوُسْطى 
‘… be watchful of the prayers, especially the middle prayer, (Qur’an: 2/238).’
انّا اطَعْنا سادَتَنا وَ كُبَرائَنا 
‘… we obeyed our superiors and our great men, (Qur’an: 33/67).’
وَ اخْفِضْ جَناحَكَ لِلْمُؤْمِنين 
‘… and be courteous and supportive to the believers, (Qur’an: 15/88).’
Through these Verses, it is clearly understood that one does not perform all prayers at a single instant, and he does not carry out the orders from all the chiefs at a certain time, and he is not courteous and supportive to the believers within a single moment. These kinds of plural cases refer to different people at the different times, that is, at a single instant only one of them is carried out. The phrase of “those in authorities” is the same; as it refers to different people, and all of them cannot be obeyed in a certain time, but every individual’s obedience is necessary and needed at different occasion.
The third difficulty is that, if the phrase of “those in authorities” means the infallible Imams their obedience is an enjoined duty, but if people have no enough knowledge of then their obedience is not incumbent. However, as the Verse applies their obedience in general, then it does not mean the innocent Imams.
The answer is: this kind of question is the problem of the very questioner. It is because even if we considered “those in authorities” as the members of the board of Management, their obedience is still getting know them well. There is no difference between our knowing “those in authorities” the infallible Imams or not, in any case, their obedience is a duty put on our shoulders; the only difference is that the infallible Imams are chosen by Allah and His Messenger while the board of Management is chosen y the people.
Apart from that, as it has been clearly discussed in the Elements of the Religious Jurisprudents, getting acquaintance briefly in a subject creates no duty, but it is asking for the fulfillment of the duty and proving the maturity of the duty. Therefore, without getting to know the duty itself, and its condition, the duty is just its fulfillment and there remains no blame in the case of the lack of the liable to carry out the duty. And if we want to consider ‘knowing the duty’ as the duty itself, then it is like our considering the financial ability for the necessity of Hajj Pilgrimage, and having water for performing the ablution then, there would remain no external duty. Thus, in the Noble Verse the necessity of the obedience of “those in authorities” is in general, of course being acquaintance with them means asking for fulfillment; while being not familiar with them is not that asking for fulfillment.
The fourth difficulty: considering the necessity of the obedience of “those in authorities”, Allah states:
يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ
‘… O you who believe, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you, (Qur’an: 4/59).’
In this Verse, without any condition, the obedience of Allah, the Messenger of Allah and “those in authorities” is enjoined as the absolute necessity – in all statutes and the principles of laws, the obedience of Allah, which is the Noble Qur’an, has been commanded.
The obedience of the Messenger of Allah had two dimensions, the first one: whatever related to the laws and commands, like the explanations of the commands and the clarification to the limitation of the subjects, their specification which the branches of them are put in the Book of Allah. This part concerns the belief and is specified for the Messenger of Allah. And the second part is the personal affairs of the Holiness, concerning the benefits of the society: preparing the army, assigning the commanders of the army, appointing the Imams of the congregational prayer, the caller to prayer and so on; other affairs are not concerning the religion but they depend on the opinion of the Holiness. The obedience of the Messenger is necessary in both ways.
However, the obedience of “those in authorities” comes the second of the obedience of the Messenger of Allah. It is, though “those in authorities” are the infallible Imams, they have not brought a new religion but they follow the very religion of the Messenger of Allah. In this case, it is not considered a new faith for them but their only task is expressing the commands, announcing the interpretations and comments of the Qur’an, preparing the army, putting their opinions on the benefits of the society, assigning the religious judges among the people and so on.
Therefore, the obedience of “those in authorities” is necessary but in the personal point of view, and as in the noble Verse the Book and laws and traditions are for getting the commands from, then “those in authorities” have no part in it; it is because, for erasing a dispute, one must refer to the learned and aware of the commands of Allah and the laws and traditions of His Messenger – he may refer to “those in authorities” or anyone else who has full knowledge of the Book and the traditions, but if he refers to “those in authorities” for their knowledge of the Book, and the laws and Traditions is vast, they give their opinions according to those two. Thus, their commands are absolute and according to the noble Verse their obedience is necessary.
Therefore, it is logically obvious why Allah has commanded man to refer to the Book, and laws and traditions but not to “those in authorities”. It is because the origin of commands and the root of faith are within the Book and traditions; but not for the lack of their proofs for the words of “those in authorities”, and they are also they the raiser of the enmity because their verdicts are from the Book of Allah and the tradition of His Messenger.
The most reliable witnesses and confirmatory to the forgoing discussions are the following Verses which consider it unlawful referring to the insurgents for solving the disputes and settling peace in the state of enmity.
ا لَم تَرَ الَى الَّذينَ يَزْعُمُونَ انَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِما انْزِلَ الَيْكَ وَ ما انْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ يُريدُونَ انْ يَتَحاكَمُوا الَى الطّاغُوتِ وَ قَدْ امِرُوا انْ يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَ يُريدُ الشَّيْطانُ انْ يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلالًا بَعيداً.
وَ اذا قيلَ لَهُمْ تَعالَوْا الى ما انْزَلَ اللهُ وَ الَى الَّرسُولِ رَايْتَ الْمُنافِقينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنْكَ صُدُوداً
وَ ما ارْسَلْنا مِنْ رَسُولٍ الّا لِيُطاعَ بِاذْنِ الله
‘… Have you not regarded those who claim that they believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you? But they are looking for the Judgement of the satanic power though they were commanded to reject it; but Satan wants to direct them far astray, (Qur’an: 4/60).’
‘… And when it is said to them, ‘Come to what Allah has revealed, and to the Messenger,’ then you see the hypocrites turn away with aversion, (Qur’an: 4/61).’
‘… And We did not send any messenger(s) but to be obeyed with the permission of Allah, (Qur’an: 4/64).’
These Verses declare that it is illegitimate to refer to anyone other than Allah and His Messenger in the case of disputes and misunderstandings, and they reproach those referring to the oppressive rulers who judge between the people against the command of Allah and His Messenger. Along with Allah’s Commands, they assign the verdicts of Messenger to be accepted. These are good proofs and witnesses that Allah has assigned as the reference in the Verse “those in authorities” in His Book and the laws and traditions of the Messenger, and they must be used as the arbitrary in the disputes – it is not only that the sayings of “those in authorities” is for their innocent state, but their being the authentic proof must be taken in consideration all along the Book and the laws and traditions.
The fifth difficulty is that Shiite says: the benefits of the infallible Imams are only their guiding the people to the straight path and saving them in the state of disputes, fighting and dispersion among them. Of course, this assumption is due to their chastity, but when it is assumed that even among “those in authorities” a dispute is going on, in this case, they cannot be considered to be innocent so the to get a good result from them. And as the noble Verse explains the dispute of the people along with the dispute of “those in authorities”, and it commands everyone to refer to the Book of Allah and the traditions, then their innocence is impossible.
The answer is, as it was explained already, the addressee, in this noble Verse, are some but other than “those in authorities”; as it states:
يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ ...
‘… O you who believe, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you; then if you have any dispute over anything…
It is quite clear that in here, the addressees are those other than the believers, and this expression which commands people to obey “those in authorities”. Therefore, “those in authorities” are not included in this statement. And then it states: so if you have any dispute among you, refer to Allah and Messenger. This addressing too follows the first addressing and it refers to the earlier addressees, not “those in authorities”. Therefore, the dispute is the very event occurs among the people but not the questions and commands issuing by the Imams. It is because with the necessity of Imams’ obedience, dispute in the laws and commands means no more, nor are the events among “those in authorities” occur, or struggle among them erupts, because the addressees are the faithful – as they are innocent and never dispute so this Verse does not apply them. It is obvious that when a dispute erupts, people should refer to the Book and the laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah, and any learned man among the common people, or even “those in authorities”, who are acquainted with the laws and rules solve their problems. It is similar to the Verses which state that the believers have to obey the Messenger of Allah, as:
يا ايُّهَا الَّذينَ آمَنُوا اطيعُوا اللهَ وَ رَسُولَه
‘… O you, who believe obey Allah and His Messenger…
Then what! All these statements address the believers but they do not include the Holiness Messenger. It is true that those people are believers, but they are other than the Holiness, whose task is to ask the commands of Allah. That is why the statement in the Verse of “those in authorities” does not include them, but it is about some certain believers other than them who should ask their questions from “those in authorities” and then carry out according the command of Allah and His Messenger.
The sixth difficulty: nowadays, we are deprived of the innocent Imam and his instructions, and the interpretation of the Qur’an and its commands: and we have no access to him, so Allah cannot enjoin their obedience compulsory to us, because there is no way of obedience for us. On the other hand, as we know that the noble Verse has stated the obedience of “those in authorities” necessary, then “those in authorities” cannot be infallible.
Answer: at the time of the Advent everyone will have access to Imam, it will be similar to the time of the eleven-Imams; however during the time of his absence, the lack of access to them is by the public, it is because their sins and crimes and treacheries have taken away the reward of blessing from them. This failure is not by Allah and His Messenger – as if a nation kills its messenger and then says we have no more access to messenger to obey; and they find excuses to declare that: we have no facility to meet and enjoy his companionship. Accordingly, at the time of Imam’s presence, such problems also happened among the nations.
As they put the Holiness Mosa bin Ja‘far, peace be upon him, in prison, they kept the Holiness Imam Reza under control and so were the other Imams. The Holiness Imam Muhammad Taqi, Imam Ali An-Naqi and Imam Hassan Askari were all under control and the access of the people to them were rare. So, when people discipline and correct themselves and have the merit meeting the Holiness, they will meet him; as the Holiness mentions it in the letter who has written it to Sheikh Mofid, Allah be pleased with him, it goes as:
وَ لَوْ انَّ اشْياعَنا- وَفَّقَهُمُ اللهُ لِطاعَتِهِ- عَلَى اجْتِماعٍ مِنَ الْقُلُوبِ فِى الْوَفاءِ بِالْعَهْدِ عَلَيْهِمْ لَما تَأَخَّرَ عَنْهُمُ الْيُمْنُ بِلِقائِنا، وَ لَتَعَجَّلَتْ لَهُمُ السَّعادَةُ بِمُشاهَدَتِنا عَلى مَعْرِفَةِ الْحَقِّ وَ صِدْقِها مِنهُمْ بِنا، فَما يَحْبِبَأ عَنْهُمْ الّا ما يَتَّصِلُ بِنا مِمّا نَكْرَهُهُ وَ لا نُؤْثِرُهُ مِنْهُ 
‘And if our followers, may Allah bless them to be the sincere obedience of Him, were sincere and loyal to the covenant we had made with them then their being honoured visiting us wouldn’t lost longer; then, for their excessive affection to us the fabulous bird of good omen of us would land on the roof of their dwellings. However, the disagreeable affairs of them which reach us, though we are not expecting hearing about, deprive them seeing us.’
In the public point of view, as well the points of noble classes who have always been trying to purify their souls and follow the straight path, and also struggling to ban their souls against the passions and desires, as well have the strong and stable determination on visiting the Holiness, then the path of his meeting is not blocked. Whoever wants to have the honour of visiting the Holiness must take firm, honest and right steps.
Apart from this quandary, it is also justified to Fakhr Razi, who is the renderer of the quandary, because he considers “those in authorities” to be the very board of the Management and their opinions are in diversity and the opinions of the board of Management cannot be accepted in all Islamic societies.
The seventh difficulty: is the expression of “those in authorities” that is: the infallible Imams; they must be clearly introduced to people by Allah and His Messenger. If they had been introduced as they deserve, then, after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, people would refer to them and they would take them as their Guardian and Master, in that case, there would not be any bones of contention even between two people.
The right answer to this problem is that some people’s disagreement is not the lack of its clarification by Allah and His Messenger. Many a time some affairs have been clearly stated in the Book of Allah and explained in the laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah however, the people have totally disagreed on them. Knowing the commands, and understanding the facts are on one side, and surrendering the hearts to Allah and His Messenger is on the other side.
Many a time one may know the rightness of a subject very well and with no doubt becomes familiar with the root of the fact but, because of his desires to leadership and his spirit of lascivious, his enforcing last as well the lack of generosity, he puts the absolute right theory aside and never carries it out in his leadership. It is obvious that ambitiousness and greed for gaining honours is hundreds times stronger than a man’s lust and passion for properties and other attractions. It is possible for a man outwardly to ban his passions and lust and keep himself away from accumulating wealth, however, his ambition and greed for honour, which has rooted in his mind, heart and thoughts, will accompany him up to his grave. It is the last desire leaving out from the hearts of the righteous and honest so how is it going to leave those who are after leadership and have greed for honour! It is as a hunter lying in ambush but within the conscience of man and when it finds the occasion fitting, awakes and starts its attack. Then, finding the situation desirable, he starts inviting the people to follow him. To reach his own ardent desire, he forsakes everything, even the wife, children and the property of his own. In that state, only those who have followed the Verses of “Purification and Our Souls” and then dedicated themselves can control themselves; and also some others who have believed and followed it, and have been behaving, and have not been aggressive against the clear Verses of the Book – and have doubted the infallible Imams.
The Clearly-Stated Texts and Stipulations in the Book of Allah and the Statement of the Messenger of Allah about the Commander of the Believers, upon him be peace
The specific Verses that have been sent down concerning the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace:
انَّما وَلِيُّكُمُ اللهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذينَ آمَنُوا الَّذينَ يُقيمُونَ الصَّلوةَ وَ يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكوةَ وَ هُمْ راكِعُونَ.
‘… your protector is only Allah, and His Messenger and those who believe, perform the prayer, and pay the due welfare tax even when bowing down [to pray], (Qur’an: 5/55).’
This Verse has been confirmed by the Sunnite and Shiite that, with no doubt, is about the Commander of thee believers. And so is the Verse:
الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإِسْلاَمَ دِينًا
‘… Today, I have perfected your religion for you, and completed My favour upon you, and have granted Islam as a religion for you, (Qur’an: 5/3).’
And also following the Narrative of Ghadir, Messenger stated it to the crowd:
ا لَسْتُ اوْلى بِكُمْ مِنْ انْفُسِكُمْ؟ قالُوا: بَلى. قالَ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلاهُ فهذا عَلىٌّ مَوْلاهُ.
Am I not a Master and Guardian upon your affairs? They answered, ‘Yes, you are.’ Then, the Holiness said: ‘Whoever I am his Master should know that this Ali is his Master.’
And so is the Verse of Purification:
انَّما يُريُد اللهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ اهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ يُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهيرا
‘… Allah only desires to put away any impurity from you, (the five: Messenger of Allah, the Commander of the believers, Fatima, Hassan and Hussein) the Household, and to purify you, (Qur’an: 33/33).’
And so is the Narrative of the Ship:
مَثَلُ اهْلِ بَيْتى فيكُمْ كَمَثَلِ سَفينَةِ نُوحٍ مَنْ رَكِبَها نَجا وَ مَنْ تَخَلَّفَ عَنْها غَرِق
‘The likeness of this Household of mine among you is similar to that Ark of Noah: he who gets aboard it is saved, but one who resists getting on board is drowned.’
And so is the Narrative of the Clan:
ايُّكُمْ يُوازِرُنى عَلى انْ يَكُونَ اخى وَ وَزيرى وَ خَليفَتى مِنْ بَعْدى؟
‘Which person among you is ready to help me in the prophetic mission and announcing the truth so that to be as my brother, Minister and the Caliph after me?’
And the Narrative of Two precious things:
انِّى تارِكٌ فيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ كِتابَ اللهِ وَ عِتْرَتى اهْلَ بَيْتى، ما انْ تَمَسَّكْتُمْ بِهِما لَنْ تَضِلُّوا بَعْدى ابَدا
‘I am leaving among you two precious things as a memorial: one is the Book of Allah and the second is my family, that is, my Household; as long as you hold to those two you will not get lost at all.’
The Narrative of the Position:
يا عَلِىُّ انْتَ مِنّى بِمَنْزِلَةِ هارُونَ مِنْ مُوسى الّا انَّهُ لَا نَبِىَّ بَعْدى.
‘O Ali, your case with me is as the case of Aaron with Moses; the only exception is that there is not any messenger after me.’
And so is the Narrative of Sandal:
انَا قاتَلْتُ النّاسَ عَلى تَنْزيلِ الْقُرْآنِ وَ لكِنْ خاصِفُ النَّعْلِ يُقاتِلُهُمْ عَلى تَأْويلِهِ- وَ كانَ قَدْ اعْطى عَلِيًّا نَعْلَهُ يَخْصِفُها-
‘I fought people for their confessing the appearance of the Qur’an, however, one who patches the shoes, fights people for their confessing the meaning of the Qur’an.’ In the mean time, when the Holiness was still delivering this speech, he had already given his sandals to the Commander of the believers to put patches on them and Ali was busy patching them.
And like the commands of the Holiness to the followers who greeted the Holiness when he was stating: ‘Peace be upon you, o the Commander of the believers;’ and like many other narratives that, in them, the Messenger of Allah has called not only once, twice, tens but a hundred times, and not only in one session, or two but in many sessions has called the Commander of the believers his inheritor, his minister, his Guardian, his brother, his own soul, his Caliph after him and the Guardian of all the believers. And apart from the forgoing Verses and narratives, there are other Verses which states the status of the Commander of the believers, and there also other narratives that are accepted both by the Sunnite and the Shiite.
All of them have accepted the correctness of those narratives and they have unanimously agreed that the narratives are by the Messenger of Allah; they have explained them in the authentic history books and the commentary documents of them. Now, are these Verses and authentic narratives not enough to prove the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers and his off spring?’
Anyhow, if we do not consider these narratives to be clear texts of proof, then we have not understood the real meaning of the documents. If Gabriel became an orator and announced in the high sky that the Commander of the believers was the Guardian of the Messenger of Allah, they would still say: ‘This is not clear explanation.’ Whoever is familiar with the Sunnite’s books, knows that they are full with the advices of the Commander of the believers and the clarifications of the Messenger of Allah – nevertheless, they say that the Messenger of Allah has not clarified the main subject!
The disbelievers of the Ghuraish always used to see the manifest Verses of the Book and the powerful miracles of the Messenger of Allah which would remove their doubts however, as their nature resisted against them, they did not accept the fact. Therefore, it is stated:
وَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَسْتَمِعُ الَيْكَ وَ جَعَلْنا عَلى قُلُوبِهِمْ أكِنَّةً انْ يَفْقَهُوهُ وَ فى آذانِهِمْ وَقْراً وَ انْ يَرَوْا كُلَّ آيةٍ لُا يؤْمِنُوا بِها حَتّى اذا جاؤُكَ يُجادِلُونَكَ يَقُولُ الَّذينَ كَفَرُوا انْ هذا الّا اساطيرُ الْاوَّلين 
‘… and of them some listen to you, but We have cast veils upon their hearts and made them hard of hearing lest they understand your words; and if they saw any sign, they would not believe in it. When they come to you, they argue with you; the disbelievers say, ‘This [Book] is but no more than the myths of the ancients, (Qur’an: 6/25).’
And it is stated:
وَ انْ يَرَوْا كُلَّ آيَةٍ لُا يؤْمِنُوا بِها وَ انْ يَرَوْا سَبيلَ الرُّ شْدِ لا يَتَّخِذُوهُ سَبيلًا وِ انْ يَرَوْا سَبيلَ الْغَىِّ يَتَّخِذُوهُ سَبيلًا ذلِكَ بِانَّهُمْ كَذَّبُوا بِآياتِنا وَ كانُوا عَنْها غافِلين 
‘… [Even] if they saw the whole revelations, they would still not believe in them. If they saw the way to normal behavior they would not accept it as a way, while if they saw any way to err, they would accept it as a course. That is because they have rejected Our signs and have been unaware of them, (Qur’an: 7/146).’
And this one as:
وَ كَايِّنْ مِنْ آيَةٍ فِى السَّمواتِ وَ الْارْضِ يَمُرُّونَ عَلَيْها وَ هُمْ عَنْها مُعْرِضُونَ وَ ما يؤْمِنُ اكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللهِ الّا وَ هُمْ مُشرِكُون 
‘… How many signs they see in the heavens and on the earth, but they turn away! Most of them do not believe in Allah unless they associate other [deities] with Him, (Qur’an: 12/105-106).’
انَّ الَّذينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ وَ لَوْ جائَتْهُمْ كُلُّ آيَةٍ حَتّى يَرَوُا الْعَذابَ الْاليم 
‘… Surely to those whom your Lord’s word has been confirmed, will not believe, even if every sign comes to them [they do not believe] until they see a painful chastisement [of Allah in front of their eyes], (Qur’an: 10/96-97)!’
Whoever considers the nature and behavior of the Messenger of Allah with the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace then, without doubt, he understands that the Holiness owns the same characters of the Holiness. Thus, Ali’s Caliphate, after the demise of the Messenger, was as clear as crystal – it was as the bright sun in the clear sky.
Abu Bakr and Omar as well as their companions were quite aware of the status of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace. And all the news and recommends of the Messenger of Allah concerning the Guardianship and Caliphate of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, was manifest to them; however, they opposed it, and even without his knowledge, they gathered at Saghifa and invited the people to pay homage to them.
Ibn Hajar Hitami Shafiee says that: ‘Ibn Samman in his book, which is called “Mowafigha”, quotes ibn Abbas who had said:
قالَ: لَمّا جاءَ ابُو بَكْرٍ وَ عَلِىٌّ لِزِيارَةِ قَبْرِ النَّبِىِّ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم بَعْدَ وَفاتِهِ بِسِتَّةِ ايّامٍ، قالَ عَلِىٌّ لِابى بَكْرٍ: تَقَدَّمْ، فَقالَ ابُو بَكْر: لا اتَقَدَّمُ رَجُلًا سَمِعتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم يَقُولُ فيهِ: عَلِىٌّ مِنِّى كَمَنْزِلَتى مِنْ رَبِّى 
Ibn Abbas says: ‘[It was six days after the demise of the Messenger of Allah] when Abu Bakr and Ali went to visit the grave of the Messenger of Allah, there, Ali offered Abu Bakr to enter the saint patch, but Abu Bakr said: ‘I never take a step before a man about whom the Messenger of Allah has stated: “Ali’s relation to me is my relation to my Creator.”’
Mohibb Ad-din Ahamd bin Abdullah Tabari has related this narrative in his two books: “Al-reiaz Nazra” volume 2, page 163 and “Zakhayir al-Oghba” page 64, and them with this phrase, “Ali to me is as me to Allah.”’
And also Mowaffaq bin Ahmad Kharazmi through his document has related from Sha’bi:
قالَ: نَظَرَ ابو بَكْرٍ الى عَلِىِّ بْنِ أَبى طالِبٍ مُقْبِلَا فَقالَ: مَنْ سَرَّهُ انْ يَنْظُرَ الى اقْرَبِ النّاسِ مِنْ رَسُولِ الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم وَ اجْدَرِهِمْ مَنْزِلَةً وَ أَعْظَمِهِمْ عِنْدَ اللهِ عَناءً وَ اعْظَمِهِمْ عَلَيْهِ  فَلْيَنْظُرْ الى هذا- وَ اشارَ الى عَلِىِّ بْنِ ابى طالِبٍ- لِانِّى سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم يَقولُ: انَّهُ لَرَؤُوفٌ بِالنّاسِ وَ انَّهُ لَاوّاهٌ حَليم 
Sha’bi says: ‘While Ali bin Abī Tālib was approaching, Abu Bakr looked at him and said to the gathering: “Whoever likes to see the closest man and the most status and deserving one to the Messenger of Allah, and also the greatest man in the sight of Allah, let him look at this man.” And then, he pointed to Ali bin Abī Tālib and said: ‘That is because I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: “Ali bin Abī Tālib is very kind, tolerant and patient towards people, and he is humble and endlessly praying to Allah.”
Without calling the statement of the Messenger of Allah to witness, Mohibb Ad-din Ahamd bin Abdullah Tabari has also related all this narrative in the “Al-reiaz Nazra”, volume 2, page 163.
Apart from those, Sheikh Solomon Qandouzi has related it in the book of “Mawaddat Al-Ghorba”, by his chain document from Abdullah bin Omar:
انَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم قالَ: خَيْرُ رِجالِكُمْ عَلِىُّ بْنُ ابى طالِبٍ، وَ خَيْرُ شَبابِكُمُ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ، وَ خَيْرُ نِسائِكُمْ فاطِمَةُ بِنْتُ مُحَمَّدٍ- عَلَيهِ الصَّلاةُ وَ السَّلامُ-
‘The Messenger of Allah stated: “The best man among you is Ali bin Abī Tālib, and the best woman among you is Muhammad’s daughter, Fatima; and the best youths of you are Hassan and Hussein.”
And it is narrated from Abdullah bin Omar who said:
قالَ: كُنّا اذا اعْدَدْنا اصْحابَ النَّبِىِّ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم قُلْنا: ابُو بَكْرٍ وَ عُمَرُ وَ عُثْمانُ. فَقالَ رَجُلٌ: يا ابا عَبْدِ الرَّحْمنِ فَعَلِىٌّ ما هُوَ؟ قالَ: عَلِىٌّ مِنْ اهْلِ بَيْتٍ لُا يُقاسُ بِهِ احَدٌ، هُوَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم فى دَرَجَتِهِ. انَّ اللهَ يَقُولُ: «الَّذينَ آمَنُوا وَ اتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُمْ بِايمانٍ الْحَقْنا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ«
فَفاطِمَةُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم فى دَرَجَتِهِ وَ عَلِىٌّ مَعَهُما 
He said: ‘Whenever we counted the companions of the Messenger of Allah we kept just saying: Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman.” But once a man said: “O Aba Abd ar- Rahman, so what about Ali?” Ibn Omar answered him: ‘Ali belongs to a family that no one is comparable unto him on the earth. Ali is at the level of the Messenger of Allah and he is with him,’ Allah states: “Those who have believed and their offspring following them We shall join their offspring to them. Therefore, Fatima, who is the daughter of the Messenger, will join her Holiness father and be at his level – and Ali is with those two.”
Concerning this narrative of bin Omar: ‘Ali belongs to a family that no one is comparable to him on the earth. Ali is at the level of the Messenger of Allah and he is with him’ there are numerous statements of the Messenger of Allah and many sayings of the scholars of the Sunnite and Shiite.
In page 17 of the “Zakhayir al-Oghba”, it is related by Anas bin Malik saying:
قال رسول اللهِ: نحن اهل بيتٍ لا يقاس بِنااحدً
The Holiness Messenger stated: ‘We are of a family that no one is comparable to us.’ And in the “Yanabi al-Mawadda” page 253, after relating this narrative, he has said that: ‘Ahmad bin Muhammad Korzori Baghdadi has said that: “I asked Ahmad bin Hanbal who the best companion was.” He answered: “They are Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman,” and then he kept quiet. I asked: “O my dearest father, so where did Ali bin Abī Tālib go?” He answered: “He is from a family that they cannot be compared with him.”
And also it is narrated in “Kanz al-Ommal” volum 6page 218, from Deilami’s “Firdous al-Akhbar” that:
قال: نحن اهل بيتٍ لا يقس بِنا احدً
‘We are of a family that no one is comparable to us.’
And similarly, Abidullah Hanafi, in his book, “Arja‘- ul-Matalib”, on page 330 from ibn Mardoweha in his book “Managhib” has quoted this narrative, and he says: “
قالَ: عَلِىٌّ عليه السلام عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ: نَحْنُ اهْلُ بَيْتِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم، لا يُقاسُ بِنا احَد
The Holiness Ali bin Abī Tālib stated on the pulpit: “We are the Household of the Messenger of Allah and no one is comparable to us.”
And in the second sermon of Nahj-ul-Balagha, it has been written that the Holiness stated:
لا يُقاسُ بِآلِ مُحَمَدٍ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم مِنْ هذِهِ الْامَّةِ احَد 
‘Among all these people, there is not one to become parable to the Household of Muhammad, Bless be to him and his Descendants.’
And also Kharazmi Hanafi, in his commentary, has narrated from the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, say:
خير من يمشي علي الارضِ بعدي عليّ بن أبي طالبٍ. 
‘The best man after me walking on the earth will be Ali.’
All these are narratives that Abu Bakr, Aisha and Adullah bin Omar have related from the virtue of the Commander of the believers, and apart from these, there are many narratives about the brotherhood of the Messenger of Allah with the Commander of the believers that Omar and Abdullah bin Omar have related.
Mohebb ad-Din Tabari says:
محبّ الدّين طبرى گويد: عَنَ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قالَ: آخى رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم بَيْنَ اصْحابِهِ فَجاءَ عَلِىٌّ تَدْمَعُ عَيْناهُ فَقالَ: يا رَسُولَ اللهِ آخَيْتَ بَيْنَ اصْحابِكَ وَ لَمْ تُواخِ بَيْنى وَ بَيْنَ احَدٍ؟ قال لَهُ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم: انْتَ اخى فِى الدُّنيا وَ الآخِرة.  (ذخاير العقبي ص 66)
Abdullah Omar says: ‘The Messenger of Allah pronounced the brotherhood formula among his companions – he nominated each couple as two brothers. Ali bin Abī Tālib got closer to him in tears and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, you pronounced the brotherhood formula between couple of your companions but except me.’ The Holiness answered: ‘O Ali you are my brother in this world and the world to come.’
After relating this narrative, Mohebb ad-Din Tabari says: ‘Termizi has related this narrative through his chained document, and he has said: ‘It is a good story’, and also “Baghawi” has quoted it in “Masabih”, and he has called it to be of Hisan’ Narratives’
And in another narrative, it is quoted from Imam Ahmad Hanbal:
انَّ النَّبِىَّ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم قالَ لَهُ لَمّا قالَ: آخَيْتَ بَيْنَ اصْحابِكَ و تَرَكْتَنى؟ قالَ: وَ لِمَ تَرانى تَرَكْتُكَ؟ انّما تَرَكْتُكَ لِنَفْسى، انْتَ اخى وَ انَا اخُوك 
‘As the Commander of the believers told the Messenger of Allah, “O Messenger of Allah, you pronounced the brotherhood formula between couple of your companions but except me.” The Holiness answered him: “What! Do you ever think why I have left you on your own? I have kept you for me, you are my brother and so am I yours.”
وَ عَنْ عَلِىٍّ عليه السلام قالَ: طَلَبَنِى النَّبِىُّ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم فَوَجَدَنى فى حائِطٍ نائِماً فَضَرَبَنى بِرِجْلِهِ وَ قالَ: قُمْ فَوَ اللهِ لَارْضِيَنَّكَ، انْتَ اخى وَ ابُو وُلْدى، تُقاتِلُ عَلى سُنَّتى، مَنْ ماتَ عَلى عَهْدى فَهُوَ فى كَنْز الْجَنَّةِ، وَ مَنْ ماتَ عَلى عَهْدِكَ فَقَدْ قَضى نَحْبَهُ، وَ مَنْ ماتَ عَلى دينِكَ بَعْدَ مَوتِكَ خَتَمَ اللهُ لَهُ بالْامْنِ وَ الْايمانِ ما طَلَعَتْ شَمسٌ اوْ غَرَبَتْ. اخرجه احمد 
The Holiness Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, said: ‘The Messenger of Allah was in my search until he found me sleeping in a garden, then, he gently touched me with his toes and said: “O Ali wake up, by Allah, I shall make you be satisfied. You are my brother and also the father for my offspring; it is you who are going to fight to support and stable my laws and traditions. Whoever dies, but loyal to my covenant, then his place is in paradise, and he, who dies, but loyal to your covenant, has carried out the priority dues of Allah. And whoever dies in the manners and the priority dues of you, after your passing away, so long as the heavens and the earth exist and sun rises and sets in the horizon, Allah will bless his ending part and enters him in paradise.”
وَ عَنْ جابِرِ بْنِ عَبدِ اللهِ اْلانْصارِىِّ قالَ: عَلى بابِ الْجَنَّةِ مَكْتُوبُ: لا الهَ الَّا اللهُ، محمّدٌ رَسُولُ اللهِ، عَلِىٌّ اخُو رَسُولِ اللهِ. وَ فى روايَةٍ: مَكْتُوبٌ عَلى بابِ الْجَنَّةِ: محمّدٌ رَسُولُ اللهِ، عَلِىٌّ اخُو رَسُولِ اللهِ، قَبْلَ انْ تُخْلَقَ السَّماواتُ وَ الْارْضُ بِالْفَىْ سَنَةٍ (اخْرَجَهُما احْمَدُ فِى الْمَناقِبِ) 
Ahmad bin Hanbal, in his documents, relates from Abdullah Ansari quoting that the Messenger of has stated, ‘It is written on the gate of paradise: “There is no deity except Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, Ali is the brother of the Messenger of Allah;” and it is separately written on the gate of paradise: “Muhammad [had been] the Messenger of Allah, and Ali the brother of the Messenger of Allah even two thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth.” (Ahmad extracted them from ‘al-Managhib, and the source is ‘Zakhayir al-Oghba, page 66)
And ibn Kathir says:
وَ آخاهُ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم مَرَّتَيْنِ، فَانَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ آخى بَيْنَ الْمُهاجِرينَ ثُمَّ آخى بَيْنَ الْمُهاجِرينَ وَ الْانْصارِ بَعْدَ الْهِجْرَةِ وَ قالَ لِعَلىٍّ فى كُلِّ واحِدةٍ مِنْهُما: انْتَ اخى فِى الدُّنْيا وَ الْآخِرَة 
Once more, the Holiness Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, pronounced the brotherhood formula with the Commander of the believers, it was because once, the Holiness had pronounced the brotherhood formula with him among the Immigrants in Mecca, and now once again among the Immigrant and the supporters in Medina. In both of them, the Holiness stated Ali: ‘You are my brother in this world and the world to come.’”
And Qandouzi Hanafi, in his ‘documentary’ related to Makhduj bin Zaid al-Hozli, has stated from Ahmad bin Hanbal who said:
قالَ: انَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم آخى بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمينَ ثُمَّ قالَ: يا عَلىُّ انْتَ اخى وَ انْتَ مِنّى بِمَنْزَلَةِ هارُونَ مِنْ مُوسى الّا انَّهُ لَا نَبِىَّ بَعْدى- الى انْ قالَ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم:- ثُمَّ يُنادى الْمُنادى مِنْ عِنْدِ الْعَرْشِ: نِعْمَ الْابُ ابُوكَ ابْراهيمُ، وَ نِعْمَ الْاخ اخوك علی. 
‘The Messenger of Allah pronounced the brotherhood formula for the Muslims and then stated: ‘O Ali, you are my brother, and your status and position with me a s the status and position of Aaron to Moses; the only exception is that, after my demise, there will be no messenger, (otherwise, you would be a messenger after me as Aaron’s position was as a messenger).’ Then, the Messenger added: ‘On the Day of Resurrection, the caller, at the Firmament of Allah, will address to me: “O Messenger of Allah, how nice your father, Abraham, is; and how good your brother, Ali, is!”’
And also it is said that: on the Day of Council, the extracted phrase from the saying of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, was the case of brotherhood.
انْشُدُكُمُ اللهَ ... هَلْ تَعْلَمُونَ ... انَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ قالَ بَعْدَ ما رَجَعَ مِنَ السَّماءِ لَيْلَةً اسْرِىَ بِهِ: فَلَمّا رَجَعْتُ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ نادى مُنادٍ مِنْ وَراءٍ الْحُجُبِ: نِعْمَ الْابُ ابُوكَ ابْراهيمُ، وَ نِعْمَ اْلاخُ اخُوكَ عَلِىٌّ، وَ اسْتَوْصى بِهِ؟ قالُوا: نَعَم.
That is, on the Day of Council, the Holiness made the gathering swear to Allah concerning witnessing his virtue, as: ‘I swear by Allah, do lend me your ears to know what the Messenger of Allah said on that Ascension Night when he returned. He stated: ‘when I was returning from the Presence of Allah, the Divine’s Announcer, from behind the screens, proclaimed me: “Well done! How nice father as Abraham, and how good brother as Ali you have!” And now, tell me, did the Holiness enjoin you concerning our brotherhood?’ They all answered, ‘Yes, he did.’
And more over, ibn Sabbaq Maliki has narrated from Zeia ad-Din Kharazmi that he has narrated from Abbas:
قالَ: لَمّا آخى رَسُولُ اللهِ بَيْنَ اصْحابِهِ مِنَ الْمُهاجِرينَ وَ الْانْصارِ وَ هُوَ انَّهُ آخى بَيْنَ ابى بَكْر وَ عُمَرَ، وَ آخى بَيْنَ عُثْمانَ وَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ، وَ آخى بَيْنَ طَلْحَةَ وَ الزُّبَيْرِ، وَ آخى بَيْنَ ابى ذَرٍّ الْغِفارىِّ وَ الْمِقْدادِ وَ لَمْ يُواخِ بَيْنَ عَلِىِّ بْنِ ابى طالِبٍ وَ بَيْنَ احَدٍ مِنْهُمْ خَرَجَ عَلِىٌّ مُغْضِباً حَتّى اتى جَدْوَلًا مِنَ الْارْضِ وَ تَوَسَّدَ ذِراعَهُ وَ نامَ فيهِ، تَسْفِى الرِّيحُ عَلَيْهِ، فَطَلَبَهُ النَّبِىُّ فَوَجَدَهُ عَلى تِلْكَ الصِّفَةِ فَوَكَزَهُ بِرِجْلِهِ وَ قالَ لَهُ: قُمْ فَما صَلَحْتَ الّا انْ تَكُونَ ابا تُرابٍ، اغَضِبْتَ حينَ آخَيْتُ بَيْنَ الْمُهاجِرينَ وَ الْانْصارِ وَ لَمْ اواخِ بَيْنَكَ وَ بَيْنَ احَدٍ مِنْهُمْ؟ اما تَرْضى انْ تَكُونَ مِنّى بِمَنْزِلَةِ هارونَ مِنْ مُوسى الّا انَّهُ لا نَبِىَّ بَعْدى. الا مَنْ احَبَّكَ فَقَدْ حُفَّ بِالْامْنِ وَ الْايمانِ، وَ مَنْ ابْغَضَكَ اماتَهُ اللهُ ميتَةً جاهِليَّة  (الفصول المهمّة، صفحة ۲۲)
In short, he says, the Holiness Messenger of Allah pronounced the brotherhood formula between Abu Bakr and Omar, and Othman and Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auff, and between Talha and Zubair, and Abizar and Meqdad but he did not pronounce the brotherhood of Ali with anyone. Therefore, the Commander of the believers, who was expecting to be nominated as a brother to one, left the assembly. He walked for a while, and then feeling sleepy, he lay on the ground and while using his hands as the cushion he fell asleep – it was blowing and the wind was sweeping the chips, thorn and thistles upon his face. The Holiness Messenger too left the place to look for Ali, after a while he caught sight of him sleeping on the ground while the chips and thistles covering his face. He gently touched Ali with his toes saying: “O Ali, stand up, you deserve not being the friend of the chips and thistles. Were you disappointed that I pronounced the brotherhood formula among the Immigrants and the Supporters but leaving you on your own alone? Do you not like your position with me to be as the position of Aaron with Moses with only exception that there is no messenger after me? You should know that anyone who loves you is secured and lives in safety, and whoever shows hatred to you Allah will send him to death similar to the ignorance.
And ibn Moghazili Shafiee by his document narrates from Zeid bin Arqam who said:
قالَ: انِّى مُواخٍ بَيْنَكُمْ كَما آخَى اللهُ بَيْنَ الْمَلائِكَةِ، ثُمَّ قالَ لِعَلِىٍّ: انْتَ اخى وَ رَفيقى، ثُمَّ تَلا هذِهِ الْآيَةَ: «اخْواناً عَلى سُرُرٍ مُتَقابِلين» الْاخِلّاءُ فِى اللهِ يَنْظُرُ بَعْضُهُمْ الى بَعْض 
I went to the Messenger of Allah and told me: ‘I am going to pronounce the brotherhood formula among you as Allah has done so among the angels.’ Then, he turned to Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, saying: ‘You are my brother and friend.’ Then, he recited this Verse: “[In paradise,] the brothers are leaning back on the couches; they are sitting face to face”. Some of the devout friends, whose affections are only to Allah, are watching some others.
And also ibn Moghazili relates that Hozaifa bin hg-Yaman has said:
قالَ: آخى رَسُولُ اللهِ بَيْنَ الْمُهاجِرينَ وَ الْانْصارِ، كانَ يُواخى بَيْنَ الرَّجُلِ وَ نَظيرِهِ، ثُمَّ اخَذَ بِيَدِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ ابى طالِبٍ فَقالَ: هذا اخى. قالَ حُذَيْفَةُ: فَرَسُولُ اللهِ سيّد الْمُرْسَلينَ وَ امامُ الْمُتَّقينَ وَ رَسُولُ رَبِّ الْعالَمينَ الَّذى لَيْسَ لَهُ شِبْهٌ وَ لا نَظيرٌ، وَ عَلِىٌّ اخُوه 
The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, pronounced the brotherhood formula among the Immigrants and the Supporters; he did so by matching two similar persons to make a couple. In the end, he held Ali on his hand and stated: ‘Now, this is my brother.’ Hozaifa says: ‘Thus, the Messenger of Allah is the Master among the messengers and so is he the Imam of the pious and the Envoy of Allah to the entire world – there is not any comparable to him, and Ali ibn Abī Tālib is his brother.’
This means that Ali’s attributions are similar to the attributions of the Messenger of Allah, and this is the min necessity of the brotherhood.
Similarly, Abdullah bin Ahmad Hanbal by means of his document, as well as Mowaffaq bin Ahmad Kharazmi with his own document  and Hamyawi also through his document , all three have narrated from Zaid bin Oufi, and also another document from Hamyawi  have been narrated from Zaid bin Arqam with a minor difference in text, that he had said:
قالَ: دَخَلْتُ عَلى رَسُولِ اللهِ مَسْجِدَهُ فَقالَ: ايْنَ فُلانٍ بْنُ فُلانٍ، فَجَعَلَ يَنْظُرُ فى وُجُوهِ اصْحابِهِ وَ يَتَفَقَّدُهُمْ وَ يَبْعَثُ الَيْهِمْ حَتّى تَوافَقُوا عِنْدهُ، فَحَمِدَ اللهَ وَ اثْنى عَلَيْهِ، وَ آخى بَيْنَهُمْ.- وَ ذَكَرَ حَديثَ الْمُؤاخاةِ بَيْنَهُمْ- فَقالَ عَلىٌّ عليه السلام: لَقَدْ ذَهَبَ رُوحى وَ انْقَطَعَ ظَهْرى حينَ رَايْتُكَ فَعَلْتَ بِاصْحابَك ما فَعَلْتَ غَيْرى، فَانْ كانَ هذا عَنْ سَخَطٍ عَلَىَّ فَلَكَ الْعُتْبى وَ الْكَرامَةُ. فَقالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ: وَ الَّذى بَعَثَنى بِالْحَقَّ ما اخَّرْتُكَ الّا لِنَفْسى، وَ انْتَ مِنّى بِمَنْزِلَةِ هارونَ مِنْ مُوسى غَيْرَ انَّهُ لا نَبِىَّ بَعْدى، وَ انْتَ اخى وَ وارِثى. قالَ: وَ ما ارِثُ يا رَسُولَ اللهِ؟ قالَ: ما وَرَّثَ الْانْبِياءُ مِنْ قَبْلى. قالَ: وَ ما وَرَّثَ الْانْبِياءُ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ؟ قالَ: كِتابَ اللهَ وَ سُنَّةَ نَبِيِّهِ. وَ انْتَ مَعى فِى قَصْرى فِى الْجَنَّةِ مَعَ ابْنَتى فاطِمَةَ، وَ انْتَ اخى وَ رَفيقى، ثُمَّ تَلا رَسُولُ اللهِ: «اخْواناً عَلى سُرُرٍ مُتَقابِلينَ» الْمُتَحابُّونَ فِى اللهِ يَنْظُرُ بَعْضُهُمْ الى بَعْض.
Thus, Zaid bin Arqam says: ‘I arrived at the mosque to the Messenger of Allah and he stated: “Where is such and such?” Then, he looked at his companions one by one and greeted them, and in the mean time, asked them about those who were not present. Then, he sent one of them to find out why they had not come to the mosque. He carried the order and some later, when they arrived, the Holiness, first recited “the Chapter of Opening” then pronounced the brotherhood formula among each pair of them. The Commander of the believers had the honour to inform the Holiness: ‘O, the Messenger of Allah, by seeing that which you carried out with your companions I was nearly losing my soul, I couldn’t simply sit and watch. You pronounced the brotherhood formulas among them but left me on my own; if you are oppressed with me then, you are so great to forgive me.’ The Holiness Messenger of Allah stated: “I swear by very Allah who has created me with truth, I did postpone it intentionally because I have surely kept you for me. Your position to me is as the position of Aaron to Moses but the only exception is that there is no messenger after me: you are my brother and my inheritor.”
The Commander of the believers said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, what am I going to inherit from you?’ The Holiness stated: “You are going to inherit that which the previous messengers left for their executors.”
The Commander of the believers said: ‘What did those messengers left for their executors?’
The Holiness stated: “They left for them the Book of Allah and the laws and rules of the messengers of Allah. O Ali, you are going to be with me in paradise, you are to settle in my fortress with Fatima, because you are my brother and my friend.” Then, the Holiness recited this Verse:
«اخْواناً عَلى سُرُرٍ مُتَقابِلينَ» الْمُتَحابُّونَ فِى اللهِ يَنْظُرُ بَعْضُهُمْ الى بَعْض.
“[In paradise,] the brothers are leaning back on the couches; they are watching at one another.”
And also in the Book of “Al-Ferdos” through his own document, he has narrated from Abuzar:
اسْنَدَ ظَهْرَهُ الَى الْكَعْبَةِ فَقالَ: ايُّهَا النّاسُ هَلُمُّوا احَدِّثْكُمْ عَنْ نَبِيِّكُمْ. سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ يَقُولُ لِعَلىٍّ عليه السلام: اللّهُمَّ اغْفِرْهُ وَ اسْتَغْفِرْ بِهِ، اللّهُمَّ انْصُرْهُ وَ انْتَصِرْ بِهِ فَانَّهُ عَبْدُكَ وَ اخُو رَسُولِك 
Abuzar Qaffari leaned back against the House of Allah and then said: ‘O people, lend your ears to me so that I relate a story of your Messenger to you. I heard it from the Messenger of Allah, he, while pointing to Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, implored: “O my Creator, cast Your mercy upon him, and for the sake of him, forgive the sins of my nation. O Lord, support him, and for the sake of him, prosper Your Religion – He is Your obedient worshipper and so is he my brother.”’
And it is related from ibn Abi al-Hahid that he had said:
اتَيْتُ ابا ذَرٍّ بِالرٍّبَذَةِ اوَدِّعُهُ فَلَمّا ارَدْتُ الْانْصِرافَ قالَ لى وَ لِاناسٍ مَعى: سَتَكُونُ فِتْنَةٌ فَاتَّقُوا اللهَ وَ عَلَيْكَ بِالشَّيْخِ عَلِىِّ بْنِ ابى طالِبٍ فَاتَّبِعُوهُ فَانِّى سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ يَقُولُ لَه: انْتَ اوَّلُ مَنْ آمَنَ بى وَ اوَّلُ مَنْ يُصافِحُنى يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ، وَ انْتَ الصِّدِّيقُ الْاكْبَرُ وَ الْفارُوقُ الَّذى يُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ الْحَقِّ وَ الْباطِلِ، وَ انْتَ يَعْسُوبُ الْمُؤْمِنينَ وَ الْمالُ يَعْسُوبُ الْكافِرينَ، وَ انْتَ اخى وَ وَزيرى وَ خَيْرُ مَنْ اتْرُكُ بَعْدى تَقْضى دَيْنى وَ تُنْجِزُ مَوْعِدى 
Abu Rafi relates of ibn Abi as-Hadid saying: ‘For bidding farewell, Abuzar and I went to Rabaza. Then when I wanted to leave him, a group who was with us told me: “Before long a sedition will erupt, fear Allah, and do not ignore Sheikh Ali ibn Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, and only follow him; because, I heard the Messenger of Allah saying to Ali: ‘You are the first man who has paid homage to me, and you are going to be the first one who is going to handshake with me, and you are the greatest friend , you are the distinguisher of the truth from falsehood; you are the leader and the chief of the Muslims but the worldly matters belong to the unbelievers. You are my brother, and my minister; and you are the best one who is going to live after me. It is you who are going to furnish my course and you are going to fulfill my covenant.”’
And also, in “Nahj-ul-Balagha”, ibn al-Hadid has related from Hakim bin Jabir:
قالَ: خَطَبَ عَلِىٌّ عليه السلام فَقالَ فى اثْناءِ خُطْبَتِهِ: انَا عَبْدُ اللهِ وَ اخُو رَسُولِهِ لا يَقُولُها احَدٌ قَبْلى وَ لا بَعْدى الّا كَذّابٌ، وَرِثْتُ نَبِىَّ الرَّحْمَةِ و نكَحْتُ سيّدةَ نِساءِ هذِهِ الْامَّةِ، وَ انَا خاتَمُ الْوَصِيِّينَ. وَ قالَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ عَنْس: مِنْ لا يُحْسِنُ انْ يَقُولَ مِثْل هذا؟ فَلَمْ يَرْجِعُ الى اهْلِهِ حَتّى جُنَّ وَ صُرِعَ، فُسُأَلُوهُمْ هَلْ رَايْتُمْ بِهِ قَبْلَ هذا، قالُوا: ما رَايْنا بِهِ قَبْلَ هذا عَرَضاً. 
Ali, upon him be peace, was lecturing when he stopped his sermon for a while and stated: ‘I am the obedient worshippers of Allah and the brother of the Messenger of Allah, and no one has ever expressed this word before nor will he express it after me unless he is a liar. I have inherited the Messenger of compassion, and I have married the crown lady of this nation and I am the seal of the Guardians.’
In the middle of his pitch of speech, a man, from the tribe of Anas, objected him by saying: ‘How dear you say that no one can say this word?’
But, woe! The man became mad and turned to epileptic as soon as he returned to his family! Later one, his family was asked if the man had any sign of madness before, but they answered: “We have never noticed such insanity of him before.”’
And Sheikh-ul-Islam Hamwini has related this story with little differences from Zeid ibn Wahab. 
And also Ahmad bin Hanba,l in his document, has narrated it from Omar bin Abdullah, his father from his grandfather that:
انَّ النَّبِىَّ آخى بَيْنَ النّاسِ وَ تَرَكَ عَلِيّاً حَتّى آخِرهِمْ لا يَرى لَهُ اخاً. فَقالَ: يا رَسُولَ اللهِ! آخَيْتَ بَيْنَ النّاسِ وَ تَرَكْتَنى؟ قالَ: وَ لمَنْ تَرانى تَرَكْتُكَ؟ وَ انَّما تَرَكْتُكَ لِنَفْسى، انْتَ اخى وَ انَا اخُوكَ، فَانْ فاخَرَكَ احَدٌ فَقُلْ: انَا عَبْدُ اللهِ و اخُو رَسُولِ اللهِ، لا يَدَّعيها بَعْدَكَ الّا كَذّاب.
The Messenger of Allah pronounced the brotherhood formula among the people, all of them, but except for Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, who was left on his own. Therefore, the Holiness, Commander of the believers asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah, you pronounced the brotherhood formula among all the people present here but except me.’ He answered: “Who do you think I have kept you wait for? I have kept you for myself. You are my brother and so am I your brother. If anyone prides himself against you tell him: ‘I am the obedient worshipper of Allah and so am I the Messenger’s brother.’ No one can be proud of this kind of brotherhood except he lies.”
And ibn al-Moqazeli Abul Hassan al-Faqih relates, by means of his document, from Anas that when he heard the news of “pronouncing the brotherhood formula” among the people, and, on the other hand, the depression of the Commander of the believers for not being attended by the Messenger of Allah, he says:
قالَ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم: انَّما ذَخَرْتُكَ لِنَفْسى، الا يَسُرُّكَ انْ تَكُونَ اخا نَبِيِّكَ؟ قالَ: بَلى يا رَسُولَ اللهِ انّى لى بِذلِكَ؟ فَاخَذَ بِيَدِهِ وَ ارْقاهُ الْمِنْبَرَ فَقالَ: اللّهُمَّ هذا مِنّى وَ انَا مِنْهُ، الا انَّهُ مِنّى بِمَنْزِلَةِ هارُونَ مِنْ مُوسى، الا مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلاهُ فَهذا عَلِىٌّ مَوْلاهُ. قالَ: فَانْصَرَفَ عِلىٌّ عليه السلام قَريرَ الْعَيْنِ فَاتْبَعَهُ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطّابِ فَقالَ: بَخْ بَخْ يا ابَا الْحَسَنِ اصْبَحْتَ مَوْلاىَ وَ مَوْلى كُلِّ مُسْلِم.
The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, stated to the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace: ‘I have kept you for me, are you not happy to be the brother of the Holiness Messenger?’ He said: ‘Yes, of course, o the Messenger of Allah, then, have I such a chance?’ The Messenger of Allah hold him on his hand and ascended the pulpit and praised Allah by saying: “O my Creator, this is from me and I am from him. O people know that his position and status to me is as the position and the status of Aaron to Moses; be aware that whomsoever I am Master so is this Ali his Guardian and Master.”’
Anas says: ‘When Ali, bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, was cheerfully leaving the Holiness, Omar came out of the mosque and while following Ali, said: ‘Well done, o Abu al-Hassan, you are my Master and the Master of all the Muslims.’
And Abdullah Ahmad bin Hanbal, by means of his document, narrates from the Commander of the believers that:
قالَ: جَمَعَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (اوْ دَعا رَسُولُ اللهِ) بَنى عَبْدِ الْمُطَلِّبِ فيهِمْ رَهْطٌ كُلُّهُمْ يَأكُلُ الْجَذَعَةَ وَ يَشْرَبُ الْفَرَقَ. قالَ: فَصَنَعَ لَهُمْ مُدّاً مِنْ طَعامٍ فَاكَلُوا حَتّى شَبِعُوا. قالَ: وَ بَقِىَ الطَّعامُ كَما هُوَ كَانُّه لَمْ يُمَسَّ، ثُمَّ دَعا بِغُمَرٍ فَشَرِبُوا حَتّى رَوُوا وَ بَقِىَ الشَّرابُ كَانَّهُ لَمْ يُمَسَّ وَ لَمْ يُشْرَبْ مِنْهُ. فَقالَ: يا بَنى عَبْدِ الْمُطَلِّبِ انِّى بُعِثْتُ إِلَيكُمْ خاصَّةً وَ الَى النّاسِ عَامّة، وَ قَدْ رَايْتُمْ مِنْ هذِهِ الْآيَةِ ما قَدْ رَايْتُمْ فَايُّكُمْ يُبايِعُنى عَلى انْ يَكُونَ اخى وَ صاحِبى؟ قالَ: فَلَمْ يَقُمْ الَيْهِ احَدٌ، فَلَمّا كانَ فِى الثّالِثَةِ ضَرَبَ بِيَدِهِ عَلى يَدى.
‘When the Prophet was charged by Allah to forewarn his close relatives, he brought the children of Abdul Mottalib together; there were among them a few men that each of them ate a lamb and drank a big pitcher of wine as a meal. The Holiness provided them just a portion of food, they ate to fill their stomachs and drank as much as they desired but in the end, it looked as if they had not touched the food or drink.
After lunch, the Holiness stated: ‘O the children of Abdul Mottalib, I have been charged by Allah as the missionary towards you as well as the other people. And right now, you witnessed the sign and the miracle of mine. Now, who is going to swear allegiance with me, to be my brother and companion?’
‘No one answered him, then for the third time he repeated his word even louder, again no one replied him except me; it was then he accepted my word and held my hand in his to pay homage to him.’
We did explain the story of the clan in our earlier lesson in, and it was clear that on that day, the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, was chosen as the Minister, brother, the Caliph and the Guardian of the Messenger.
Anyhow, these narratives which we have mentioned so far, are a small portions of the narrative have been related in this ground so far.
The late Sayyid Hashim Bahrani in “The Ghāyat al-Maram” has related numerous narratives concerning the brotherhood of the Commander of the believers with the Messenger of Allah: twenty-one of them are the common narratives in page 478, and five specific narratives in page 481. And there are 38 common narratives, in Page 482, and 34 specific narratives in page 486 about that the Holiness Messenger of Allah has been the brother of the Commander of the believers. And apart from them, most common scholars, like Termizi, in his “Sahih” and Baghawi in “Masabih al-Sonnah”, and ibn Kathir in the “Bedaya wa al-Hedaya”, and Molla Ali Mottaghi Hanafi in “The Kanz al-A’mal”, and great many of the Hanafi and Shafiee writers , and ibn Kathir in “Osdol Ghaya”, and Mowaffagh bin Ahmad Hanafi Kharazmi in “Managhib”, and Ahmad bin Hanbal in the “Mosnad, and Ibrahim bin Muhammad Hamwini Shafiee in the “Faraed al-Mosmatin” all have been published. And also Muhammad bin Talha Shafiee has narrated it in “Matalib as Sowl” and the son of ibn Jozi in his “Tazkera”, and ibn Sabbaq Maliki in the “Fosol al-Mohemmah”, and Muhebb ad-Din Tabari in the “Zakhyir al-Oghba”, and Jamal ad-Din Muhammad bin Yusuf Zarandi Hanafi in “Dorar al-Samtin” have narrated it along with some others.
All the narratives that have been related about brotherhood are by the common narrators and the Sunnite’s books, but those which they have specifically related in this field are recorded in their books. They are numerous and are out of our discussion, because we are to quote the specific ones.
Sayyid Ismaeel Himyari has said:
فَتًى اخَوَاهُ الْمُصْطَفى خَيْرُ مُرْسَلٍ وَ خَيْرُ شَهيدٍ ذُو الْجَناحَيْنِ جَعْفَر 
‘The Commander of the believers is a generous youth that one of his two brothers is Mostafa, the best of the Messengers; and another is the best of the Duljahin Martyrs, Ja‘far Tayyar.’
By considering the quality of the brotherhood which he Holiness pronounced among the people their natures can be assessed, because this brotherhood, which has been pronounced with the hands of the determined Messenger, everything has taken into consideration. Therefore, the Holiness Messenger pronounced the brotherhood formula between Abu Bakr and Omar, Othman and Abdur Rahman bin Auf, and Talha bin Abidullah and Zabir bin al-Awwam, Abizar al-Ghaffari and Meghdad bin Amru, Mwaweya bin Abi Sefyan and Hobab bin Yazid al-Majashiee.  However, there is a secret in pronouncing the brotherhood between the two, the Commander of the believers and the Holiness himself which will be attended and clarified in this discussion and the following later on.
It is obvious that this brotherhood formula was not superficial and ceremonial but it was of the true spiritual connection, because the Commander of the believers asked the Holiness Messenger: “Why did you not assign someone as a brother for me?’ And to his question, the Holiness states: ‘What! Do you have any brother other than I am? Or you feel like another one to be your brother; I have picked you up for me.’ This kind of rightful and sincere connection denotes to a certain unity which is original and has popped up from the root, it has been divided from one single base and has been formed in the similar wombs. So is the holy spirit of the Messenger of Allah and the purified soul of the Commander of the believers, upon them be peace, they have been emanated from the World of Light, the Monotheism.
And on this basis are some narratives about the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, which we explained already, that is, he had stated: ‘Ali and I were created from a certain single light, that light used to shift from the loins to loins until it reached to the Holiness Abdul Muttalib where it divided into two: a part of it transferred to Abdullah and the next part to Abu Tālib. Then, Allah’s Messenger was shaped by the Abdullah’s part of light and the Executer of the Messenger from Abu Tālib – he is the seal of the prophets and this is the seal of the Guardians.’
And we also related some narratives that that Highness sated: ‘Ali and I have been created by a certain single tree and the rest people from the different trees.’ He also stated; ‘and the other messengers from some trees else.’ And we explained that there were many narratives denoting the souls of those two Holinesses, as he stated: ‘Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, is just my soul, that is, he is similar to me.’
However, this harmony of taste and method which has been between those two greatest nobles was apparent all the time – it was due to their unity light and the Divine nature. This is an important matter, it is as two brothers having two different figures but from a single origin, those two humanity Leaders were two different bodes originated from one peace of Light and Fact. Therefore, Huzaifi says: ‘as the Messenger of Allah has stated: “Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, is my brother,” therefore, the Messenger of Allah, who is the Master of the messengers, and the Imam of the pious and the Messenger of Lord of the Worlds has not alike among the people to be called his brother; similarly, Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, is also the Master of the Executor, the Imam of the pious and assigned by the Lord of the worlds and there is no one to resemble him – ’ Huzaifi has interpreted this from the very meaning of the brotherhood. An authentic proof to this interpretation is that Messenger has stated, ‘It is written on the gate of paradise: “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and Ali is his brother” Paradise is the world of fact and meaning, and so is it the revealer of the secrets – the Messenger of Allah and Allah’s assigned Executor have been there, or even at a position higher than that.
Therefore, the Messenger of Allah stated: ‘Two thousand years before, Ali’s friendship [with me] was written on the gate of paradise.” This span of time, denotes to the high position where the unity of these two Holy Spirits existed.
And also another witness is that the Messenger of Allah has related it in many of his narratives that he has time and again stated: ‘O Ali, you are my brother in this world and the Next; in this world which is the place for the manifests, and the world to come for the secrets. That is, in this world, you are my brother in announcing the religion, struggling for the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an, preparing [the people] for jihad and earning knowledge and similar things; and also in the Hereafter, you are my brother in the point of view of knowledge, unity, the good attributions, patience, forgiveness and other similar features.’
And the fairest utterance of the Holiness, in all his narratives, is that he has stated: ‘You are my brother and so are my friend, you are always my good companion.’ And as the emphasis on this subject, the Highness has stated: ‘You are my brother and so am I your brother;’ it is obvious that the second “phrase” ‘so am I your brother’ is redundant, because when one is brother to another, that another automatically becomes the brother to the first one – it needs no repetition. However, the Holiness Messenger of Allah wants to emphasize it to wipe away any doubts about it.
Therefore, he stated: ‘Whoever lives and dies in your religion remains in safety and he is secured; in fact, until the sun rises and sets and the world is going to exist, the believers in your religion and your followers are in bliss, and they are secured. However, he who hates you and dies, Allah will take him as the people of ignorance. That is, those who have no connection with you are unaware of Islam; those who do not know you, they actually know me not. Those who hate you in fact, they are enemies to me; and those who reject you and deny you, they actually reject and hate me!’
Following this fact of brotherhood, the Holiness Messenger of Allah mentioned the real meaning of Ministry; he compared it with the brotherhood and the Ministry of Aaron, Moses’ brother – except there would be not messenger after him. All through his life, the Holiness Messenger compared the Holiness Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, with Aaron to Moses in everything: in appearance, spiritually, Guardianship and Ministry, the brotherhood, perception in secrets. Next, he stated: ‘You are the greatest truth, you are as the criterion, it is you who are going to support my religion, and taking the responsibility of announcing it, you are fulfilling my promises, you are actually similar to me - whatever I can do, you can do the same thing.’
Another witness is that he stated: ‘This is the greatest proud for you. After my death, if anyone is going to show his proud against you, tell him: ‘I am the slave of Allah and the brother of the Messenger of Allah; know that no one except you dears to say so – no one has the courage to claim so but those who lie.’
Anyhow, this brief discussion that we have gone through so far was from the point of the “Jurisprudence of Narratives” so that the brotherhood of the Holiness to become clear. The statements that the Holiness Messenger has expressed following “You are my brother… ”, are as: my Executor, my Minister, as well as: in this world and the Hereafter, or as: you are the Greatest Truth, and: you are the supporter of my religion and the fulfiller of my debt [toward the religion].
Therefore, it can certainty be said that: the position of the brotherhood for the Commander of the believers is greater than other positions. It is because the position of the Caliphate, Ministry, Guardianship, Executor and many more rises from one original fact that is: sincerity and brotherhood. Apart from the position of servitude to Allah, there is no other position higher than that; that is why the Messenger of says: ‘after my demise, say to your objectors: “I am the slave of Allah and the brother of the Messenger.”
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Quite right! These reports of the Messenger of Allah are the hidden secrets and the Divine Facts because no one has ever rejected the brotherhood of the Holiness with the Messenger of Allah – except Omar. It was when, in such appalling condition, they brought the Commander of the believers to the mosque to pay homage. There, Omar turned to him saying: ‘By Allah, if you do not swear allegiance with Abu Bakr, I shall behead you.’ Thus, the Holiness said: ‘In that case, you are going to kill the slave of Allah and the brother of the Messenger of Allah.’ Omar said, ‘We believe your being the slave of Allah but reject your brotherhood with the Messenger of Allah.’
Ibn Ghatiba says:
فَاخْرَجُوا عَلِيّاً فَمَضَوْا بِهِ الى ابى بَكْرٍ فَقالوُا لَهُ: بايِعْ، فَقالَ: انْ انَا لَمْ افْعَلْ فَمَهْ؟ قالُوا: اذَنْ وَ اللهِ الذَّى لا الهَ الّا هُوَ نَضْرِبُ عُنُقَكَ. قالَ: اذاً تَقْتُلُونَ عَبْدَ اللهِ وَ اخا رَسُولِهِ، قالَ عُمَرُ: امّا عَبْدُ الله فَنَعَمْ، وَ امّا اخُو رَسُولِهِ فَلا، وَ ابُو بَكْرٍ ساكِتٌ لا يَتَكَلّمُ، فَقالَ لَهُ عُمَرُ: ألا تَأْمُرُ فيهِ بامْرِكَ؟ فَقالَ: لا أُكْرِهُهُ عَلى شَىْءٍ ما كانَتْ فاطِمَةُ الى جَنْبِهِ، فَلَحِقَ عَلِىٌّ بِقَبْرِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم يَصيحُ وَ يَبْكى، وَ يُنادى «: يَا بْنَ امَّ انَّ الْقَوْمَ اسْتَضْعَفُونى وَ كادُوا يَقْتُلُونَنى.
‘[Amru and his companions] attacked Ali’s house and dragged him out of the house and took him to Abu Bakr. There, they told him to pay homage. Ali replied: ‘What! If I do not pay homage, what are you going to do with me?’ They said: ‘By Allah that there is no deity but He, we shall behead you.’ Ali, upon him be peace, said: ‘In that case, you are going to kill the slave of Allah and the brother of the Messenger of Allah.’ Omar said, ‘We believe your being the slave of Allah but we reject your brotherhood with the Messenger of Allah.’ In the mean time, Abu Bakr was quiet and saying nothing. So, Omar objected him: ‘Do you not carry out your command against Ali?’ Abu Bakr said: ‘As long as Fatima is beside him and she is supporting him I am not going to oblige him to swear allegiance.’
It was then the Commander of the believers dropped himself on the grave of the Messenger of Allah and started crying aloud and (while considering the statement of the Messenger of Allah about his brotherhood with him and the his comparison as Ali was to the Messenger as Aaron was for Moses) and said: ‘O my brother, these people are taking me as a weak lonely person, they are almost killing me!’
Here, the Holiness refer to the narrative of the position and stating the case of the Holiness Aaron, Moses’ brother, when Moses trusted him with the Children of Israel and set out for visiting Allah on the Mount of Tur. In his absence, the Samaritan decorated a calf for them to worship. When the Children of Israel saw the decorated calf they were delighted and prostrated in front of it. Since then, they left their Executor, Aaron, the brother of Moses, and also avoided praying Allah. No matter how much Aaron cried and advised them to stop their silly behavour, and also tried to stop the Samaritan beguiling them, it did not work. The Samaritan’ badly publicizing, and the decorated calf, to make matters worse, the people’s expectation for worshipping the calf was so excessive that Aaron’s words seemed nonsense to them.
When the Holiness Moses returned from the Mount and found that his folk had taken to the Calf, he cried at his brother why he had let them practice it. To his question, Aaron answered:
قال ابْنَ امَّ انَّ الْقَوْمَ اسْتَضْعَفُونى وَ كادُوا يَقْتُلُونَنى.
‘O, the son of my mother, do not blame me, these people were so keen in worshipping the Calf that considered me to be weak and they would nearly kill me.’
 Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 59.
 Surah 62, "جمعه", Verse 2.
 Surah 2, "بقره", Verse 129.
 Surah 7, "اعراف", Verse 35.
 Surah 68, "قلم", Verses 8.
 Surah 25, "فرقان", Verse 52.
 Surah 2, "بقره",
Surah 10, "یونس", Verses 96-97.
"ان الله قد عهد الىّ انّ من خرج عَلى علىّ فهو كافر فى النار. قيل: لم خرجتِ عليه؟ قالت: انا نسيت هذا الحديث يوم الجمل حتى ذكرته بالبصرة، انا استغفر الله"
المودة", page 253.
قال على (ع) لاهل الشورى: انشدكم الله ا فيكم احد آخى رسُول الله بينه و بين نفسه حين آخى بين بعض المسلمين و بعض غيرى؟ فقالوا: لا
المهمة ", page 22.
"آخى النّبىّ بين الناس و ترك عليا حتى بقى آخرهم فقال: يا رسُول الله آخيت بين اصحابك و تركتنى؟ فقال: انما تركتك لنفسى، انت اخى و انا اخوك، فان ذكرك احد فقل: انا عبد الله و اخو رسوله، لا يدعيها بعدك الّا كذّاب. و الذى بعثنى بالحق ما اخرتك الا لنفسى، و انت منى بمنزلة هارون من موسى الا انه لا نبى بعدى، و انت اخى و وارثى "
- and as the suspension it has brought
in page 209 of "ديوان حميرى ", and in "نظم درر السمطين ", page 95
 Knowing the Imam, first volume.
و كانَ لَه أخاً و أمينَ غَيْبٍ عَلَى الْوَحْىِ الْمُنَزَّلِ حينَ يُوحى
It is drawn from "اعيان
الشيعة", volume 12, page 214, and in "المناقب",
volume 2, page 13 and volume 3, page 58.
روى كثير من المحدثين انه عقيب يوم السقيفة تالم و تظلم و استنجد و استصرخ حيث ساموه الحضور و البيعة و انه قال و هو يشير الى القبر: يا بن ام ان القوم استضعفونى و كادوا يقتلوننى. و انه قال: وا جعفراه و لا جعفر لى اليوم! وا حمزتاه و لا حمزة لى اليوم
 It is recorded almost in all narratives that Omar rejected the brotherhood of the Holiness Command with the Messenger of Allah, however, in the book of Salim Ghais, page 68, and in " غاية المرام", at the bottom of the page 551he has quoted Salim saying that Abu Bakr also rejected the Holiness by saying:
فلما انتهى بعلى الى ابى بكر انتهره عمرو قال له: بايع فقال له على (عليه السلام): ان انا لم ابايع فما انتم صانعون؟ قالوا فقتلك ذلا و صغار افقال: اذا تقتلون عبد الله و اخا رسُول الله. فقال ابو بكر: اما عبد الله فنعم و اما اخو رسُول الله فلا نعرفك بهذا. فقال: أ تجحدون ان رسُول الله آخى بينى و بينه؟ قال: نعم فاعاد ذلك ثلاث مرات...
 Surah 7, "اعراف", Verse 150.