In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 54-56: The statement of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace that the meaning of شاهِدٌ is the Holiness himself.

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The statement of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace that the meaning of شاهِدٌ is the Holiness himself.

The third are the narratives from the Holiness concerning the conditions of revelation of this verse, and there is no second party but the Holiness himself states: ‘I am aware of the whole nation’s conditions, as well the Quraish on top, and I know all the verses that have been sent down: whether they are the verses promising paradise or the verses threatening from the hell.’

At that moment, ibn Kawwa stood up and asked: ‘Which verse has been revealed concerning you?’ As I see, there is no name of you in these verse, they only say: (A man stood up and asked such question and the Holiness answered)

    أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَة مِن رَبِّهِ وَ يَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِنْه.

“The Messenger of Allah is the evidence by the Creator and I am the witness alongside him.”

Then, the Holiness commented on it saying: the purpose of the evidence by Allah means the Messenger of Allah and I am the witness alongside him.

In some of these narratives he says: “By Allah, I wish you knew how great amount of virtues Allah has honoured to the Household of the Messenger of Allah which is better for me than all the red gold or the white silver on the surface of the earth,”

Among all these narratives there is one that ibn Moghazeli Shaeiee has related from Ebad bin Abdullah, he says:

سَمِعْتُ عَلِيّاً يَقُول: ما نَزَلَتْ آية فِى كِتابِ الله جَلَّ وَ عَزَّ إلّا وَ قَدْ عَلِمْتُ مَتى نَزَلت؟ وَ فِيمَ انزِلَتْ؟ وَ مَا مِن قُريشٍ رَجُلٌ إلّا قَدْ نَزَلَتْ فِيهِ آية مِن كِتابِ اللهِ تَسُوقُهُ إلى جَنَّة اوْ نارٍ. فَقامَ اليهِ رَجُلٌ فَقالَ: يا أميرَالمُؤمنِينَ فَما نَزَلتْ فِيكَ؟ فَقالَ: لَو لَا انَّكَ سَأَلْتَنِى عَلَى رُووُسِ المَلاء مَا حَدَّثْتُكَ! امَا تَقْرَأ: أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَة مِن رَبِّهِ وَ يَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِنْهُ؟ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ عَلَى بَيِّنَة مِن رَبِّه وَ انَا الشَّاهِدُ مِنْهُ، اتْلُوهُ وَ أتَّبِعُهُ. وَ اللهِ لانْ تَعْلَمُونَ مَا خَصَّنَا اللهُ عَزّ وَ جَلَّ بِهِ اهلَ البَيْتِ احَبُّ إلَىَّ مِمّا عَلَى الارضِ مِن ذَهَبَة حَمرآءَ أَ فِضَّة بَيضاءَ. [86]

This narrative has been related in brief by ibn Moghazeli, and Sheikh Soleiman Ghandouzi,[87] and Siyu:ti from Abu Hatam, and Madoweia and Abu Naeem Isfahani in the book of “MA‘RAFAt AS-SAHABA”,[88] and Hakim Haskani under the narrative of 375, by means of his own documents from Abbad bin Abdullah. And also under the narrative of 377 from Bassam bin Abdullah, the narrative number 378 from Abdullah bi Najji. And the narrative 379 by another document from Jabir quoting Abdullah bin Najji, and also the narrative 386, from Zadan.[89] And also Abu Naeem Isfahani, has related it in his translation of the Commander of the believers in the book of “MA‘RAFAt AS-SAHABA”, page 22 by his own document from Tabrani quoting Abbad bin Abdullah Asadi.[90] And also in his commentary, Tabari has brought it under the Noble Verse, volume 12, page 15 by means of his own documents and quoting Abdullah bin Yahya.[91] And Abul-Fotoh Razi, has mentioned it from the “Commentary of Thalabi”, from Habib bin Yasar quoting Zadan.[92] And Al‘lāma Sayyid Hashim Bahrani in Ghāyat al-Maram of the Sunnite, the fifth narrative, section sixty-one – by his documents quoting Jabir bin Abdullah,[93] and Wahedi by his own documents from Abbad bin Abdullah, under the narrative seventh,[94] and also in the book of “Noshul Khatib” referring to Ibn Kawwah[95] under the narrative of 14th, and also from Ghazi Othman bin Ahmad and Abu Nasr Foshairi in their books under the narrative 15th, [96] and also from Thalabi referring to the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, under the narrative 19th,[97] and also from ibn Moghazeli Shafiee referring to Abbad bin Abdullah Asadi under the narrative twentieth,[98] And also from Jabari under the narrative twenty-first,[99] and also from ibn Abi al-Hadid, in the “Commentary of Nahj-ul-Balagha” from Abdullah bin Harith, under the narrative number twenty-two,[100] and also from ibn Abi al-Hadid in the “Sharh-an-Najh” from the owner of the book “Gharat”, from the Menhal bin Omar and relates from Abdullah bin Harith: Ghāyat al-Maram, section 60, narrative 23, page 360. And by the Shiite, from Sheikh Tousi in Amali, by means of his document from the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, under the narrative four , section sixty-two,[101] and also from Sheikh Mofid in Amali, by his documents from Abbad bin Abdullah, under the narrative six,[102] and also of Ayyashi from Jabir bin Abdullah bin Yahia quoting the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, under narrative nine,[103] and from Ali bin Isa Arbeli, in the “Kashf al-Ghamma”,[104] from Abbad bin Abdullah Asadi quoting the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.

And Al‘lāma Tabatabaee, his blessing may be extended, from the commentary of “Ad-dorr al-Mansour”, extracting by Abu Naeem and ibn Abi Hatam  and ibn Mardoweiia has quoted the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.[105] and Al‘lāma Majlisi has related from Amali, Sheikh Da‘bal from Imam Reza quoting his great grandfathers  quoting he has related it,[106] and also from “Ali bin Ibrahim in his commentary ” and by the means of his documents, has quoted Abu Basir and Fazil bin Yasar have quoted the statement of the Holiness Imam Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace.[107] and from “The Argument” of Sheikh Tabarsi, from Salim bin Ghais Hilali Kufi,[108] and also from “Basaeerad-Darajat”, by his own documents from Asbaw bin Nabata, [109] and also from “the commentary of Ay‘yashi” from boraidin Mua‘wiyah ijli from the Holines, Imam Muhammad Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace,[110] and in “Tafsir Ay‘yashi” from Jabir bin Ansariquoting Abdullah bin Yahya,[111] and in “Managhib” ibn Shahr Aashub from Tafrir Tabari, by means of his documents quoting Jabir bin Abdullah quoting the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. from Asbagh Nabata and the Holiness Zain al-Aabedin and the Holiness Imam Bāqir and Imam Sādiq and Imam Reza, Upon Them be Peace,[112] and also from the “Majalis” of Shekh Mofid, by means of his documents from Abbad bin Abdullah,[113] and from the “Tafsir Forat bin Ibrahim”, by eight documents, first from Hussein bin Saeed, by his own documents from Abbad bin Abdullah,[114] the second from Ja‘far bin Muhammad Fozari, by his documents from Zadan,[115] the third from Hassan bin Saeed by his documents from Zadan,[116] the fourth from Ja‘far bin Muhammad bin Hisham by his documents from Hassan bin Hussein,[117] the fifth from Hussein bin Hakam, by his documents from Abdullah bin Ata from the Holiness Imam Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace,[118] the sixth is from Hussein bin Saeed, by his own documents from Zadan – but different from the previous text,[119] the seventh is from Muhammad bin Isa bin Zakareiia Dehghan, by means of his documents from Abbad bin Abdullah,[120] the eighth is from Abid bin Kathir, by his documents from Abdullah bin Yahya,[121] and also from “Kashf al-Ghamma” from Abu Bakr Mardoweiia quoting Abbad bin Abdullah Asadi,[122] and also from “TARAEEF” of Sayyid bin Tawous from ibn Moghazeli[123] have been related.

However, all these foregoing narrative, as well the previous ones are apparently explaining the very subject that the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, lectured it on the pulpit in Kufa. In that sermon, he also referred to his vast knowledge. It was then a man stood up and asked the Holiness about any verse concerning the Holiness. Soon after, the Holiness continued commenting on the verse concerning his own condition, then he went on mentioning the subjects related to that commentary of the verse. Now, as it has been quoted by the Holiness, his straight statements have been rotated and explained in indirect speech. But what is clear is that the man’s question was the condition of the revelation of the verse which Sheikh Abu al-Fotoh Razi has related from the book “Nash-ul-Khatib” that once, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, stated it on the pulpit in Kufa:

سَلُونِى قَبْلَ أن تَفْقِدُونِى فَإنَّ العِلْمَ يَفيضُ بَيْنَ جَنبَىَّ فَيضاً لَوْ وَجَدَ مُسْتفاضاً. الا وَ إنَّكُمْ لَن تَسألُونِى عَنْ فِئَة باغِيَة وَ اخرى هادِيَة إلّا اخْبَرْتُكُمْ بِهاديها وَ باغِيهَا وَ سائِقها وَ قائدِهَا إلى يَومِ القِيَامَة.

‘Do ask me [whatever you want] before missing me for indeed the ocean of knowledge within me is flourishing to burst out at any moment. I have the right answer to let you know concerning any oppressive tribe or the well-guided one you ask me about. And I will inform you about their leaders and Imam, and also their followers up to the Day of Resurrection.’

Next ibn Kawwa got up and said:

مَا ادَّعى مِثْلَهُ نَبِىُّ وَ لَا وَصِىُّ.

‘Neither a messenger nor a successor has claimed like him, (Ali bin Abī Tālib).

The Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, told him: ‘By saying so, your aim is not learning something but you are trying to find a fault and blame me.’ Ibn Kawwa said: But we are instructed to ask whatever we know not about. The Holiness stated: سَلْ تَفقُّهاً وَ لَا تَسأل تَعَنُّتاً  ‘[Of course, but] ask in anyway to learn but to fine fault to blame;’ وَ سَلْ عَمَّا يَعْنيكَ  and ask about what benefits you!’

Ibn Kawwa said: I try to ask only the subjects that are useful to me.

The Holiness stated: ‘Go on, ask me.’ He said:

اخْبِرنى مَا الذَّارِياتِ ذَرْواً؟ قالَ: تِلْكَ الرِّياحُ .

Tell me what is the purpose of “ZARE‘IAT” in the Glorious Qur’an?

The Holiness answered: ‘It means the winds which blow.’

He asked: What “Al-HAMILAT-e-WEQRA” meant?

The Holiness stated: ‘Its meaning is the clouds bearing heavy rains.’

Then, he asked what the meaning of: “AL-JAREIAT-e-YOSRA” was?

The Holiness stated: ‘It means the ships easily sailing in the sea.’

He asked to know what “AL-MOGHAS‘SEMAT-e-AM‘RAN” was.

The Holiness said it meant the angels who shared and distributed the provisions of the creatures among them.

He said: Tell me where the “BAIT AL-MA‘MOUR” is.

The Holiness answered: ‘It is a Mansion in the heavens where each day seventy thousand angels enter it and there will be no second chance for the first ones to enter it until the Day of Resurrection.’

He asked to know whether DHUL-QARNAYN, (The Double-Horned One), was a king or prophet.

The Holiness answered he was neither a king nor a prophet, but he was a righteous slave of Allah – he loved Allah so did Allah love his; he advised the slaves of Allah.’

He asked to know whether his horns were from gold or silver.

The Holiness stated that he had no horns to be called gold or silver; but once, when he was inviting his tribe to Allah, some struck him on the head, and in another occasion, they hit him on the other side of his head, that is why he was called the DHUL-QARNAYN, (The Double-Horned One). By the way, there is one alike him among you; (his allusion was the Holiness himself who was struck twice on the head by the swords: one in Ghazwa-e-Ahzab when Amru bin Abdud struck him on the head with his sword, and another one in the worshipping altar when ibn Moljam Moradi struck him on the head. That is why the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stated: “Ali is the righteous and the awesome DHUL-QARNAYN of this nation.” [124]

Then, he said: Inform me to know about whom this verse has been revealed?

 أَلَمْ تر إِلَى الَّذِينَ بَدَّلُوا نِعْمَة اللَهِ كُفْرًا وَ أَحَلُّوا قَوْمَهُمْ دَارَ البَوارِ؟ 

The Holiness said:

هُمَا الاقجَرانِ مِن قُرَيشٍ بَنُو امَيَّة وَ بَنُوا المُغيرَة   

‘It is about two the worst debauchees of the Quraish: the Banu Omayyad and Banu al-Moghaira.’ He said tell me about this statement of Allah, the Exalted:

 قُلْ هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِالَاخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالًا؟

Say: Should I inform you of the worst deeds?

The Holiness said:

 أهل حَوْراء يعنى خوارج

It is about the tribe of ‘HRIRA’, that is, Khawaridje.’ Then, he asked what مَجرَّه was.

Stated he: شِراجُ السَّماءِ مِنها هَبَطَ المَاءُ المُنهَمِرُ  that is, the courses in the heavens similar to the channels on the earth where the heavy rain-water runs through.’ Next he asked to know what the “قوس و قزحthe rainbows were.

The Holiness said: ‘Do not say ‘قزح’for it is name of Demon and Satan; say ‘قوس الله’ which is the means to save.’

He said: Let me know of the waning [of the moon], so Holiness recited this verse:

وَ جَعَلْنَا الَّيْلَ وَ النَّهارَ ءَايَتَيْنِ فَمَحُونَا ءَايَة الَّيْلِ وَ جَعَلنَا ءَايَة النَّهارِ مُبْصِرَة  

and We appointed the night and the day as two signs. Then We have made the sign of night dark, but made the sign of the day illuminating, so that you may seek bounty...’

He said: Inform me of the companions of the Messenger of Allah.

The Holiness stated: ‘Which of them shall I inform you from?’ He said: From Abdullah Masoud.

The Holiness stated: قَرَأ القُرآنَ ثُمَّ وَقَفَ عِندَهُ ‘He recited the Qur’an and he ceased instantly.’ Then, he said: Tell me of Abizarr.

The Holiness stated: عَالِمٌ شَحيحٌ عَلى عِلْمِه he was jealous of his knowledge, he did not like to teach it to the incompetent.’ He said: Tell me about Salman.

The Holiness stated:

أدْرِكَ عِلْمَ الاوَّلِ وَ الاخِرَة وَ هُوَ بَحْرٌ لَا يُنْزحُ وَ مَن لَكَ بِلُقْمَانَ الحَكِيمِ وَ هُوَ مِنّا أهْلَ البَيْت.

‘Salman learned the whole knowledge from A to Z; he is a deep sea whose water comes never to an end, he is similar to Lugman Hakim – he is of us the Household.’ He asked him to tell him of Hozaifat bin al-Yaman.

The Holiness stated:

عَرَافٌ بِالمُنافِقِينَ، وَ سَأَلَ رَسُولَ اللهِ عَنِ المُعْضَلَاتِ، وَ إنْ سَأَلْتُمُوهُ وَجَدتُمُوهُ خَبيراً بِهَا

‘Hozaifat would clearly make out the hypocrites among the nation, he would ask the Messenger of Allah about his difficult problems; if you came across to him, you would know how aware he was [in solving the problems].’ He asked to know about Am‘mār Yasir.

The Holiness stated:

خَالَطَ الإسلامُ لَحْمَهُ وَ دَمَهُ وَ هُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَى النّارِ، كَيْفَما دَارَ الحقُّ دَارَ مَعَهُ.

‘Islam’s blood was mixed up with Islam and therefore, the Fire is not permitted to touch him; why shouldn’t he, Am‘mār was after Right and Right would follow him everywhere.’

Next he said: Tell me about yourself.

The Holiness stated:

قالَ اللهُ تَعالىَ: فَلَا تُزَكُّوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَ كَذلِكَ قَالَ: وَ أمَّا بِنِعْمَة رَبِّكَ فَحَدِّث.

‘Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, states: “Do not speak highly of yourselves,” and He states: “But mention of the blessings of your Lord [He has bestowed upon you].”

كُنتُ أوَّلَ داخِلٍ وَ آخِرِ خَارِجٍ، وَ كُنتُ إذا سَأَلْتُ أعطِيتُ وَ إذا سَكَتُّ ابْتُديتُ، وَ بَيْنَ جَوانِحِى عِلمٌ جَمٌّ.

‘I was the first entering [the debate], and I was the last banding it. It was because I had requests and kept on questioning; they would spontaneously honour me when I kept quiet – that is why I am surrounded with knowledge.’ He said: Which verse of the Qur’an is about you?

The Holiness said: ‘Do you not recited the chapter of Hood (hüd):

أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَة مِن رَبِّهِ وَ يَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِنْه.

“The Messenger of Allah is the evidence by the Creator and I am the witness alongside him.”

Ibn Kawwa said:وَ حَقِّكَ لَا اتَّبَعْتُ أحَداً بَعْدَك   By your righteousness, I will not follow anyone but you.’[125]

The Late Mirza Abu al-Hassan She‘rani in the marginal annotation of commentary of this verse says: ‘Majlisi has related this narrative in “Behar al-Anwar”, the section of Ibrahim Thaghafi, but instead of the plural form:  شِراج السماء he has put the singular form of it as: شرج السماء  and it means the channel of the water. [126] (As if the Holiness was to compare the light course in the heavens with the water channels on the surface of the land).

Anyhow, this sermon of the Holiness, on the pulpit in Kufa, seems to be after the event of Nahrawan, when the martyrdom of the Holiness was very close, for by saying: سَلُونِى قَبْلَ أن تَفْقِدُونِى  he clearly states the oncoming event. And a good proof is that the Holiness has mentioned the origin of this sermon in the Nahj-ul-Balagha, and in that sermon, the Holiness has well explained the case of Nahrawan and the overthrown of the Khawaridj:

أمّا بَعْدُ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ فَأنَا فَقَأتُ عَيْنَ الفِتْنَة وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَجْرُءَ عَلَيْها أحَدٌ غَيْرِى بَعْدَ أن ماجَ غَيْهَبُهَا وَ اشْتَدَّ كَلَبُها، فَأسأَلُونِى قَبْلَ أن تَفْقِدُونِى، فَوَالَّذى نَفْسى بِيَدِهِ لَا تَسأَلُونِى عَنْ شَى‏ءٍ فِيما بَيْنَكُمْ وَ بَيْنَ السَّاعَة وَ لَا عَن فِئَة تَهْدِى مَائِة وَ يَضِلُّ مِائَة إلّا أَنْبَأئُكُمْ بِنَاعِقِهَا وَ قَائِدِها وَ سَائِقِها وَ مُناخِ رِكابِهِا وَ مَحطِّ رِحالِهَا وَ مَن يُقْتَلُ مِن أهْلِهِا قَتْلًا وَ يَمُوتُ مِنهُم مَوْتاً، وَ لَوْ قَدْ فِقَدْتُمُونِى وَ نَزَلَتْ بِكُمْ كَرائِهُ الامورِ وَ حَوازِبُ الخُطُوبِ لاطْرُقَ كَثيرٌ مِنَ السَّائِلِينَ وَ فَشِلَ كَثيرٌ مِنَ المَسْئولِينَ.[127]

‘And then, O people, I am the same man who could drag out the eye of sedition out of its eye-socket [and ruin the Khawaridj altogether], no one else dared doing so but I. Yes, I uprooted them all when their oppressions had stretched all over everywhere, and their madness disease had reached the highest level and effected almost everyone. O people, do ask me whatever you want before you missing me from among you. By Him, in whose hand my soul remains, you are not asking me any event occurs you now until the Day of Judgement; and you are not asking me about him who whether guides hundreds of the people or misleads them – you do not care until I inform you who the founder of those people were and who is leading them, which direction they are driven to, and where they are going to unload their luggage. And which one of those men is going to die naturally and is going to be killed!

If I pass away and the condition for you becomes unpleasant, and you are hopeless and depressed, and those of you who have questions come to the loose end for there is no one to answer them – because those who are asked are the weakest among the people.

The preceding was a collection of narratives concerning the occasion of revelation of the verse:

 أَفَمَنْ كَانَ عَلَى بَيِّنَة مِن رَبِّهِ وَ يَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِنْهُ  

which is sent down about the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.

Now, it must become clear that what the word شَاهِدٌ  stands for, and what يَتْلُوهُ means. And also what is the virtue of the title of martyrdom for the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. As the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, states:

مَا أَنزلَ اللهُ آيَة فِى القرآنِ فِيها يَا أيُّها الَّذين آمَنوا إلّا و عَلى رَأسُها وَ أميرُها و شِريفُها، فَلَقَدْ عاتَبَ اللهُ أصحابَ مُحَمَّدٍ فِى القُرآنِ، وَ مَا ذَكَرَ عَلِيًّا إلّا بخَيرٍ.[128]

 ‘Allah has not sent down any verse in the Qur’an beginning with يَا أيُّها الَّذين آمَنوا but pointing out that Ali bin Abī Tālib is the chief, boss and the commander. And the most perfect part of these verses states the Commander of the believers , Upon Him be Peace.

In ant case, answering that man question concerning the occasions of revelation of the verses in the Qur’an, the Holiness has made it clear that the part وَ يَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِنْهُ refers to him.

Here, it becomes quite clear that the title of شَاهِدٌ  is so great and exalted that no position or degree can be compared with it; even the verses:

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلوة وَ يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوة وَ هُمْ رَاكِعُون.[129]

And the verse:

يأيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَبِّكَ.[130]

And the verse:

اليَومَ يَئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينُكُمْ[131]

And continues after that with the verse:

اليَومَ أَكْمَلْتُ دِينَكُم وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِى وَ رَضِيتُ لَكُم الإسْلمَ دِينًا.[132]

Which the occasions of revelation of all are about that Holiness, and they are showing the highest status and the degree of his, cannot stand for the verse وَ يَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِنْهُ

Although the word of شَاهِدٌ here means enunciating the witness but without enduring that, it is irrational. That is, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. Has tolerated all difficulties, and attained enormous knowledge and perfections  and the specialties that is the very Light of the prophetic missions and the divine specific insight. In other words, he has received the very divine specification that was honoured to Generous Messenger of Allah.

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The position and relation of the Commander of the believers with the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants

Therefore, in this verse, the witness of the Holiness is leveled with the prophetic mission or the divine specific insight, and the Holiness himself has been compared with the main evidence, the Messenger of Allah.

The reliable proof to these narratives is that from the Holiness Messenger of Allah which the Shiite and Sunnite have related it.

They have related that the Holiness has stated: “Allah, the Exalted, has created the light of us, Ali and I, from a single source. And also the Holiness has stated:[133] عَلِىٌّ مِنِّى كَنَفسى ‘Ali’s relation to me is as my soul to me.’

He has also stated:[134] أنتَ مِنِّى بِمَنزِلَة هَارُونَ مِن مُوسَى إلّا أنَّهُ لا نَبِىَّ بَعْدى ‘Your relation to me is as Moses’ brother Aaron to Moses except that there is not a messenger after me.’ It means that in all aspects, even in the territory of the prophets and the divine insight and the light of the messenger-hood that Allah has honoured them, you are like of them except having the position of the messenger-hood. And the best reason is that the Messenger-hood has ended with me and there will be no messenger after me.’

And the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, says that:

وَ انَا مِن رَسُولِ اللهِ كَالصِّنو مِنَ الصِّنو وَ الذّراعِ مِنَ العَضُد.[135]

‘My relation to the Messenger of Allah is like two branches grown from a unique base and root, or it is like an arm to elbow.’

Anyway, as the شهاده  means attendance and شَاهِدٌ is present, then, the sentence وَ يَتْلُوهُ شَاهِدٌ مِنْهُ denotes that the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, who is from the Messenger himself, has always that evidence and the divine light with him, and he was quite clear of that. And this verse:    

قُلْ كَفَى بِاللَهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِى وَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَ مَن عِندَهُ عِلْمُ الْكِتب.[136]

 is similar to that foregoing verse.  It is because the root and meaning of شَهِيد and شَاهِد are the same, and we already said that it is well understood from the verse that the Commander of the believers’ witnessing is similar to Allah’s witness, here too, the witness of the Holiness is at the level of the prophet-hood of the Messenger of Allah.

It is obvious that the necessity of this witnessing that being attentive in the secrets, the divine knowledge and the degrees of the prophet-hood is owning the best degrees of proximity and being annihilated in the Essence of the Unity, over dominating between the Messenger of Allah and Gabriel, being certain of the source of the facts and finally quenching by the endless knowledge of Creator, Glory to him.

However, it must be known that the word يَتْلُوهُ denotes the that the status of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, is side by side with the status of  the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, therefore, the Imamate and successorship of the Holiness after the Messenger of Allah can logically been reasoned.

The virtue and perfection has been transferred to the Commander of the believers through the Messenger of Allah, the Messenger of Allah was his Master, instructor and the trainer; it is clear that the soul of the Messenger was more stronger than Ali’s soul. Therefore, whatever some poets and mystics have said and considered that the Holiness is prior to the Messenger of Allah, and they have considered the Messenger to be just a preliminary guide for him, and moreover, they have reasoned that Ali has climbed up to the shoulders of the Messenger to destroy the idols on the House of Ka‘ba, are totally wrong. A good proof is Ali’s own saying: 

وَ قَدْ عَلِمْتُمْ مَوْضِعِى مِن رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ بِالقَرابَة القَريبَة وَ المَنْزِلَة الخَصِيصَة، وَ ضَعَنِى فِى حِجرِهِ وَ انَا وَلِيدٌ يَضُمُّنى إلَى صَدْرِهِ، وَ يَكْتُفُنى إلَى فِرِاشِهِ، وَ يُمِسُّنِى جَسَدَهُ، وَ يُشِمُّنى عَرَفَهُ، وَ كَانَ يَمْضُعُ الشّى‏ءِ ثُمَّ يُلْقِمُنِيهِ وَ مَا وَجَدَ لِى كَذْبَة فى قْلٍ وَ لَا خَطْلَة فِى فِعْلٍ. وَ لَقَد قَرَنَ اللهُ بِهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ مِنْ لَدُن أَن كَانَ فطيماً أعْظَمَ مَلَكٍ مِن مَلَا ئِكَتِهِ يَسْلُكُ بِهِ طَرِيقَ المَكارِمِ وَ مَحاسِنِ أخْلَاقِ العَالَمِ لَيْلَهُ وَ نَهارَهُ. وَ لَقَدْ كُنتُ اتَّبِعُهُ اتِّباعَ الفَصْلِ اثَرَ امِّهِ، يَرْفَعُ لِى فِى كُلِّ يَوْمٍ مِن اخلاقِهِ عَلَماً وَ يَأمُرُنِى بِالاقْتِداءِ بِهِ. وَ لَقَدْ كَانَ يُجاوِرُ فِى كُلِّ سَنَة بِحراءَ فَأراهُ وَ لَا يَراهُ غَيْرِى وَ لَمْ يَجْمَع بَيْتٌ واحِدٌ يَومَئِذٍ فِى الإسْلَامِ غَيْرَ رَسُولِ الله صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّم وَ خَديجَة وَ أَنا ثَالِثُهُمْ، أرَى نُورَ الوزحْىِ وَ الرِّسالَة وَ أشُمُّ ريحَ النُّبُوة، وَ لَقَدْ سَمِعْتُ رَنَّهَ الشَّيْطانِ حينَ نَزَلَ الوَحْىُ عَلَيْهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ! مَا هَذِهِ الرَنَّهُ؟ فقالَ: هَذَا الشَّيْطانُ ايِسَ مِن عِبادَتِهِ، إنَّكَ تَسْمَعُ مَا اسْمَعُ وَ تَرَى مَا أرَى إلّا أنَّكَ لَسْتَ بِنَبِىٍّ وَ لَكِنَّكَ وَزيرٌ وَ إنَّكَ لَعَلى خَيرٍ. الخطبة [137]

‘O people, you know my position and relation with the Messenger of Allah, that how much closer I was to him, my specific condition in front of him. In my infancy, the Messenger of Allah let me sit in his laps, he pressed me in his chest, and let me lie in his bed, he cuddled me and let me smell his fragrance. Finding me to weak to dine, he chewed the food then putting it my mouth. Since then, up to his demise, he did not hear me to lie and he did not notice an unpleasant action with me.

Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, assigned the greatest angel among His angels to accompany the Messenger of Allah from his infancy, when he was still suckling, up to the time he lead him to the best morale attitudes. He would constantly teach him the best attributes and moralities, and I also followed him – like a young camel that is separated from its mother to suckle and it chases its mother – I used to follow the Messenger. I followed his way life and attitudes, he too taught me all the time the best of attributes and good characters.

Every year, he used to go to the Mount of Hera and settled there, I was also with him, no one but I could see him and no one knew what he was doing there. At that time, there was not a Muslim house all around the world except the house of the Messenger of Allah where three Muslims were in: the Messenger of Allah, Khadija and I that was third one.

At that time, I could see the Light of the Revelation and the Messenger-hood, and I smelled the cute fragrance of it. I heard the cry of Satan at the time when the revelation was sent down to the Messenger, I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah, what is this cry for?’ The Messenger of Allah answered: “This is the cry of Satan, he has become hopeless to be worshipped by people so cry out his anger. O Ali, you hear whatever I hear, and you see what I see; the only difference is that you are not a messenger, however, you are my Minister and all your affairs are correct and are based on rightness by the signature of Allah.”

By this sermon of the Holiness it becomes clear that the position of the Commander of the believers was lower than the Messenger of Allah, and in regarding to the prophet-hood he had the rank as a Minister and all his knowledge and perfection was through the Messenger. The Holiness Messenger of Allah was a step ahead – he was at the first step and the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, was a step below him; the pose of Unity, sincerity and praise were transferred to the Holiness by the Messenger of Allah. As in his commentary, Phorat bin Ibrahim, has related by means of his documents quoting from the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, quoting his father who he had quoted the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stating that: “When Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, brings the whole creatures together on the Day of Resurrection, He will promise me the most laudable position and He will fulfill His promise.

On the Day of Resurrection, they will set up a pulpit for me having a thousand steps, then, I will climb that pulpit and sit on the uppermost step. At that moment Gabriel comes to me and puts the ‘Banner of Praise” in my hand saying: ‘O Muhammad, this is the laudable position that Allah has already promised to you.’

Then, I say to Ali bin Abī Tālib: ‘Climb up the pulpit.’ He ascends it up, a step lower than I, and stands there, I hand over the ‘Banner of Praise” to him. After that, Rizwan, the Treasurer of Paradise comes with the keys of Paradise with him, he gives the keys to me and says: ‘O Muhammad, this the position that Allah has promised you,’ and right then, I hand over the keys to Ali. Soon after him, the Treasurer of Hell comes, he too gives me the keys of the Hell and says: ‘O Muhammad, this the position that Allah has promised you, now send your enemies, as well the enemies of your nation to Hell.’ I give those keys to Ali bin Abī Tālib.[138] There are numerous similar narratives with this subject-matter and they have been related by Ali bin Ibrahim in his “Commentary”,[139] ibn Babweiia Ghommi in the book of “Amali”,[140] Sheikh Tousi in the book of “Amali”[141] and also ibn Babweiia Sheikh Sadough in the book of “Khisal”.[142]

And the others are the narratives denoting the Commander of believers, Upon Him be Peace, beseeches the Messenger of Allah on the Day of Resurrection and obtains his position and state through him. As Phorat bin Ibrahim, by means of his documents from  Soleiman Deilami, quotes the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, quoting the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, stating: ‘The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stated:

ثُمَّ يُدعَى بِكَ فَيَتَّطاوَلُ إلَيْكَ الخَلائِقُ فَيَقُولُونَ مَا يُعْرَفُ فِى النَّبِيِّين فَيُنادى مُنادٍ: هَذَا سَيِّدُ الوَصِيِّنَ، ثُمَّ تَصْعَدُ فَتُعانِقُ عَلَيْهِ، ثُمَّ تَأخُذُ بُحجزَتى وَ آخُذُ بِحُحزَة اللهِ وَ هُوَ الحَقُّ وَ تَأخُذُ ذُرِّيَّتُكَ بِحُجزَتِكَ وَ تَأخُذُ شِيعَتُكَ بِحُجزَة ذُرِّيَّتِكَ.[143]

‘O Ali, [on the Day of Resurrection], they will call you, and as soon as you enter the arena for gathering, all the creatures rise their heads saying: ‘We have not seen such a man among all the messengers.’ At that moment, the Caller calls : “This is the Master and Leader of all the successors of the messengers.” Then, you Ali, will climb the pulpit I am sitting on, we greet each other and by clinging at my robe you beseech me; I also beseech Allah, glory be to Him, Who is the Right One. Then, you will notice that all your descendants beseech you while your followers beseech your family and off spring.”

And also from the cooperative and even successive narratives are that the Messenger of Allah has taken the Commander of the believers as his brother and in this way, the virtues and perfections of the Messenger of Allah have been conveyed to him – because the Messenger has called him to be his brother not the Commander of the believers. The title of brotherhood is the nobility and honour for the Commander of the believers but not for the Messenger of Allah. People declare: هُوَ اخُو رَسُولِ الله   he is the brother of the Messenger, but they do not say: رَسُولُ اللهِ أخُو عَلِىٍّ  the Messenger of Allah is Ali’s brother.

Although the term ‘brotherhood’ is of the additional category and it is carried out between two parties, the noun ‘brother’ here, is used as a title.

And there are also numerous narratives that the two sects, the Shiite and Sunnite have related with their own different documents, such as:

انَا مَدِينَة العِلْمِ عَلِىٌّ بابُها[144]

I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate.’ where the rank, degree and position of the Holiness become clear in front of the Messenger of Allah.

These narratives that we have already explained, and also those that are found in the books of virtues, all are about the word يَتْلُو  which proves that the Holiness Ali used to follow the Messenger of Allah in all aspects of life – O Allah bless them both and bless their offspring, and O Allah cast mercy and blessing upon them!

In the “Mostadrak al-Wasaeel”, from the book of “Mazar-e-Ghadim”, has been related of the Holiness Imam Muhammad Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, that he stated: ‘Along with my father, Ali bin Hussein Zain al-Aabedin, Upon Him be Peace, I went to visit the grave of my grandfather Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, in Najaf, there, when my father was standing in front of the grave, cried and said:    

السَّلَامُ عَلى أبِى الائِمَّة وَ خَليلِ النُّبُوَّة وَ المَخْصُوصِ بِالاخَوَّة. السَّلَامُ عَلَى يَعْسُوبِ الإيمانِ وَ مِيزانِ الاعْمَالِ وَ سَيْفِ ذِى الجلالِ. السَّلَامُ عَلى صَالِحِ المُؤمِنِينَ وَ وَارِثِ عِلمِ النَبِيِّينَ الحَاكِمِ يَومَ الدِّينِ. السَّلَامُ عَلَى شَجَرَة التَّقوَى. السَّلَامُ عَلى حُجَّة اللهِ البَالِغَة وَ نِعْمَتِهِ السَّابِغَة وَ نَقْمَتِهِ الدّامِغَة. السَّلَامُ عَلَى الصِّراطِ الوَاضِحِ وَ النَّجْمِ اللّائِحِ وَ الإمامِ النَّاصِحِ وَ رَحْمَة اللهِ وَ بَرَكَاتُهُ. [145]

(And Sheikh Muhammad bin al-Mashhadi quotes Muhammad bin Khalid Tayalisi and he quotes Saif bin Amira quoting Safwan Jammal relates the same narrative that he said: ‘The Holiness Imam Ja‘far, Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, and I went to Nafaf for visiting the grave of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and he stood in front of the grave, carried and recited):

‘Peace be upon the progenitor of the Imams, intimately associated with the mission of the prophet-hood, particularly preferred for the equal affiliation. Peace be upon the prime donna of the religion and belief, the Word of the Beneficent. Peace be upon the standard model of the ideal way of life, the director who plans and executes (all) affairs, the sword of the Almighty, the distributor of the pure water of the fountain of the benevolence and love.

Peace be upon the benefactor of the faithful, the inheritor of the wisdom of the prophets, the administrator of the Day of Judgement.

Peace be upon the growth of the piety, the hearer of the hidden thoughts and secret communications.

Peace be upon the “argument” that Allah put forward as a convincing proof, His All-encompassing mercy, His disciplinary strike.

Peace be upon the true and clear path, the distinct and bright star, the sincere and kind Guide, the many splendored torch, the mercy and blessing of Allah be upon you.’

Now, we are going to bring some more relating to our discussion:

السَّلَامُ عَلَى سَيِّدِ المُتَّقِينَ الاخيَارِ. السَّلَامُ عَلى أخِى رَسُولِ اللهِ وَ ابنِ عَمِّهِ وَ زَوجِ ابْنَتِهِ وَ الْمَخُلوقِ مِن طِينَتِهِ. السَّلَامُ عَلى الاصْلِ القَدِيمِ وَ الفَرْعِ الكِريم [146]

‘Peace be upon the Master of the pious, the chosen one, peace be upon the brother of the Messenger of Allah, and his cousin, the partner of his daughter and adopted with his characters. Peace be upon their origin and generous offspring.

اخى نَبِيِّكَ وَ وَصِىِّ رَسُولِكَ البآئِتِ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ وَ المُواسِى لَهُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَ كَاشِفِ الكَرْبِ عَن وَجْهِهِ، الَّذى جَعَلْتَهُ سَيفاً لِنُبوتَّهِ وَ آيَة لِرِسالَتِهِ وَ شَاهِداً عَلَى امَّتِهِ وَ دَلالَة عَلى حُجَّتِهِ وَ حَامِلًا لِرَأيتِهِ وَ وِقَايَة لِمُهجَتِهِ وَ هَادِياً لُامَّتِهِ وَ بَداً لِبَأسِهِ وَ تاجاً لِرَأسِهِ وَ بَاباً لِسِرِّهِ وَ مِفْتَاحاً لِظَفَرِه. ‏[147]

He goes on until he comes to these parts where he says:

‘O you, the brother of your Prophet and the successor of your Messenger, the sacrifice of his on his bed, his soul being of his soul, the remover of anguish from his face. He who is the safe for the messenger-hood, and the sign for his prophetic mission, and a witness upon his nation, and the guide for his proof, and the carrier of his banner, the guide for his nation, and the helping hand in his despair, the crown of his head, the gate for his secrets and the key for his gains.’

‘He whom his Lord assigned as “MORTAZA”

To be the buddy of the soul of “MOSTAFA”.

The Two being together as the whirling star

Like those two brothers: Aaron and Musa,

Both had one “GHIBLA” but double insights

Their souls were one, but bodies two in sight.

Both were the same pearl belonging to one shell,

Both were the ornaments of dignity, as well;

Unless knowledge of “HEIDAR” opens the loop,

The tradition of the Messenger won’t yield fruit!’

And Sayyid Ismaeel Hamyari says:

قِفْ   بِالدِّيارِ   وَ حَيِّهِنَّ    دِياراً             وَاسق الرُّسُومَ المِدمَعَ المِدرارا

كاتَتْ تَحُلُّ  بِها  النَّوارُ  وَ زَينَبُ             فَرَعى إلهى زَينَباً وَ نَواراً

قُلْ لِلَّذى  عادى  وَصِىَّ  مُحَمَّدٍ             وَ ابانَ لِى عَنْ لَفْظِهِ إنكارا

مَن عِندَهُ عِلْمُ الكِتابِ وَ حُكْمُهُ             مَن شَاهِدٌ يَتلُوهُ مِنهُ نَذَارا

عِلْمُ   البَلايا   وَ المَنايا   عِندَهُ             فَصْلُ الخِطابِ نُمى إليه وَ صاراً .[148]

1- When you pass by the gates of my beloved,

Stop, and send salutation and greeting on them

And by the tears of your eyes water those Ruined and old Traces.

2- Because those houses were the living places of my two beloved: “NAWAR and ZEINAB”, so O my Lord! Do save my “NAWAR and ZEINAB” under Your direct protection.

3- Tell him who planned the line of enmity with the successor of Muhammad; who, by denying it, unveiled it to me.

4- Who is that who has the Knowledge and Commands of the Book with him, he who is witnessing – who is that who warns alongside of the Messenger?

5- The knowledge of the events and seditions, and the knowledge of life and death is with him – and ceasing the speech is also with him.

And also Sayyid Hamyari says:

اشهِدُ      بِاللهِ     وَ    آلائِهِ             وَ المَرءُ عَمّا قالَهُ يُسألُ‏

إنَّ  عَلِىَّ   بْنَ   أَبِى    طالبٍ             خليفَة اللهِ الَّذى يَعْدِلُ‏

وَ   إنَّهُ   قَدْ  كَان  مِن أحمَد             كَمِثْلِ هَارُونَ و لا مُرْسَلُ‏

لَكِن    وَصِىُّ   خَازِنٌ   عِندَهُ             عِلْمٌ مِنَ اللهِ بِهِ يَعْمَلُ‏

قَد قَامَ يَوْمَ الدَّوحِ خَيرُ الوَرِى             بِوَجْهِهِ لِلنَّاسِ يَسْتَقْبِلُ‏

وَ قالَ مَنْ قَدْ كُنتُ مَولىِّ  لَهُ             فَذا لَهُ مَولَّى لَكُمْ مَوئِلُ‏

لَكِن   تَواصَوا  بِعَلِىِّ  الهُدى             أن لا يُوالُوهُ وَ أن يَخدُلوا.[149]

1- I call Allah and His blessings to witness, When man is asked for what he has addressed;

2- That indeed Ali bin Abī Tālib is the true Caliph, whom he governs based on justice.

3- And indeed his likeness with Ahmad is that, There is no messenger behind him as Aaron had.

4- However, Ali is the successor, and has the Divine Knowledge with him, and acts upon that one!

5- The Messenger of Allah, the best creature, To people, on Ghadir, was features to features.

6- Saying: whomever I am Master, and own his control Now, this Ali is his Master and has his control.

7- However, about him, they recommended each other, Not to accept his Successorship – not even bother!

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The poems of ibn Abi al-Hadid on the virtuous of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace

It is just here that the “MO‘TAZELI scholar, ibn Abi al-Hadid, could not stop mentioning the positions and virtues of that Holiness and has spontaneously confessed that the Holiness was the closest companion of the Messenger and the light of Messenger had direct affect on him.

He says: 

هَذَا   الا  مانَة   لَا   يَقُومُ   بِحَمْلِهَا             خُلَقاءُ هَابِطَة وَ أطْلَسُ ارْفَعُ‏

هَذَا    هُو    النُّورُ    الَّذى   عَذَباتُهُ             كانَتْ بِجَبْهَة آدَمَ تَتَطَلَّعُ‏

وَ شِهابُ مُوسَى   حَيْثُ  اظْلَمَ  لَيْلُهُ             رَفَعَتْ لَهُ لالاؤهُ تَتَشَعْشَعُ‏

And he continues:

لَوْ لَا  مَمَاتُكَ   قُلْتُ   إنَّكَ  بَاسِطُ             الارزَاقِ تَقْدِرُ فِى العَطاءِ وَ تُوسِعُ‏

مَا     العَالَمُ    العِلْوىُّ     إلّا  تُربَة             فِيهَا لِجُثَّتِكَ الشَريفَة مُضجَعُ‏

مَا الدَّهرُ  إلّا   عَبْدُكَ   القِنُّ الَّذى             بِنُفُوذِ امرِكَ فِى البَريَّة مُولِعُ‏

انَا فِى  مَديحِكَ   الكَنُّ  لا اهْتَدى             وَ انَا الخَطيبُ الهِبرزىُّ المِصْقَعُ‏

ءَأَقُولُ   فيكَ   سَمَيدَعُ  كَلَا  وَ لَا             حَاشَا لِمِثْلِكَ انْ يُقالَ سَمَيْدَعُ‏

بَلْ أَنتَ  فِى  يَوْمِ   القِيَامَة   حَاكِمٌ             فِى العَالَمِينَ وَ شافِعٌ وَ مُشَفَّعُ‏

وَ لَقَدْ جَهِلْتُ وَ كُنتُ أحْذَقَ عالِمٍ             أغرارُ عَزْمِكَ أم حُسامُكَ أَقْطَعُ‏

وَ فَقَدْتُ  مَعْرِفَتِى  فَلَسْتُ  بِعارِفٍ             هَل فَضْلُ عِلْمِكَ أم جَنابُكَ أوْسَعُ‏

لِى  فِيكَ  مُعْتَقَدٌ   سَأكْشِفُ  سِرَّهُ             فَلْيُصْغِ أرْبَابُ النُّهى وَ لْيَسْمَعُ‏

هِىَ نَفْثَة المَصْدُورِ   يُطْفِى   بَرْدُهَا             حَرَّ الصَّبابَة فَاعِذْلُونِى أودَعُوا

وَ اللهِ   لَوْ   لَا  حَيدَرٌ   مَا  كَانَتِ             الدُّنيا وَ لَا جَمَع البَرِيَّة مَجْمَعُ‏

مِن اجْلِهِ خُلِقَ   الزَّمانُ   وَ ضُوِّئَت             شُهُبٌ كَنَسنَ وَ جَنَّ لَيْلٌ ادْرَعُ‏

عِلْمُ  الغُيُوبِ   إلَيهِ   غَيرَ   مُدافَعٍ             وَ الصُّبْحُ ابْيَضُ مُسْفِرٌ لَا يُدْفَعُ‏

وَ إلَيهِ  فِى يَوْمِ   المَعادِ   حِسابُنَا             وَ هُوَ المَلاذُ لَنا غَداً وَ المَفْزَعُ‏

Similarly, he carries on up to the end of the elegy which is known as “The Original Elegy” of the famous Abi al-Hadid, published along with the Seven Poems Hung up at the times of Muhammad  

1- This is the very Trustee[-ship] that no one bore to carry: neither the hard rock on the surface of land, nor the highest firmament which is known as the Atlantic Firmament.

2- This is the very Light that the fair edge of it shone on the face of Adam, and his forehead, on the ancient of days, and raised him high to the position of a messenger.

3- And this is the tiny piece of that Light, at that dark Night, which was pitch dark to Moses, as meteor its staggering commenced and illuminated that dark hours of darkness as the bright morning for him.

4- If it was not the story of your death, I would say that: ‘You are the distributer of the provisions of the world, which according to your forgiveness and meanness, you share it in abundance sometime and but in meanness the next time.

5- This supercilious and magnificent court of the world would not come to use unless its pure and fragrance soil were comfy-bed for you to lie in!

6- This world and firmament, this time and era, are naught unless they are your obedient slaves, and are eager in being at your service – obeying and carrying out your demand and command.

7- My tongue is unable to praise your lofty position, so I am astonished, though I am well-known as a competent orator; and I am the unique champion in the field of speaking.

8- Is it just enough for me to say: you are generous, great and with approved morale attitude? No. Never ever! By Allah, it is impossible to introduce you with such words as: ‘generous, great and with approved morale attitude’!

9- Right. On the Day of Judgement, you are going to have the highest position to command and govern! You are going to have the authority to intercede.

10-And by Allah, I really know not – though I am the most skilful scholar – whether the edge of your determination is sharper, or the point of the sword in your hand is!

11-There! I have lost my wit and wisdom now! I know no more whether your virtue and knowledge is vast, or the area of the lands around your territory! The area of the lands around your territory which are the locations for the people lading and benefitting from your bounties – for the vast generosity comes from you.

12-But no! I have my belief concerning you which, before long, I will unveil it; and then it is necessary for the scholars to listen to me.

13-That secret inside me, is aching me as the luster in the chest of one afflicted with the chaste-ache; I will get rid of it by spitting it out – then, it will extinguish my burning desire. Now, do you want to blame me for my claim? Or do you want to leave me on my own?

14-By Allah, if there were no “HEIDAR”, there would not be the world at all. There would not be any assembly for men, and nothing could bring them together under any condition.

15-The world has been created because of “HEIDAR”: the stars that shine and hide in their hiding spots, then they shine and illuminate, the dark night gets even darker, the night that its beginning is dark and ending gets bright.

16-The hidden knowledge is his own specialty, and there is no doubt to anyone in this respect; the morning is bright and white, the sun unveils and there is no one to deny it.

17-And our accounts, on the Day of Resurrection, is with him; he is our shelter and cave to secure us on the day next to the Resurrection.’

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[86] "مناقب‏", of Ibn-al-Moghazeli, the narrative 318, page 270.

[87] "ينابيع المودّة", section 26, page 99.

[88] "الدّرّ المنثور", volume 3, page 324.

[89] "شواهد التنزيل‏", volume 1, from the page 276 to 281.

[90] "The footer" of the page 277 from"شواهد التنزيل‏".

[91] "The footer" of the page 279 from"شواهد التنزيل‏".

[92] "تفسیر ابوالفتوح", Abulfotuh Commentary, volume 6, page 256.

[93] غاية المرام"‏ ", section 61, page 359.

[94] غاية المرام"‏ ", section 61, page 360.

[95] Same source.

[96] Same source.

[97] Same source.

[98] Same source.

[99] غاية المرام"‏ ", section 61, page 360.

[100] Same source.

[101] غاية المرام"‏ ", section 62, page 361.

[102] Same source.

[103] غاية المرام"‏ ", section 62, page 362.

[104] Same source.

[105] "تفسیر المیزان", Almizan Commentary, volume 10, page 200.

[106] "بحارالانوار", volume 9, page 73.

[107] Same source.

[108] Same source.

[109] "بحارالانوار", volume 9, page 73.

[110] Same source.

[111] Same source.

[112] Same source.

[113] "بحارالانوار", volume 9, page 74.

[114] Same source.

[115] Same source.

[116] Same source.

[117] Same source.

[118] Same source.

[119] Same source.

[120] "بحارالانوار", volume 9, page 73.

[121] "بحارالانوار", volume 9, page 74.

[122] Same source.

[123] Same source.

[124] In the first volume of "مناقب ‏" of ibn Shahr Aashub, page 569, he says:

أبو عبيد فى «غريب الحديث»: انّ النبىّ قال لامير المؤمنين: انّ لك بيتاً فى الجنّة و انّك لذو قرنيها. سويد بن غفلة و أبو الطفيل: قالَ أمير المؤمنين: انّ ذا القرنين كان ملكاً عادلًا فأحبّه الله و ناصح الله فيَصَحَهُ اللهُ، امَر قومه بتقوى الله فضربوه على قرنه بالسّيف فغاب عنهم ما شاء الله ثمّ رجع اليهم فدعاهم الى الله فضربوه على قرنه الاخر بالسيف فذلك قرناه، و فيكم مثله- يعنى نفسه لانّه ضرب على رأسه ضربتين احدهما يوم الخندق و الثانى ضربة ابن مُلجَم‏.

[125] "تفسير أبو الفتوح رازى‏", volume 6, page 256 to 258.

[126] The suspension of the page 257 from volume 6 of تفسير أبو الفتوح, and we already explained the statement of أبو الفتوح in the text.

[127] " نهج البلاغة", volume 1, page 183.

[128] " ذخائر العقبى‏ ", page 89 from Ahmad Hanbal in "مناقب‏ ". And Abu Naeem Isfahani has related in "حلية الاولياء ", volume 1, page 64 from Mosa bin Othman Hazrami, by means of his documents from A'mash, who is quoting Mojahid that has said:

 قَالَ رَسول الله صلَّى الله عليه و آله و سلَّم: مَا أنزلَ اللهُ آية فِيها «يأيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنوا» الّاعلىٌّ رَأسُها و أميرُها

 'The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, said: 'Allah has not sent down a verse beginning with: يأيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنوا unless Ali is His purpose.

[129] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 56.

[130] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 68.

[131] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 4.

[132] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 4.

[133] "ينابيع المودّة‏", page 53, section 7.

[134] This is a successive narrative concerning the Messenger's setting out for the Ghazwa Tabouk that the Sunnites have related it by means of great many documents; it has been mentioned by both the Shiite and the Sunnite.

[135] "نهج البلاغه‏",, volume 2, page 73, on sending a letter to Othman bin Honaif.

[136] Surah 13, "رعد", Verse 43.

[137] "نهج البلاغه‏",, volume 1, page 392, related to the Sermon Ghaseia.

[138] "بحار الانوار", volume 3, page 287, section ' الوسيلة فى المعاد' (Resorts in the Hereafter)

[139] "بحار الانوار", volume 3, page 285, section ' الوسيلة فى المعاد' (Resorts in the Hereafter)

[140] "بحار الانوار", volume 3, page 289, section ' اللواء فى المعاد'.

[141] Same book, page 290.

[142] Same source.

[143] Same book, page 287.

[144] "البداية و النهاية", volume 7, page 359, and "ذخائر العقبى‏", page 77, and "مطالب السؤول‏", page 13, and "نظم درر السمطين‏", page 113, and "حلية الاولياء", volume 1, page 64, and "علىٌّ و الوصيّة", pages 22 and 174, and "ستدراكات علىٌّ و الوصية", page 382 related from the hand-written history of ibn Asakar. And in "غاية المرام‏", page 520: sixteen narratives by the Sunnite and six narratives by the Shiite, and in "الغدير", volume 6, pages 61-77; he has mentioned one hundred and thirty-four references out of the references.

[145] "مستدرک الوسائل", volume 3, page 197, "ابواب المزار".

[146] "مفاتيح الجنان‏", page 255, the six Ziyarat of the Commander of the believers, peace be upon him.

[147] "مفاتيح الجنان‏", pages 356-357.

[148] "ديوان حميرى‏", 'The Poetic Works' of Hemyari, page 213, and "الغدير", volume 2, page 217, and "مناقب ابن شهرآشوب‏", volume 1, page 569.

[149] "الغدير", volume 2, page 227.

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