In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Lesson 38-39: Interpretation of the Verse 80 of Surah "نساء"

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lessons 38 & 39: The interpretation of the Verse

مَنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطاعَ اللَّهَ


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.


The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:


مَنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطاعَ اللَّهَ [1]

'… whoever obeys the Messenger, surely obeys Allah, (Qur'an: 4/80).'


It is because the Messenger of Allah is the message carrier of Allah and he is an agent between Allah and His creatures. The obedience of Allah is through His representative and the obedience of the High Representative is by His deputy. And the obedience of the Sultan is through his Successor; the obedience of Allah is also by His message carrier.  

Among all the groups and different tribes of Islam only the Shiites obey Allah, it is because they obey His Messenger. But the other religions have their own interpretations and consequently their opinions and actions differ from the commands of Allah and His Messenger –even their thoughts and verdicts interfere their opinions and actions.

After the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, the Shiite followed the commands and advice of the Commander of the believers and the Household, upon them be peace, and from the beginning they did away with void opinions of the malevolent, and joined to the right nation and the people of the certainty. Therefore, two different lines stood against one another. The Shiite followed the Household and the Sunnite went after the two Sheikhs and the others who came one after another.

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The aim of stating the community is that it is right even if is in minority

The Shiite say: 'Following the traditions and the manners of two Sheikhs is not authorized by any Verses of the Qur'an or the laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah, however, according to the clear and successive statements, following the Family and the Household as well respecting the commentary of the Qur'an and the stateliness of revelation have been assigned; and following the Household is the very laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah. And the purpose of the Messenger by saying community, the right community, not the wrong is that always keeping with it. Therefore, in reality, the Shiite section is both: by the community and the partisan of throwing away the wrong and void aim, opinion and renovation.

The Sunnite says: 'We are Sunnite and the supporters of the assembly. We are Sunnite because we followed the companions of the Messenger of Allah, we honoured and respected them, and we took their commands as force-able. But our being the people of the community is that, after the demise of the Messenger, the majority of the common people did not care the Household, they followed the votes, verdicts, and the elections for the benefits of the companions. And You are 'RAFEZI' just because you cast away the laws and traditions of the Messenger, and you did not follow the companions of the Holiness, therefore, you caused a loss within the Muslims and by this way, you chose your own special rules and creeds.' [2]

The Shiite says: 'Allah is right and so is His Messenger right, the Book of Allah is right and the creation of the heavens and the earth is right:

وَ ما خَلَقْنَا السَّماءَ وَ الْأَرْضَ وَ ما بَيْنَهُما باطِلاً ذلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذينَ كَفَرُوا فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ [3]

' … and We have not created the sky and the earth and whatever between them is in vain, that is the opinion of those who disbelieve [and have covered the facts about Allah and His Messenger], thus, woe to the disbelievers of the Fire, (Qur'an: 38/27).'

Therefore, the aim of the Messenger of Allah of joining the assembly is the assembly of the right but not the void assembly. A religion that is based on the truthfulness and right, and sets all its laws and rules upon this basis, then how it accepts the attachment with the void assembly to be right? 

The main purpose of the right assembly is the Successor of the Messenger of Allah and the Household as well the rightful Shiites of the Holiness, those Shiites who tolerated the hardships, and while having no means of living they did not leave the right assembly to go after the void and wrong community.

Although the Holy Abraham was only a man, because of his great soul and deep belief, Allah has mentioned him as a nation in the Qur'an:

إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَانِتًا لِلّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ [4]

'… surely, Abraham [alone] was an obedient nation to Allah, faithful and not of the polytheists, (Qur'an: 16/120).'

Therefore, the aim of 'Assembly or Community' is the people of right even if they are in minority. As the Late Sadough has said:

اهل الجماعة اهل الحق و ان قلوا; و قد روى عن النبى صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم انه قال: المؤمن حجة، و المؤمن وحده جماعة [5]

The people of the Assembly are right even if they are in minority. And it is related from the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants that he has stated: "A sole believer is as a proof of Allah for the creatures of Allah, and a believer alone is a whole nation."

Therefore, the meaning of 'Joining to the Community' that the Messenger of Allah has recommended is the right Community; and only Shiite has considered this fact while the Sunnites have violated it.

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Shiite is the follower of the tradition of the Messenger of Allah, but ‘Rafaz” is void

And also the Shiites say: 'Sunnat' means acting upon the statements of the Messenger of Allah, and following the manners of that Holiness. Therefore, the word 'Sunnite' denotes the people who act upon the commands of the Messenger of Allah, but not violate it. However, only the Shiites obey that Holiness and follow him as well the Household of his; but contrary to his enjoinments, constant advice and successive warnings, the public avoided the laws and traditions and turned away from obeying and following the commands of the Messenger of Allah.

Therefore, it is the Shiite who follows the laws and traditions but the Sunnite is of those who have avoided it.

But those who relate the title of 'RAFAZ' to Shiite it is quite right though they draw another meaning from it. They say: 'After the demise of Allah, the Shiite denied the companions who were taught, trained and instructed by the Messenger of Allah, and they threw away the laws and traditions of the Messenger!' The Shiite say: 'We respected the companions and so will we respect them – but not all companions, because according to the Verses of the Qur'an, they were not all alike. There were the hypocrites among them, and above all, respecting them is when they follow the commands of the Messenger of Allah. However, if they oppose and bring renovation and ruin the effort of the Holiness Messenger should they be still respected and obeyed?'

The Shiite says: 'We did away with the wrong Sunnat and renovation, we kept away from the void group and the gang of seducers and joined the right group. So this turn away is because of our nobility, and we are proud of it; you have altered the correct meaning of this title and set up a wrong meaning in your minds and then ascribe it to us – it is because of your misunderstanding.'

In the book of "MAHASIN" of Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Khalid Barghi, by Atiba, the Reed-seller is related from the Holiness Imam Sādiq, upon him be peace, that:     

قال: و الله لنعم الاسم الذى منحكم الله ما دمتم تاخذون بقولنا و لا تكذبون علينا [6]

The Holiness sated: "By Allah the title of "RAFEZI" is a very good name, as you have been favoured by Allah, He has favoured this title to you, but it is until you are obeying our statements and not telling lies against us."

And it is related from "Mahasin" that the Holiness Imam Muhammad Baqir, upon him be peace, said:

انا من الرافضة و هو منى، قالها ثلاثا. [7]

"I am with the Rafiza and so is the Rafiza with me;" the Holiness repeated this for three times.

And it is also related of "Mahasin" from Abu Basir:

قالَ: قُلْتُ لِابى جَعْفَرٍ عليه السّلام جُعِلْتُ فِداكَ اسْمٌ سُمِّينا بِهِ اسْتَحَلَّتْ بِهِ الْوُلاة دِماءَنا وَ امْوالَنا وَ عَذابَنا، قالَ: وَ ما هُوَ قالَ: الرّافِضَة، فَقالَ ابُو جَعْفَرٍ عليه السّلام: انَّ سَبْعينَ رَجُلًا مِنْ عَسْكرِ فِرْعَوْنَ رَفَضُوا فِرْعَوْنَ فَاتَوْا مُوسى‏ عليه السّلام فَلَمْ يَكُنْ فى قَوْمِ مُوسى‏ احَدٌ اشَدَّ اجْتِهاداً وَ اشَدَّ حُبّاً لِهارُونَ مِنْهُمْ فَسَمّاهُمْ قَوْمُ مُوسى‏ الرّافِضَة، فَاوْحَى اللهُ تَعالى‏ الى‏ مُوسى‏ عليه السّلام: انْ اثْبِتْ لَهُمْ هذَا الْاسْمَ فِى التَّوْراة فَانّى نَحَلْتُهُمْ، وَ ذلِكَ اسْمٌ قَدْ نَحَلَكُمُوه‏ الله. [8]

Abu Basir says: 'I said to the Holiness Imam Muhammad Baqir, upon him be peace: 'May I be sacrificed to you, they have given me a name that, because of it, the kings and the governors have allowed the people to shed our blood – they consider if lawful to torture us as they like.'

The Holiness asked: "What is that name?" He answered: 'That is 'RAFIZA'.'

The Holiness said: "Seventy men forsook the army of Pharaoh and they left behind the customs and renovations of Pharaoh and joined Moses. They became so much obedience of the commands of Moses and were so affectionate to Aaron, the brother and successor of Moses, and also were eager for the religion of Allah that there were no men in the tribe of Moses alike them. The tribe of Moses called them as "RAFIZA", and Allah, the Honourable and Exalted, stated to Moses, upon him be peace, "Keep this title for them, for I have given this name to them. O Abu Basir, this is the name that Allah has honoured you with."

Similar to this narrative, has also been related in "KAFI" by Abu Basir; they have been explained in details. [9]

And there is a narrative from the "Commentary of Imam Hassan Askari, upon him be peace, "One day, they had the honour to inform the Holiness Imam Sādiq, upon him be peace, that: 'Once, Am‘mar Dohni went to ibn Abi Leila, the judge of Kofa to bear a witness. The judge said: "O Am‘mar, we have known you, as you are a RAFEZI we do not accept your witness." All of a sudden, Am‘mar stood up, he was trembling in anger and kept on crying. Ibn Abi Leila said: 'O Am‘mar, you are a man of knowledge and narratives, and if it unpleasant to hear you are being called RAFEZI, show disgust against it.' Am‘mar said: 'O man, you have misunderstood, my opinion was not what you thought about, I really cried for your condition and my own.' First, my crying for me was that you gave me such a noble title that I do not deserve it, you thought that I was a RAFEZI, woe on you! The Imam Sādiq related it to me that: "The first people who were called RAFEZI were the magicians who watched the miracles of Moses and his stick then believed in him, they followed him and threw away the commands of Pharaoh and surrendered to the oncoming problems to them. Pharaoh called them RAFEZI, and it was just because they cast away his customs and creeds. So, RAFEZI is the one who throws away whatever is unpleasant to Allah, and he brings to practice whatever Allah has commanded to. How can you find on earth like that? And the reason for my crying was that how could I carry that noble title with me, and even worse, to imagine that I deserve it, and then, while Allah is aware of my heart, taking me to task and asking: "O Am‘mar, are you really the rejecter of wrong and void and the worshipper of Mine for carrying this title with you?" In that case, even if He is indulgent he will decrease my degrees; if He is not indulgent then He will chastise me severely – unless He forgives me for the sake of the Guardians upon me. However, my crying for you is that you invented a great lie and you called me with such a title that I do not deserve it. I felt sorry for you that you gave the best title to the worst creature – how could you bear the chastisement for such action of yours?'

When the Holiness Imam Sādiq, upon him be peace, heard it, he stated: "Supposing that Am‘mar had committed oceans of sins, by stating such rightful facts in front of that unjust judge all his sins would be wiped out; his words increased his degree so much in the presence of Allah that every tiny mustard of it is an ocean in the presence of Allah."

What is said so far proves that the title of RAFEZI is the best choice for the Shiites, though the Sunnite figure out bad meaning out of it. The word "Shiite" means obedience, that is to follow, to follow and obey.

Ibn Athir in his dictionary explains that the word Shiite denotes of a nation and it is used in the same way for one person, two or three, and masculine and feminine considers single. This word has over dominated those who think that they have the Guardianship of Ali, may Allah be pleased with, and his Descendants – this dominating is so great that it has become the abstract noun. Therefore, if it is said: 'Such and such is a Shiite, it is clearly understood that he is the follower of the Household.' And if it is said that: 'There is a certain subject if the religion of the Shiite, it means that subject is with these certain people.  

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The difference of Shiite and Sunnite is in the principles and the branches

Shiite has disagreement with the Sunnite in both: the principles and the branches. The Sunnites have practically chosen the characters of the two Sheikhs and they deeply believe to follow them. Although they have apparently taken the Book of Allah and the laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah, almost in all problems they refer to the commands of the two Sheikhs – add the Book and traditions with their verdicts. Therefore, in the Assembly Council that after Omar was set up, Abdur Rahman Auf told the Commander of the believers: 'Do you agree my paying allegiance with you on the condition that you should carry on the Book of Allah, the laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah and the manners and characters of the two Sheikhs?'

The Holiness stated: "I only act upon the Book of Allah and the laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah."

Therefore, he did not pay allegiance with the Holiness Ali but turned to Othman saying: 'Do you agree my paying allegiance with you on the condition that you should carry on the Book of Allah, the laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah and the manners and characters of the two Sheikhs?'

He answered: 'Yes,' so he paid allegiance with him and chose him as the Caliph.'

The Shiite does not consider the companions to be innocent, therefore does not consider them to be followed.

When Abu Bakr expects the Messenger of Allah to choose him as the people of paradise and the Holiness clearly rejects him by saying: "Because of the events which will happen after me, I cannot consider you as the people of paradise."

Now, how can he be taken as immaculate and act on his basis and verdicts?

It is related in the section of Jihad of the "Mowat‘ta" of Malik that:

عَنْ مالِكٍ، عَنْ ابِى النَّضْرِ مَوْلى‏ عُمَرَ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللهِ انَّهُ بَلَغَهُ انَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم قالَ لِشُهَداءِ احُدٍ: هؤُلاءِ اشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ. فَقالَ ابُو بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقُ: الَسْنا يا رَسُولَ اللهِ اخْوانَهْمْ؟ اسْلَمْنا كَما اسْلَمُوا وَ جاهَدْنا كَما جاهَدُوا، فَقالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم: بَلى‏ وَ لكِنْ لا ادْرى ما تُحْدِثوُنَ بَعْدى. فَبَكى‏ ابُو بَكْرٍ ثُمَّ بَكى‏ ثُمَّ قالَ: أئِنّا لَكائِنُونَ بَعْدَكَ؟ [10]

Malik, by means of his documents, relates from Omar bin Abidullai that he had gathered that the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, had stated about the Martyrs of Ohud: "These are the ones whom I believe to be the people of paradise." Then, Abu Bakr had asked: 'O the Messenger of Allah, are we not their brothers? Because we embraced Islam as they embrace it, and we went on the Holy War, (Jihad), as they went on Jihad, (That is, we are the people of paradise as they are the people of paradise).'

The Holiness Messenger of Allah had stated: "Yes, you embraced Islam and went on the Holy War, but I do not say what is going to happen after me."

By hearing what he say Abu Bake burst into tears, and he went on crying more and then he asked: 'O Messenger of Allah, are we going to live after you?'

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Omar’s innovations

Similarly, Omar considered himself as being the jurisprudence and he acted upon his verdicts, he considered lawful most of what the Messenger of Allah had branded as unlawful, and brought alteration in the laws and traditions of the Messenger: so in this case, how can one follow his him? Whereas, both the Shiite and Sunnite have related from the Generous Messenger, Bless be to him and his Descendants, stating:

ايها الناس و الله ما من شى‏ء يقربكم من الجنة و يباعدكم من النار الا و قد امرتكم به، و ما من شى‏ء يقربكم من النار و يباعدكم من الجنة الا و قد نهيتكم عنه . [11]

"O people, nothing gets you closer to paradise and keeps you away from the Fire but that one I commanded you to that; and nothing gets you closer to Fire and keeps you away from paradise except that I prohibited you."

And also he stated:

حلال محمد حلال الى يوم القيامة و حرام محمد حرام الى يوم القيامة.

"Muhammad's lawful things are lawful until the Day of Resurrection, and his unlawful are unlawful until the Last Day."

Alla‘ma Amini,[12] and Alla‘ma Tabatabaee, [13] say:


اخْرَجَ الطَّبَرِىُّ فِى الْمُسْتَبينِ عَنْ عُمَرَ انَّهُ قالَ: ثَلاثٌ كُنَّ عَلى‏ عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم انَا مُحَرِّمُهُنَّ وَ مُعاقِبٌ عَلَيْهِنَّ: مُتْعَة الْحَجِّ، وَ مُتْعَة النَّساءِ، وَ حَىَّ عَلى‏ خَيْرِ الْعَمَلِ فِى الْاذان‏.

Tabari, by means of his series of documents, in the book of "al-Mostafin" relate that Omar said: "There used to be three things in the time of the Messenger of Allah but I consider them unlawful and ban them, and whoever follows them I will severely punish them, they are: temporary marriage on the Hajj pilgrimage, temporary marriages with the women and calling حى على خير العمل in the calling for prayer."

And also through his chains of documents, Tabari relates Omran bin Sa'wa in his "History" that Omran said: 'I established the dawn prayer with Omar, Omar recited the whole Verse of

 سبحان الذی اسری بعبده ليلا من المسجد الحرام [14]

Following another Verse, but he stood up and changed his mind. I also stood up with him, then, he asked me if I had any needs. I said: 'Yes, I have a need.' He said: "Do come with me." I went with him, when we entered the house he sat on a bare couch. I told him: You know, I have come here to advise you.' He said: 'Well done, you the adviser from dawn to dusk!' I said: 'Your people find four faults with you.'

At that moment, he gave a move to his short whip called "DARRAH" and then he rested one end of it on his thigh and rested his chin on the other end and said: 'Tell me what are you going to tell me.'

I said: 'Your people say that you have banned the Minor Hajj in the certain months, while the Messenger of Allah did not ban it, so the Minor Hajj is lawful [in those certain months].'

He asked: 'Is it lawful? If in the months of the Minor Hajj people fulfill the Hajj Pilgrimage, they consider it enough for going to MIGHAT, in that case, their process in that month will be only the Minor Hajj, and their main Hajj will be damaged. However, the Hajj Pilgrimage is the beauty and an advantage of the advantages of Allah, so I have carried out correctly in my command.'

وَ لَوْ انَّهُمُ اعْتَمَرُوا فى أشْهُرِ الْحَجِّ رَأَوْها مُجْزِيَة مِنْ حَجِّهِمْ فَكانَتْ قائِبَة قَوْبِ عامِها فَقُرعَ حَجُّهُمْ وَ هُوَ بَهاءٌ مِنْ بَهاءِ اللهِ، وَ قَدْ اصَبْت‏.[15]

I said: "But the people say: 'But you banned the women's marriages while it is allowed by Allah, in the past, we would enjoy it just with a piece of food, and also after three enjoyments in different occasions we would part with them.' [16]

He said; "The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, allowed the temporary marriages at times of the emergency, but then, the people grow more in wealth and understanding and since then I cannot remember anyone doing so. By the way, even now, if one wants to marry a woman with a piece of food and after three times divorcing her to separate with her forever. Concerning the temporary marriages, I have done well in my commands.'

I said: 'And you have commanded that if a female slave gets pregnant by her Master and gives birth to a child then immediately she is freed – even he Master has not freed her.' He said:

الْحَقْتُ حُرْمَة بِحُرْمَة و ما ارَدْتُ الَّا الْخَيْرَ و اسْتَغْفِرُ اللهَ. [17]

‘Because of respecting child who is naturally free, I respected his mother and commanded for his freedom, in this action of mine I had a good intention.’

I said: ‘The nation complains against you that you are making them run in fierce.’ By hearing what I say, Omar rolled his whip tightly and ran his hand on it from one end to another, and then, said:

انَا زَميلُ مُحَمَّدٍ- وَ كانَ زامِلَهُ فى غَزْوَة قَرْقَرَة الْكُدْرِ- فَوَ اللهِ انّى لَارْتِعُ فَاشْبعُ، وَ اسْقِى فَارْوى، وَ انْهَزُ اللَّفوُتَ، وَ أزْجُرُ الْعَرُوضَ، وَ أذُبُّ قَدْرى، وَ أسُوقُ خَطْوى، وَ أضُمُّ الْعَنُودَ، وَ الْحِقُ الْقَطُوفَ، وَ اكْثِرُ الزَّجْرَ، و اقِلُّ الضُّرْبَ، وَ أشْهَر الْعَصا، وَ أدْفَعُ بِالْيَدِ، لَوْ لا ذلِكَ لَاعْذَرْتُ. 

Omar said: “I am at the same level of Muhammad – in the Battle of Ghazvah Ghargharat al-Kodr I was riding a horse similar to his – by Allah, I graze the herd,[18] I let them eat, I water them to quench their thirsts; I hit the unruly camels and repel them. I torture any disobedient camels and keep them away from the people. I guide the people according to my power, and I invite any deviated man to join the majority. I lead any stubborn animal to unite the flock – I torture them a lot but never hit them. I raise my hand-stick but prevent it hitting anyone”

The narrator says: ‘When they quoted his sayings to Mua‘wiyah, he said: ‘By Allah, he knows the situation of his nation well.’ [19]

In this narrative, it is clearly understood that Omar deliberately gives his opinions. First of all, he considers the commands of his, who has carried out against the will of thr Messenger of Allah, to be right.  And he says: ‘I have done well in this affairs.’ Secondly, he considers himself to be as the grade and rank of the Messenger, for he says: “Similar to the Messenger who had his own verdicts and commands, I also have my own verdicts and commands.’

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Some of the differences of the Shiite and Sunnite in the principles and the branches

Shiite says: ‘Apart from the Qur’an and the laws and traditions of the Messenger, nothing is free from mistakes and should be carried out. The Imams from the Household who are immaculate is because of their miracles and absolutely their being free from mistakes; secondly, it is because of the clear and successive texts which have been sent down from the Owner of the Religion and have introduced them to be innocent; so without a good reason, no one is allowed to be considered as one who is (to be) obeyed and then to follow him.

In his imagination, Omar was a jurisprudence, so why should his command to be carried out, why should Muslims obey his command concerning the temporary marriages? By which of the commands of the Messenger he practices it among the Muslims – banning the commands of the Messenger of Allah and setting up his commands until the Day of Resurrect? The practicable command is that to be free from fault and mistake, therefore, the only way of obeying the two Sheikhs is: THEY MUST BE IMMACULAT!

It is too strange that the Sunnites do not agree with the chastity of the Imams – even some of them do not accept the chastity of the Messenger. Some of them believe it in the Verses of the Qur’an, but they do not accept if by the manner and the behavour of the Messenger. And there are too many narratives from them which relate of the mistakes of the Messenger. There are still some narratives which clearly say how Satan invited the Messenger to praise the idols, but before acting so, Gabriel came down and informed the Messenger of his probable mistake.

To put them together, they consider the two Sheikhs to be innocent, and they consider their obedience necessary – they take them against manner of the Messenger.

Shiite says: The Sheikhs are not immaculate, they make mistakes as the other people do, so following their commands is following the falsehood. Therefore, we see that most of the Verses of the Qur’an have been sent down to blame some of the companions, and the great scholars of the Sunnite have related so narratives that denote the deviation some of the companions and the hatred of the Messenger of Allah against them – those are good reason for the Messenger’s lack of intersession against them. In the mean time, how can one become pure and innocent as soon as he uses the title of companion about himself, and he becomes as new born baby - innocent? Did those numerous differences, disputations, fighting and murdering in the time of the Messenger of Allah not happen among the companions after the Messenger? So how, without any questions, one should accept their claim? The religion of Islam is the religion of facts and knowledge, then, how can it command following the void, and taking the words of the ignorance right without investigating them!

Does the Glorious Qur’an not say:

 وَ لا تَقْفُ ما لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ [20]

‘… do not follow what you have no knowledge about.’ And does it not state, (Qur’an: 17/36).’

انَّ الظَّنَّ لا يُغْنِى مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئاً [21]

‘… surely conjecture does not help in any way against the Truth, (Qur’an: 53/28).’   

It is narrated by the Sunnite that the Holiness Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, stated:

بَيْنا انَا قائِمٌ اذا زُمْرَة حَتّى‏ اذا عَرَفْتُهُمْ خَرَجَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَيْنى وَ بَيْنِهِمْ، فَقالَ: هَلُمَّ. فَقُلْتُ: ايْنَ؟. قالَ: الَى النّارِ وَ اللهِ. قُلْتُ: وَ ما شَأْنُهُمْ؟ قالَ: ارْتَدُّوا عَلى‏ ادْبارِهِمُ الْقَهْقَرى‏، ثُمَّ اذا زُمْرَة حَتى‏ اذا عَرَفْتُهُمْ خَرَجَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ بَيْنى وَ بَيْنِهِمْ، فَقالَ: هَلُمَّ، قُلْتُ: أيْنَ؟ قالَ: الَى النّارِ وَ اللهِ. قُلْتُ: ما شَأنُهُمْ؟ قالَ: انَّهُمُ ارْتَدُّوا عَلى‏ ادْبارِهِمُ الْقَهْقَرى‏، فَلا أراهُ يَخْلُصُ الّا مِثْلُ هَمَلِ النَّعَمِ .[22]

The Holiness Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, sated: “When the Resurrection is set up, the moment that I am standing in the Flat surface of the Judgement, they bring a huge crowd of people who I know well, then a man turns up shouting to those people: ‘Come on and get ready.’

I say: “Where should they come?” He answers: ‘By Allah, to the Fire.’ I say: “What for?” He says: ‘They have turned back to the manners of the ignorance time.’

Soon after, they bring another group of people, and as I recognise them, a man turns up and shouts at them: ‘Come on and get ready.’ I say: “Where should they come?” He answers: ‘By Allah, to the Fire.’ I say: “What for?” He says: ‘They have turned back to the customs of the ignorance people.’ Then, the Messenger of Allah states: “All of them, group after group, go into the Fire and I find no one to be saved – but “همل النّعم

Alla‘ma Amini says that: ‘Ghastalani in the “Explanation of the Sahih Bokhari”, volume 9, page 325, has translated the word“همل as the lost camels, or the camels without the camel-driver, that means, the saved ones among my nation are few, similar to the lost camels without the camel-drivers. [23]

In his commentary, Alla‘ma Tabatabaee states:

 وَ فِى الصَّحيحَيْنِ عَنْ ابى هُرَيْرَة: انَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلِى الله عليه و آله و سلّم قالَ: يَرِدُ عَلَىَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَة رَهْطٌ مِنْ أَصْحابى (اوْ قالَ: مِنْ امَّتى) فَيُحَلَّئُوَنَ عَنِ الْحَوْضِ، فَأَقُولُ: يا رَبِّ اصْحابى. فَيَقُولُ: لا عِلْمَ لَكَ بِما احْدَثُوا بَعْدَكَ. ارْتَدُّوا عَلى‏ أَعْقابِهِمُ الْقَهْقَرى‏ فَيُحَلَّئُونَ .

In “Sahih Bokhari and Molim” he quotes Abu Horaira that he has related the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, stating: “On the Day of Resurrection, a group of my companions [or nation] will come to me but they will send them away from Kow‘thar [river in Paradise]. Then, I implore: ‘O my Creator, these are my companions.’

Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, states: “You are not aware what event they have brought forth after you, they have turned round on their heels and turned back to the ignorance era.”

Alla‘ma Amini in volume three of “Al-Ghadir”,[24] have related many narratives from the Sunnite’s Sahah. And Alla‘ma Majlisi, gives enough information about Bokhari, Moslim and the others, in volume eight of Behar al-Anwar concerning the deviation of the companions after the demise of the Messenger of Allah.[25]
And Kolaini, by means of his documents, in the “Rouza Kafi”, relates from the Holiness Imam Baqir or Sādiq that he stated:


قالَ: اصْبَحَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم كَئيباً حَزيناً، فَقالَ لَهُ عَلىُّ عليه السّلام: ما لى أراكَ يا رَسُولَ اللهِ كَئيباً حَزيناً؟ فَقالَ: وَ كَيْفَ لا أَكُونُ كَذلِكَ وَ لَقَدْ رَأيْتُ فى لَيْلَتى هذِهِ انَّ بَنى تَيْمٍ وَ بَنى عَدِىٍّ وَ بَنى امَيَّة يَصْعَدُونَ مِنْبَرى هذا يَرُدُّونَ النّاسَ عَنِ الْاسْلامِ الْقَهْقَرى‏، فَقُلْتُ: يا رَبِّ فى حَياتى اوْ بَعْدَ مَوْتى؟ فَقالَ: بَعْدَ مَوْتِكَ. [26]

Once, in the morning, the Holiness Messenger,
Bless be to him and his Descendants, was very sad and worried, and the Commander of the believers asks: ‘O the Messenger of Allah, why are you so sad and worried?’ The Holiness Messenger says: “Why shouldn’t I? Last night, I saw in my dream Bani Teiam, Bani Adaiy and Bani Omayyad were climbing up this pulpit and they were making the people turn away from the Islam and leading them to the ignorance era. Then, I implored: ‘O my Creator! Do they o so during my life or after my demise?’ The Statement was descended to me: “After your death!””

لَوْ لا أَكْرَهُ انْ يُقالَ: انَّ مُحَمَّداً اسْتَعانَ بِقَوْمٍ حَتّى‏ اذا ظَفَرُوا بِعَدُوِّهِ قَتَلَهُمْ لَضَرَبْتُ اعْناقَ قَوْمٍ كَثير. [27]

[The Holiness Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, stated:] “If I did not take this statement: ‘Muhammad benefitted the help of a group and then when he overcame his enemies, he killed them.’ As an offence, I would behead most of the people.”

Anyhow, these narratives which have been presented as samples sample prove that not all the companions of the Messenger of Allah were the real believers and obedience, there have been many disobedient and discordant among them.

And as the Glorious Qur’an and the statement of the Messenger of Allah state the only condition to act upon one’s say is to be right, and to keep to the fact, therefore, the actions of the companions must be taken into the consideration. The narratives of those companions who were pious and did the righteous things and obeyed the commands of Allah must be accepted by the Messenger of Allah – as well the sayings of those whose statements agree with the Book and the laws and traditions. However, the statements of those who were not surrendered to the commands of Allah and the commands of His Messenger, and had made mistakes at the time of the Messenger or even after the Holiness, must be rejected – and nor their narratives about the Messenger of Allah must be accepted. Above all, following the void and wrong has been prohibited by the Verses of the Qur’an.

In this way, the disagreement of the Shiite with the Sunnite is on the principles. 

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The Difference of Shiite with Sunnite in the branches 

The Sunnite says: ‘To act a command, we must follow one of the four religious scholars: from Abu Hanifa, Shafiee, Malik or Ahmad bin Hanbal, and anyone apart from them is not enough or accepted.’

The Shiite says: ‘Allah’s Book has been revealed for all human being, everyone has right to use it, and the Messenger of Allah has been a go-between for the revelation of Allah for the benefit of all the human being. As it is stated:

وَ انْزَلْنا الَيْكَ الذَّكْرَ لِتُبَيَّنَ لِلنّاسِ ما نُزِّلَ الَيْهِمْ وَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ [28]

“[O Messenger,] We sent down to you the Reminder so that you may explain to people what was revealed to them, so that they may reflect, (Qur’an: 16/44).’

The statement and laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah is also a proof for any wise man.

For what reason the Muslims cannot refer to the Book of Allah and the laws and traditions of the Messenger and use them for their religious questions and then shout the case of exertion? Is the Islam not the religion of knowledge? Is the imitation for all people except these four persons? Is it not possible for any individual by studying, investigating and following the manner of the Messenger to rise even higher than these four? For what reason a wise man should follow them, and not giving his opinions and verdicts against them – to imprison himself and the others within their commands and verdicts? This logic is against the nature and the wisdom of a wise person.

The meaning of monopoly in Four-Legal-Schools is that every Muslim should search for the meaning of يا ايُّهَا الَّذينَ آمَنُوا in one of those four, and when acting upon any Verse of the Verses of the Qur’an or any statement of the Messenger of Allah he must take one of those four as the main commentator of it.

The question is that: are those four innocent and there is no mistakes in their statements? If it is so, then why did they divide into four religions?

Religion is only one, and this difference is a good proof for their lack of chastity. What's more, with the absolute brief knowledge among these opinions and verdicts it is all void or at least partially void, and the necessity of following one of them is that following the opposite which is contrary to wisdom. Everyone can, with his own brief knowledge and understanding follow the Book of Allah and laws and traditions of the Messenger. The lack of absolute permitting and the restriction of the jurisprudence in one of Four –Legal-Schools is a command on following the false, and as these four are not innocent of sins, and no one has assumed them to be chaste, therefore the case of free and absolute practicing the religion is for everyone until the Day of Resurrection. This is clear saying of the Shiite, which has no doubt in it and no one of the Sunnite can reject it.

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The context of the verdict of Sheikh Mahmoud Shaltout in the permission of following the religion of the Shiite

The famous book of Alla‘ma, Sayyid Sharaf ad-Din Jabal Amoli, called [29]  «النَّصُّ و الاجتهاد» is one of the most valuable books  has been written so far, it is perhaps by studying this book, and also by the Late Ayatollah Brojerdi’s constant struggle, the Great Mufti of Egypt, and the Chief of al-Azhar University, Sheikh Mahmood Shaltout issued his well-known verdict permitting the referring to the Jurisprudence of the Imamate Shiite. Now, we are to mention the main verdict of him:


بسم الله الرّحمن الرّحيم


متن الفتوى التّى أصدرها السَّيّد صاحب الفضيلة الأستاد الأكبر الشيخ محمود شلتوت شيخ الجامع الازهر فى شأن جواز التعبّد بمذهب الشّيعة الإماميّة

قيل لفضيلته: إنّ بعض النّاس يرى أنّه يجب على المسلم لكى تقع عباداته و معاملاته على وجه صحيح أن يقلّد أحد المذاهب الأربعة المعروفة و ليس من بينها مذهب الشّيعة الإماميّة و لا الشّيعة الزيديّة، فهل توافقون فضيلتكم على هذا الرأى على إطلاقه فتمنعون تقليد مذهب الشّيعة الإماميّة الإثنا عشريّة مثلًا.

فأجاب فضيلته:

1- إنّ الإسلام لا يوجب على أحد من أتباعه اتّباع مذهبٍ معّينٍ بل نقول: إنّ لكلّ مسلمٍ الْحَقَّ فى أن يقلّد بادى‏ء ذى بَدءٍ أٍىَّ مذهب من المذاهب المنقولة نقلًا صحيحاً و المدوّنة أحكامها فى كتبها الخاصّة، و لمن قلّد مذهباّ من هذه المذاهب أن ينتقل إلى غيره اى مذهبٍ كان و لا حرج عليه فى شئى من ذلك.

2- إنّ مذهب الجعفريّة المعروف بمذهب الشّيعة الإماميّة الإثنا عشريّة مذهبٌ يجوز التعبّد به شرعاً كساير مذاهب أهل السّنّة.

فينبغى للمسلمين أن يعرفوا ذلك و أن يتخلَّصوا من العصبيّة بغير الحقّ لمذاهب معيّنة، فما كان دين الله و ما كانت شريعته بتابعة لمذهب أو مقصورة على مذهب، فالكلّ مجتهدون مقبولون عند الله تعالى، يجوز لمن ليس أهلًا للنّظر و الاجتهاد تقليدهم و العمل بما يُقرّرونه فى فقههم و لا فرق فى ذلك بين العبادات و المعاملات‏.

محمود شلتوت


السيّد صاحب السّماحة العلّامة الجليل الاستاذ محمّد تقى‏ القمّىّ السّكريتر العام لجماعة التقريب بين المذاهب الاسلامِيَّة! سلام الله عليكم و رحمته.

أمّا بعد فيسرّنى أن أبعث إلى سماحتكم بصورة موقّع عليها إمضائى من الفتوى التّى أصدرتُها فى شأن جواز التَّعبُّد بمذهب الشّيعة الإماميّة راجياً أن تحفظوها فى سجلّات دار التقريب بين المذاهب الاسلاميّة الّتى اسْهَمنا معكم فى تأسيسها و وفّقنا الله لتحقيق رسالتها، و السّلام عليكم و رحمة الله‏.

شيخ الجامع الأزهر

محمود شلتوت‏

صورة الفتوى وُ ذيعت من دار التقريب بالقاهرة فى 17 ربيع الأوّل 1378 ه.[30]



In the name of Allah, (Who’s) the most Merciful Beneficent

The genuine text of the great master Sheikh Mahmood Shaltout, the Chief of al-Azhar University concerning the acting  permission on the religion of the Imamate Shiite.

He was asked: ‘Some people believe that if they want their prayers and dealings in the society to be right, they must follow one of the four famous religions, but the religion of Imamate and Zeidi are not among them, do you agree with this verdict, and do you not approve the religion of Imamate Shiite?’

He answered: 1) the religion Islam does not say it is bind one to follow a certain religion but it is we that say so. Every individual believers has right to choose any of the rightfully related religions, and then follow the commands of that certain religion which has been explained in the book concerning it. And one who follows any one of these religions, can change it to another one – there is not restriction for him.

2) According to the religious law, it is permissible to follow and act on the commands of “Ja‘fari’ia Religion” which is is known as the religion of the ‘Twelvers’, like the other religions of the Sunnite. It is just for the Muslims to know this point and avoid useless anger and futile bias and without right to do, supporting one religion and disgracing another. The Religion and Laws of Allah do not lead to one certain religion, whoever gets the position of jurisprudence he is the Jurisprudent, and his actions are accepted by Allah.

And one who is not a Jurisprudent, must follow one of them, and act upon what has been written in the religious jurisprudence of that specific religion; and in this problem, there is no difference in the worshipping and dealings.


Mahmood Shaltout 


The Great and Respectable Master, the Glorious Learned, Muhammad Taghi Ghomi, the Chief Secretary  of the Approximation of the Nations among the religions in Islam


May Allah’s peace and blessing be on you:

I am so happy signing a copy of your verdict of yours, which is a permission to follow the religion of the Imamate Shiite, and now I am sending to you. I hope you will save it among the saved documents of the Approximation of the Nations among the religions in Islam, which I have cooperated with you in founding it. May Allah support us in our aims which is the success of this organization –peace and blessing of Allah be upon you.


The Sheikh of Azhar University – Mahmood Shaltout 


Who on earth can insist on following one of these four religions [31] while no man accepts their verdicts by nature. Where Malik has approved the servant’s sexual intercourse, and Shafiee has permitted playing the chess and he has permitted marrying the girl who has been the result of his own adultery. And Abu Hanifa has considered it permissible to drink the boiling grapes which is naturally wine, and he bans lashing the pederasty, so is the intercourse with one’s mother, or taking her daughter for his wife. And Ahmad Hanbal does not blame the drug users.

It is surprising that the Sunnite says: ‘The verdicts of these four cannot be violated, and the fact of this, according to them, is their chastity; however, they do not consider “Chaste” the immaculate Imams who are the source of receiving the revelations. Bokhari says: ‘Whatever narrative I wanted to write in my book, first I prayed two turns of prayers and then I wrote down.’ However, in his thick book, he has not mentioned the Holiness Imam Ja‘far Sādiq even once! And he says” ‘The reason that I did not relate anything from Ja‘far bin Muhammad is that there was going something in my mind – that is I doubted him!’

This manner gradually draws the attention to some fact – it increases the hatred of the Sunnite toward the incorrect religion and draws their attentions to the Household right religion. It is hoped that, by spreading the books of Shiite to the Sunnite’s lands all of them turn to the right religion, and accept this pure religion. If the fact reveals, the common people will not refuse accepting it. As Sultan Muhammad Khoda Banda embraced the religion of the Shiite – though he was Hanafi, because of the discussion of Alla’ma Hilli with Nizam ad-Din Abdul Malik Shafiee he got the truth and in that first session he accepted the Shiite. 

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Sultan Muhammad Khoda-bandeh’s embracing the Shiite by Allama Hilli

In short GHAZAN Khan son of ARGHN Khan the son of ABAGHA Khan Khan son of HALAKO Khan TAWALLA Khan, the youngest son of the famous CHAGIZ Khan was 702 AH in Baghdad. Accidently, one Friday, a certain ALAWAI Sayyid took part in the mass prayer, he prayed the Friday prayer with the Sunnite and the, when prayer ended, he prayed individually. As they found him to be the Shiite they killed him. His relatives went to GHAZAN Khan to complain why his men had killed him. By hearing what they say, GHAZAN Khan got very angry and regretted it that why they should kill a man from the children of the Messenger. However, as he had no knowledge about different religions, he decided to carry out his judgement by the Sunnite’s religion.

Among his commanders were some who claim to be Shiite, including Emir TARAMTAR, son of NAJOBAKHSHI who were at the court of the Sultan from his childhood and respected by all. Emir TARAMTAR always supported the Shiite, and at that moment when found Sultan GHAZAN Khan angry with the Sunnite, took the opportunity and persuaded him to the Shiite sect. Sultan also was anxious to Shiite, he facilitated the Sayyids to study and renovated the shrines of the Imams, upon them be peace, until the end of his life.

His brother, who was called Shah Khoda Bana and his previous name was ALJAITO took his place to rein. Right from the beginning, due to the persuasions of Hanafi scholars he had tendency towards them, he honoured and respect them too much. Hanafis too, appreciated their religion and supported it by all means. However, his Minister, Khajeh Rashid ad-Din  Shafiee was not happy of that event, but he did not dare to say a word in the presence of the Hanafis.

As the king was Hanafi, when Ghazi Nizam ad-Din Abdul Malik, who was expert in philosophical and traditional, came to the court of Sultan from Maragha, Sultan nominated him as the judge of all judges in all lands of his! And he furnished the way to discuss about the religion of Hanafi in front of the Sultan; and in many assemblies he discussed with them and made them unable to answer. Sultan Muhammad found interest in the religion of Shafiee and he brought to sight the story of that Sayyid who was killed after the prayer – he kept telling him to Sultan. Once, Sultan asked one of the Shafiee scholars, Ghotb ad-Din Shirazi, that what should a Hanafi do to change his religion to Shafiee? He answered: ‘This is a simple case, he should just express:

لا الهَ الَّا اللهُ، مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللهِ.

In the year 709, the son of “SADR JAHAN”, who was of the Hanafi’s famous scholars, went to Shah Khoda Banda from Bokhara. Before long, all Hanafis in Baghdad took Ghazi Nizam ad-Din’s complaint to him and said: ‘He has humiliated us in front of the Shah and his commanders.’ Son of “SADR JAHAN” was kind to them and promised them he would go to Sultan on next Friday and in the presence of Sultan, he would question him and then humiliate him. He said: ‘I will ask Ghazi Nizam ad-Din about marrying a girl who is the very daughter of the man, and I will disgrace him.

It was Friday, and in the present of Sultan, he put forward his question with Ghazi. Ghazi immediately said: ‘This problem interferes the problem of the permission of marrying with one’s own sister and mother in the religion of Hanafi.

The discussions of those two prolonged  and was disgraceful, at last the son of Sadr, the Hanafi, wanted to deny it and to take the blame away from Abu Hanifa. But Ghazi Nizam began reading a couplet of poem from Abu Hanifa:    

          وَ لَيْسَ فى لِواطِهِ مِنْ حَدٍّ             و لا بِوَطْىِ الْاخْتِ بَعْدَ الْعَقْد

There is no lashing in the pederasty

So is the one marrying his sister goes without being lashed!

Nizam ad-Din afflicted the Hanafis and the son of SADR JAHAN as well the others kept quiet and dropped their heads down. Sultan Muhammad was very upset, and his commanders were also uneasy; all were unhappy for choosing the Islam. Shah Khoda Banda stood up in anger and his commanders were telling one to another: ‘What wrong we did, we left our ancestors’ religion and took the religion of the Arabs which permits one to marry his sister, daughter and mother! We must surely return to our previous religion.’

This news spread all around the lands of Sultan and whenever people saw a clergy man they mocked him by asking the same problem of the marriages.  When Emir Taramtar saw that Sultan was astonished in his affairs, he said: ‘Sultan GHAZAN Khan was the most wise man and knowledgeable, so when he understood the ugly affairs of the Sunnite, he immediately changed his religion into the Shiite, so there is no other way for you but alter your religion to Shiite.’ Sultan Muhammad asked: ‘What if the Shiite religion?’ Emir Taramtar said: ‘It is the very religion known as RAFAZA.’ All of a sudden Sultan shouted at him and said: “O wretched, do you want me to be RAFIZI?’ However, Emir Taramtar explained the good points of the Shiite to him, and since the, he always spoke of the pureness and goodness of this religion in front of him that after three months worrying and pondering over the question in his mine, Sultan Muhammad was interested in Shiite’s religion. He took a trip to Noble Najaf and considered the situations of the Sayyids and the Shiite scholars there. This too added to his affection, and from there, he wrote to his minister, Rashid ad-Din, to send the scholars of the Shiite to Baghdad. Rashid ad-Din too sent the greatest Shiite scholars, Jamal ad-Din Hassan bin Yosuf bin Ali bin Motahhar “ALLA‘MA HIL‘LI” and his son “FAKHR al-MOHAGHGHEGHIN” to Baghdad.

ALLA‘MA took with him three of his book: “Nahj-ul-Hagh” and Kashf-ud- Sedgh” and “Mihaj-ul-Karama”, and presented all three to Sultan and was honoured by him.

Sultan ordered to set up a great gathering and they invited all scholars and the learned to come together there. The, in that assembly, Sultan ordered the Judge of all judges, Nizam ad-Din abdul Malik, who was the most well-known scholar of the time to set up a discussion and debate with Ayatollah Alla‘ma. In that gathering, Alla‘ma, very clearly, proved the immediate Caliphate of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants. He rendered the Caliphates of those three. The discussion ran so beautifully that there was not question Fir GHAZI to ask. He began praising Alla‘ma’s way of speaking and glorifying him, and in the end, he said: ‘But it is all because the predecessors of us have practiced this religion and it is necessary for the future generations to follow them, and above all, it is for stopping the common people to wonder, to get separated and object their religious leaders and curse their Caliphs – and also to hold the unity of the Islam together.

By hearing these weak excuses, and the strong reasons of Alla‘ma, Sultan Muhammad, without hesitation,  embraced the religion of Imamate; right then, many of his commanders followed him and became the Shiite, and all regretted their previous unfair deeds.

Sultan commanded to all the Islamic lands which were under his control, to change their normal sermons and do away with the names of the three Caliphs in their speeches on the pulpits in the mosques. Instead, to mention the blessed name of the Commander of the believers, Ali, upon him be peace, and the Immaculate Imams, upon them be peace, in their sermons on the pulpits, above all, to mention the phrase:حى على خير العمل in the call to prays. And he even ordered for the change of the coins to be minted with the blissful names.

When the session for the discussion came to an end, Al’lama lectured enough of a sermon where he praised Allah for His blissful Generosity in that session, and asked for Allah’s blessing upon Muhammad, the well-chosen Messenger, and Ali, the approved and their immaculate offspring.

Sayyid Rokn ad-Din Mosali, who was present in that assembly, and from the beginning was expecting for a good occasion to find a small mistake in Al’lama’s discussion, and was still hopeless, when Al’lama blessed Muhammad and his Descendants, he said: ‘What is the reason for not asking blessing for the others than the Messenger?’

Al’lama quickly resided this Verse:          


الَّذينَ اذا اصابّتْهُمْ  مُصيبَة قالُوا انّا لِلّهِ وَ انّا الَيْهِ راجِعُونَ اولئِكَ عَلَيْهِمُ صَلَواتٌ مِنْ رَبَّهِمْ وَ رَحْمَة وَ اولئِكَ هُمُ الْمُهْتَدُون [32]

 ‘… those who, when are afflicted with calamity, say, ‘We really belong to Allah and our return is to Him.’  

It is they who get the blessings and the mercy of their Lord – and it is they who are the true-guided, (Qur’an: 2/156-157).’


Sayyid Mosali said: ‘What the agony of Ali and his Descendants’ was that they deserve Allah’s blessings?’ Al’lama counted some of their agonies one by one, and then, said: ‘What agony is greater than this that you claim to be of their offspring while taking steps against them! You prefer some of their opponents to them and considering that the perfection goes with the ignorant.’

Those who were present at the session were pleased at Al’lama’s answer and they began laughing at Sayyid, and some of them even recited this poem: 


اذَا الْعَلَوِىُّ تابعٌ ناصِبيًّا                  لِمَذْهَبِهِ فَما هُوَ مَنْ ابيه

وَ كانَ الْكَلْبُ خَيْراً مِنْهُ طَبْعاً             لِانَّ الْكَلْبَ طَبْعُ ابيهِ فيهِ  


‘If a Sayyid follows the foes to the offspring of the Messenger, he is absolutely not the son of his father; a dog has privilege to him for he owns the nature of his father.’[33]*


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It mentions Sayyid Mosali’s case in the “Believers’ Sessions” in the fifth session, page 246.


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 (Behar al-Anwar", volume 15, the book of "al-Iman", page 115, in the book of "As-Sawaeegh al-Moharragha", page 79; and of ash-Shafiee, may Allah be pleased with.)



[1] Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 80.
[2] Apparently these expressions have no certain dates, however, at the time of the peace treaty with Mua'wiya the expression of "جماعت‏" was officially known, and as if the term of the Sunnite has also come to use at the same time. It can precisely said that: in the beginning, the expression of the Sunnite has come to use in front of the word "Mo'tazela", who considered the wisdom to be ultimate; just opposite "جماعت‏" and the republic who were obedience. And this expression came to use in the second, or the second part of the first century. That which was current at the time of Ash'ari was known as the Ashaerah which was applied to the Sunnite and the congregation. It was then the term Sunnite was found in front of the Shiite. After the third century when the "Mo'tazela" were perished only the just companions, the Shiite, remained. Apparently, the word "جماعت‏" too, which refers to the Sunnite, was found at that time. And the word Sunnite has not been used in front of the Shiite by the Imams.'
[3] Surah 38, "ص", Verse 27.
Surah 16, "نحل", Verse 120.
[5] "بحارالانوار", volume 8, page 2.
[6] "بحارالانوار", volume 15, the book of Faith, page 127.

[7] "بحارالانوار", volume 15, the book of Faith, page 127.
[8] "بحارالانوار", volume 15, the book of Faith, page 127.
[9] "Behar al-Anwar", volume 15, the Book of al-Iman, page 115 And it is in the book of " الصواعق المحرقة", page 79: from the statement of Ash-Shafiee, may Allah be pleased with him:

 قالُوا تَرَفَّضْتَ قُلْتُ كَلّا             وَ مَا الرَّفْضُ دِينى وَ لَا اعْتِقادى

‏ لكِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُ غَيْرَ شَكٍ             خَيْرَ امام وَ خَيْرَ هادى

‏ انْ كانَ حُبُّ الْوَلِىِّ رَفْضاً             فَانَّنى ارْفَض الْعِباد

 And similarly, he, may Allah be pleased with, says:

 يا راكِباً قِفْ بِالْمُحَصَّبِ مِنْ مِنى‏             وَ اهْتِفْ بِساكِنِ خَيْفِها وَ النّاهِضِ‏

سَحَراً اذا فاضَ الْحَجيجُ الى‏ مِنى‏             فَيْضاً كَمُلْتَطِمِ الْفُراتِ الْفائِضِ‏

انْ كانَ رَفْضاً حُبُّ آل مُحَمَّدٍ             فَلْيَشْهَدِ الثَّقَلانِ انِّى رافِضى 

[10] "موطّأ" Malik, volume 2, page 20-21, the book of al-Jihad, publication Egypt "دار احياء الكتب العربيّة", corrected and sustained by Muhammad Fo'Aad Abd-ul-Baqi. It is also on the page 18, volume 2, of "تنوير الحوالك‏", where the word "موطّأ" represent Malik – he has brought this narrative in text.
[11] "بحارالانوار", volume 15, the book of Moral, page 18 from Kolaini's "اصول كافى‏".
[12] Alla‘ma Amini, "الغدیر", volume 6, page 213.
[13] Alla‘ma Tabatabaee, "المیزان", volume 4, page 316.

[14] That is the verse: "سُبْحَانَ الّذى أسْرى‏ بِعَبدِهِ ليَلٍاً مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرامِ ... "which goes up to the end of the verse, he recited a whole chapter after reciting the chapter of "The Opening" (Al-Hamd.
[15] The term "قوب‏" means chicken and " قائب‏ " means " ذا قوب‏", therefore, it is called "قائب‏" when the egg is there, and the term "مقوب‏" is said to the hatched egg. As Omar considers the Hajj Pilgrimage with the state of the ritual consecration from the Appointed Station and Time, and he believes that the consecration from Mecca, after the Minor Hajj is not enough, as in the season of the Farewell Pilgrimage, after turning the rites of the Separation Hajj to the Minor Hajj, and the Enjoyment Hajj, which is necessary wearing the Hajj Garment from Mecca, he objected the Messenger of Allah by saying that: 'What does this Hajj mean, after entering Mecca, our youths are lying under the shades of Arak Trees while the drips of ablution after the sexual intercourse are down from their faces!' The Messenger said: "It is the command of Allah, it is not in my hand." Thus, Omar only approves the Hajj that the pilgrimage garment is worn in the Appointed Station and Time, and he does not approve wearing the Hajj Garment in Mecca after the Minor Hajj, and he says: 'The Hajj that after intercourse with the women is taken, is not a real Hajj, it is defected, it is battered and torn. Hajj is the one to be started from the Appointed Place and Time, or if they enter Mecca, not to perform the Hajj rites but wait with the Pilgrimage Garb on until the main time of Enjoyment Hajj approaches. Therefore, if one performs the Minor Hajj, that Minor Hajj is like an egg from which the chicken is hatched, and then, the egg is void of chicken. If someone fulfills the Minor Hajj, his benefit on that pilgrimage is only that one, but his main Hajj is not worthy. And as the Hajj is worthy in the sight of Allah, therefore, one must wear Pilgrimage Garment right from the Appointed Station and Time so that to enjoy his pilgrimage, otherwise it is considered worthless or is accepted as the personal hajj. Those who take the personal Hajj, after fulfilling it they leave Mecca and wear the Pilgrimage Garbs at the Mosque of Taneem or Joarrana, and then enter Mecca and perform and perform the personal Hajj; similar to Aisha as she was menstruating, she performed the rites of the Hajj, then, the Holiness commanded her to go to the Mosque of Taneem and wear the pilgrimage garb there and then return Mecca and fulfill the personal Hajj. It was what Omar had invented by saying: 'The personal Hajj is unlawful because it divides the Hajj and Hajj is appreciated by Allah. However, ibn Athir' in his the Word-finding Book, interprets Omar's saying in different way, he wants to say that: Omar's prohibiting the personal Hajj was that if people performed their Minor Hajj along with their Enjoyment Hajj then, they would not go to Mecca for a whole year and the Town would be left empty from the pilgrimages. He has said in "النهاية", concerning " مادّه قَوَب‏" the article of  " قَوَب" :

 و فى حديث عمر: «ان اعتمرتم فى اشهر الحجّ رأيتموها مجزئة عن حجّكم فكانت قائبة قوب عامها». ضرب هذا مثلًالخلوّ مكّة من المعتمرين فى باقى السّنة، يقال: قيبت البيضة فهى مقوبة إذا خرج فرخها منها، فالقائبة البيضة، و القوب الفرخ، و المعنى أنّ الفرخ اذا فارق بيضته لَم يُعد اليها و كذا اذا اعتمروا فى أشهر الحجّ لم يعودوا الى مكّة.

And he mentions the very statement in " لسان العرب‏". Let it be known that they want to cover the fault of Omar by saying it in this way. Omar clarifies it that the Hajj will be ruined and torn whereas it is all benefit, and as he says, the Minor Hajj is similar to the egg and its chicken that year, when the egg is hatched then it becomes empty, and there is no more Hajj in that year. This is quite difference from what the Messenger of Allah says, and there is no way to explain it. Because at the time of the Messenger of Allah those who took the Hajj Pilgrimage, after performing it, they could go to the Mosque of Taneem and wear the Pilgrimage Garbs there, and the necessity of the personal Hajj was that not to fulfill the Minor Hajj after that; to do it in the course of the year so that not to leave Mecca empty.'
[16] The meaning of " و نفارق عن ثلاث بطلاق‏" might be that: we would leave them after three days of enjoyment.
[17] In the narratives of the Household, the tradition of the Messenger of Allah is that if a slave girl becomes pregnant by her Master, then, after the death of her Master, she becomes the mother of the child and gets free by her child inheriting the Master; that is, the heritage is for the child, and the child cannot be the Master of his mother, then, she naturally becomes free. However, at the time of the Master's life, the child cannot get his mother's freedom without the Master's permission.
[18] The sentence " لأرتع‏" is of the section of the doer, so it means as: " ارتع فأشبع‏", 'I graze the cattle and feed the animals.' The allusion is that "I am a good shepherd; "أرْتَعَ الدَّابَّة: جَعَلَها تَرْتَع‏".'
(2) This narrative of Omar has been related by Tabary in his History Book, volume 3, page 29, and in "الغدير", volume 6, page 212by Tabary, and ibn Abi-al-Hadid in the "شرح النهج‏", volume 3, page 28 – Tabary and ibn Ghotaiba have related it. And in "تفسير الميزان‏" 'The Commentary of al-Mizan', volume 4, page 316 from Tabary, and ibn Abin a—Hadid in "شرح نهج البلاغه‏" 'The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha', which ibn Ghotaiba relates it.'
Surah 17, "اسراء", Verse 36.
Surah 53, "نجم", Verse 28.
[22] This narrative needs second consideration, first of all, it must be "هلموُّا" but not " هلم‏"; and then, the sentence: " فلا أراه يخلص" has to be: " فلا أراها تخلص‏", or it must be said: using هلمin singular is because of the singularity of the " زمرة ", but the pronoun being masculine is by referring to a thing; and the word " مَن‏ " and alike belong to the dull usages of them.
[23] "الغدير", volume 3, page 297.
[24] "المیزان فی تفسیر القرآن", volume 3, page 420.
[25] "الغدیر", volume 3, pages 296 & 297.
[26] "بحارالانوار", volume 8, pages 7 & 8.
[27] "روضه کافی", Akhoondi's publication, page 345.
[28] "روضه کافی", Akhoondi's publication, page 345.
Surah 16, "نحل", Verse 44.
[30] The subject of this noble book is that we the nation of the Shiite are bound over the clear statements of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, but the Sunnite are forming their own opinions against the clear statements of the Messenger, and give their verdicts. Similar to that which from the page of 97 on we explained; and in that fine book there are lots of other points to be considered.
[31] Cited from "تاریخ اسلام", magazine.
[32] Concerning these verdicts, one must refer to the authentic documents in the books of the Sunnite, because it seems to be rare their giving verdicts to these kinds of problems in their common books. It seems that the critics have used some of the verdicts by means of the others to bring up a unique meaning.
Surah 2, "بقرة", Verses 156 & 157.

The Late Nouri has related this narrative at the end of the “MOSTADRAK AL-WASAEEL” in the third ‘Faeeda’, page 460 and, here, we are going to mention it in short; as if Nouri, may Allah be pleased with him, has mentioned this from “MAJMA at-TAWARIKH” of Hafiz Aabrou, similar to Doctor KHANBABABEIABANI has brought it from Hafiz Aabrou in the“MAJMA at-TAWARIKH” (The copy of Malik, third volume, page 237), in ‘TA’LIGHA, page 101-104, under “JAMEI at-TAWARIKH” Rashidi, who also has related it from HAFIZ Aabro.

However, under the “JAMEI at-TAWARIKH” itself, from the page 100-103 of HAFIZ Aabro, he has shortly explained the cause of accepting the religion of Shiite. Somewhere he says: ‘At the time of Khajah Sa’d ad-Din Aawaji, who was gone through the doctrine of Shiite who was affected by the Commander of the believers, Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace, he was respected by the Sultan; and he was luring the Sultan to the religion of the Shiite. Sultan too, through his influence accepted the Shiite. He went so deep in his belief that for a long time he wiped out the name of the Sheikh as well as Othman from the sermons – he only mentioned the name of  Ali, upon him be peace.

And in the history of “Habib as-Seiar”, in volume 3, page 191, Khayyam Publishing Company, in the year 1333 solar year, Gheyath ad-Din bin Himam ad-Din Husseini who is known as Khan Emir says:

Sultan Muhammad Arghon Khan, who was famous as Ouljayto Sultan at the age of twenty-three, he took the rein and open a new era in progressing the Islam, the Shiite doctrine. He brought peace and shout the doors of the tyrannical and oppressions. He gave the position of the Ministry to his loyal brother (Ghazan Khan) whom he preferred to be more suitable than Khajeh Rashid bin Fazlollah and Khajeh Sadr ad-Din Muhammad. And decorated the Tablet for Islam by the blissful names of the immaculate Household, he had the names of the immaculate Imams be carved on the silver and gold coins. He was the first king from the dynasty of the Changes Khans who was honoured by the names of the Imams, peace be upon them and made silver and gold coins in their names.

And on the page 197 he says: Sheikh Jamal ad-Din Motah’har Hil’li was with Sultan Muhammad Khoda Banda at the same era, and that blissful king was guided by him to follow the Imamate.

And the late Mohammad Taqi Majlesi, first added the book «kindergarten pious» which explain «who do not attend jurisprudent» Author Nmudh Ast der skin insatiable New print-e Farhang Islamic Kohan or in book divorce within the guides invalidity to divorce Council and one of New p. 30 Ta r 33, the story of Al’lama’s discussion with the scholars of four different religions and Sultan Muhammad Khoda Banda’s accepting the  Shiite  doctrines, we are going to relate it in brief. The question of three times divorces was started at that session and it increased the belief in Sultan Muhammad. They started the story by an angry man who showed his anger toward his wife and shouted at her: انتِ طالِقٌ ثلاثاً  You are freed for three times ».

Then, he regretted of this action and he called the scholars together and after asking them his question, they all said: ‘There is no way for you to return that woman unless you look for a third party to marry her.’

Sultan said to them: ‘Concerning the questions of the jurisprudence, there are with everyone of you different verdicts, laws and rules, so do you not have any differences among you about them? ‘ They answered; ‘No.’

One of the Ministers of Sultan said: ‘There is a scholar in the town of Hil’la who believes this kind of divorce is void.’

Sultan wrote a letter and invited that learned man.

While they had gone after that certain man, the public clergy men said to Sultan: ‘Of course, the religion of that man is void, because he is RAFEZI; and mostly the RAFEZIS are unwise, so it is useless to send for such a person.’

The King said: ‘There is no way unless he comes here.’

When Al’lama Hil’li came to the King from Hil’li, the King called for all the clergy men of Four-Religions to come together in one place. The last one who entered the session was Al’lama who held his sandals in his hand and on entering the assembly room, saluted all by saying: ‘Peace be to you all.’

The Sunnite clergy men turned to the King saying: ‘Did we not tell you that these people are unwise?!’

Sultan said: ‘Now, ask him the reasons for all what he has done so far.’

First, the clergy men asked him: ‘Why did you not drop to prostrate in front of Sultan?’ By not doing so, you ignored the manner of visiting the Sultans.’

Al’lama said: ‘The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, was a Sultan but people saluted him by a simple “Peace be on you”; and Allah states:

فَإذا دَخَلْتُمْ بُيُوتاً فَسَلِّمُوا عَلى انْفُسِكُمْ تَحِيَّة مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ مُبارَكَة.

‘… so whenever you enter houses, greet one another with a blessed, clean and pure greeting by invoking Allah, (Qur’an: 24/61).’

 … and of course there is no difference between you and us in not prostrating to anyone but Allah!’

Those public scholars asked him: ‘So why did you sit in front of Sultan?’

Al’lama answered: ‘There was no room for me to sit except here.’ In the mean time, the interpreter was translating Al’lama’s sayings to Sultan.

The clergy men asked him: ‘Why did you take your sandals in hand and carried them into the session, for this is a peculiar thing to do by a wise man?’

Al’lama said: ‘I was afraid that the Hanafis might steal them, similar to Abu Hanifa who stool the sandals of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants.’

The Hanafis, present in the room, shouted: ‘Never, ever. You are totally lying! Abu Hanifa did not live at the time of the Messenger of Allah. Abu Hanifa was born a hundred years after the demise of the Messenger of Allah.’

Al’lama said: ‘It was my mistake, perhaps he was a Shafiee who stool the sandals of the Messenger of Allah.’

This time, the Shafiee’s clergy men shouted at him: ‘The birth day of Shafiee was exactly on the day Abu Hanifa passed away. And because respecting Abu Hanifa, Shafiee remained in his mother’s womb for four years; then, when Abu Hanifa passed away, Shafiee was born. The main life of Abu Hanifa was about two hundred years after the demise of the Messenger of Allah.’

This time, Al’lama said: ‘It might have been Malik who stool the sandals.’

The Malikis said the same thing that the Hanafis had said.

Next, Al’lama said: ‘Perhaps that this was Ahmad bin Hanbal.’

Hanbalis also said the same thing as the Shafiees had said.

Then, Al’lama looked at Sulatan and said: ‘O King, now did you understand none of the chiefs of the Four-Religions was at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, neither were they at the time of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah. This subject is of their renovation that among their clergy men they have chosen only these four; even if there were a man most knowledgeable of them they would still follow them – they never verdict against those four they have picked for themselves.’

Sultan Muhammad asked those clergy men: ‘Was not any of those four existed at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, or at the time of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah?,

All together they answered, ‘No.’

Al’lama said: ‘However, all of us, the Shiite, follow the Commander of the believers , who is the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, himself: he is his brother, cousin and the main successor of that Holiness.’

Anyhow, the divorce that is carried out by Sultan, is invalid, because its conditions has not been fulfilled. One of its conditions is two just witnesses; now, has the King divorced his wife in the presence of two just witnesses?’

Sultan answered:, ‘No.’

Al’lama began discussing about this question and he questioned the scholars sitting in the session in such a way that all of them agreed with him.

Sultan accepted the Shiite, and since then, he sent many groups to the different parts of the country  so that to sermon about the Twelve Immaculate Imams of the Shiite and write their names in the mosques and other worshipping places.

Some of those are still present in Isfahan: first of all are three different positions in the Old Mosque which have been written at the time of Sultan Muhammad Khoda-Banda himself, and the next one is in the “DAR AS-SEIADA” that Sultan Muhammad brought it up after his brother GHAZAN had started building it; and another one is that started by some of the benevolence and carries the title of “MIRZA GHALANDAR” in it.

There is another place, which I have witnessed it, where the names of the Twelve Imams have been written in it: one is the temple of “PIR BAKRAN” in “LINJAN” and has been built at the time of Sultan Muhammad, and those name are still existing there; and also another one is the worshipping place of “GHOT AL-AAREFIN”, NOUR ad-DIN ABDUSSAMD NATANZI, who is my far relative by the side of my mother – those name are still in this place of worship.

All praise belongs to the Lord of all being Who granted us such a blessing that in Isfahan, which is in the point of view of the Shiite, a distance place, has reached in such a place that in the entire city and all the surrounding villages (which is famous of having a thousand villages as Firouz Abadi has written in his dictionary) there is not a single non-Shiite, even if a single person is known to be Sunnite it believes to be baseless.

And from all town and cities which have had the Shiite population few towns are know to be like Isfahan whose population is all Shiite, and there be found a Sunnite religion in it like the towns of Jabalel Aamil and Toon and Aster Abad, Sanzwar, Tous, Tabriz, Ghum, Kufa , Mazandran, Kashan Kishmir, Tabbat, Heidar Abad, Aaba, Tastar, Bahrain, Howeza, and half of Sham and some others, like the ones Fazil Sayyid Nourallah has mentioned them in his book “Majalis al-Momenin”, because in most of these towns, except the people of truth, no other section is found.   

All praise belongs to the Lord of all being that all Iran’s towns and cities are filled up with the Shiites, even they are in the Holy Shrines of Mecca and Medina, Ghazvin, Gilan, Hamedan and the Fars cities, Yazd and about it and even in Basra.

And we hope that Allah, the Almighty, hasten the advent of the Existing offspring of Muhammad, may Allah bless them, until all parts of the land through the entire world witness the Right Government, and then, the Right to overtake the invalid governments, and also the Government-ship of the Descendant of Muhammad be set up in their places. As Allah has promised:

 وَعَدَ اللهُ الَّذين آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَ عَمِلْوا الصَّالِحاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِى الْارْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ وَ لَيُمَكّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دينَهُمُ الَّذِى ارْتَضى‏ لَهُمْ وَ لَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ امْناً يَعْبُدُونَنى لَا يُشْرِكُوَن بىِ شَيْئا.

‘… Allah has promised those of you who have believed and done honourable deeds to be [the present Rulers’] successors on the earth, just as He made those before you the exalted rulers; and that He will surely establish their religion for them, which He has approved for them, and will give them in exchange, after their fear, confidence.

So that they should worship Me and do not associate anything else with Me, (Qur’an: 24/55).’

In the book of “Reihant-ul-Adab”, the Late Muhammad Ali Modarres, along with his statement on explaining the condition of Al’lama Hil’li (from the page 167 up to 179, the fourth volume, the second press which is published in Tabriz), he also explains the state of this great scholar. While explaining in “MAN LA YAHZORHO AL-FEQH” of Majlisi, the first, he states the story of “AL-JAYTO and Sultan Muhammad’s embracing the Shiite – as we stated it in details previously. However, as it included more explanation, we only interpreted the statement of the first Majlisi so that to consider the laws of interpreting.  

And also Ghazi Norollah Shoshtary, has put this in the book of “Believers’ Sessions”, under two subjects: first, in the fifth session, in the history of Allama Hilli , from page 235 to 248, and the second in the session eight, about the biography of Sultan Muhammad Khoda Banda, from page 402 to 405.

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