In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 57-60: Abut the narratives of the Sunnite that “منذر” is the Messenger of Allah and “هادي”the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace (Continued)

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The fifth stage are the narratives that the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, sates: The aim of ‘The Guide’ in that verse is a man from Bani Hashim; the purpose of the Holiness by saying ‘a man from Bani Hashim’ is he himself. Similar to the narratives that Siyu:ti says: Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal in the “Zawaeed al-Mosnad”, ibn Abi Hatam and Tabrani in the “Awasit”, Hakim by his correction in the “Mostadrak”, ibn Mardoweiia and ibn Asakar have extracted it and put the phrases the word رجل من بنى هاشم instead. [73]

And also Tha‘labi, in his commentary: from Saddi quoting Abd Khair quoting Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, has related that he stated:

المنذر النبى صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم و الهادى رجل من بنى هاشم- يعنى نفسه. [74]

‘The purpose of المنذر is the Messenger of Allah, and الهادى is a man from the Bani Hashim.’

And also Hafiz Abu Naeem Isfahani by these documents relate it from Abdu Khair quoting Saeed bin Jabir and he from ibn Annas that: 

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم: انا المنذر و الهادى رجل من بنى هاشم .[75]

The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stated: “I am the Warner and Guide from the Bani Hashim.”

And HaKim Haskani has related it from An-Najjar  at-Teirani who, by his documents, quoted the same narrative from the Commander of the believers.[76] And by means of another documents of Abu Abdullah from Othman bin Abi Sheiba,[77] and also by another document from Abdullah Thaghafi quoting Abdu Khair and he too quoting the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.[78]

And in the margin of the “Shawahid at-Tanzil”, volume 1, page 299, he rights:

‘Ibn Asakar has explained this narrative by this document from the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. In the “History of Damascus”. And he has said that in Majma az-Zawaeed, volume 7, page 41: Abdullah bin Ahmad Hanbal and Tabrani have brought it in “Saghir” and “Awsat” in the narrative. Ans Siyu:ti has mentioned it in the extract of ibn Mardoweiia and ibn Asakar. 

The sixth stage are numerous narratives from the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants. Once, the Holiness required water to perform ablution, then after performing the ablution, he held Ali on his hand and while gently resting it on his own chest, he stated: انت المنذر ‘You are the Warner’, and next he rested Ali’s hand on his chest saying: و لكل قوم هاد and ‘You are Guide to every nation.’

These narratives are relating the case of the Messenger in different ways.

In the “Basaeer ad-Darajat”, Muhammad bin Hassan Saffar, by his documents relates Abu Hamza Thomali that he said:

سمعت ابا جعفر عليه السّلام يقول: دعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم بوضوء طهر فلما فرغ اخذ بيد على صلى الله عليهما فالزمها يده ثم قال: «انما انت منذر» ثم ضم يده الى صدره و قال: «و لكل قوم هاد». ثم قال: يا على! انت اصل الدين و منار الايمان و غاية الهدى و قائد الغر المحجلين اشهد لك بذلك.[79]

‘I heard, Aba Ja‘far , Upon Him be Peace, saying that: ‘ 

دعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم بوضوء طهر فلما فرغ اخذ بيد على صلى الله عليهما فالزمها يده ثم قال: «انما انت منذر» ثم ضم يده الى صدره و قال: «و لكل قوم هاد». ثم قال: يا على! انت اصل الدين و منار الايمان و غاية الهدى و قائد الغر المحجلين اشهد لك بذلك.«

[The Holiness Imam Muhammad Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, has related that]: ‘One day, the Messenger of Allah asked for water to perform ablution, they carried his command and after finishing his ablution, he firmly held the hand of Ali, Upon Him be Peace, and said: “"انما انت منذر  while saying ‘I am the inviter to Allah’, next he turned the hand toward the chest of the Commander of the believers saying: ‘و لكل قوم هاد and for every tribe and party there is a Guide and Leader.”

Then, he stated: “O Ali, you are the base of Allah’s religion, and so are you the real focus of belief illumination, you are the kernel of guidance, you are the Leader of the believers and pious – you are the sign of their shining faces, hands and feet, due to their ablutions, on the Day of Resurrection; and I bear witness to these subjects I am stating now.”

And Forat bin Ibrahim has related this narrative from Abu Hamzeh quoting the Holiness Imam Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace.[80]

Siyu:ti says: Ibn Jarir and ibn Mardoweiia and Abu Naeem Isfahani have related this narrative in the book of “Ma‘rafat as-Sahaba”; also Deilami and ibn Asakar and ibn an-Najjar have extracted it in their narrating that:

لما نزلت انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد وضع رسول الله يده على صدره فقال: انا المنذر، و أوْمَأ بيده الى منكب على رضى الله عنه فقال: انت الهادى، يا على بك يهتدى المهتدون.[81]

In this narrative, the great narrators, Imams, say: ‘When this verse was sent down,  the Messenger of Allah rested his hand on his chest and said: “I am the Warner,” and while pointing to Ali bin Abī Tālib,  with another hand, said: “You are the Guide and the Leader, O Ali, through you the searcher for Allah will find their way to Him.’”

And Tha‘labi has brought this narrative in his commentary quoted by Ata bin Saeeb, quoted by Saeed bin Jabir of Ibn Abbas quotation.[82] And also Tabari has mentioned the exact text of this narrative from ibn Abbas  in his commentary, volume 13, page 108.[83] And Hakim Haskani has brought it in four different styles from Ata bin Saeeb quoting Saeed bin Jabir in his book.[84]

And also Hakim Haskani has related it from Abu al-Hassan al-Farsi by means of his documents quoting Abu Fatwa Salemi that says:

قال: دعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم بالطهور و عنده على بن أبى طالب فاخذ رسول الله بيد على بعد ما تطهر فالزقها بصدره ثم قال: «انما انت منذر» ثم ردها الى صدر على ثم قال: «ولكل قوم هاد». ثم قال: انك منار الانام و غاية الهدى و امير القراء، اشهد على ذلك انك كذلك.[85]

[In this narrative,] he says: [after he performing his ablution,] the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, held Ali bin Abī Tālib, on his hand and rested it on his chest then stated: “You are the Inviter to the religion of Allah and the Warner of His chastisement,” and then turned Ali’s hand to his own chest saying: “And there is a Leader for every group and tribe, and now that Leader is you.” And then he stated: “You are the centre of mercy and light for all people, and the utmost of guidance, you are the Emir of those who recite the Qur’an – I bear witness that you are what I am saying now.”    

Hakim Haskani relates this narrative from ibn Shahr Aashub also however, he has mentioned the narrator to be Abu Barza, and instead of the phrase فالزقها he has put الصقها. And he has continued the narrating that:

انت منار الامام و راية الهدى و امين القرآن و اشهد على ذلك انك كذلك [86]

And Abul Fotoh Razi has mentioned this narrative from Haskani but he has mentioned the narrator to be Abi Borda Aslami, and instead of the phrase فالزقها he has used فالزمها and the sentence comes to an end as:

انك منارة الانام و غاية الهدى و امير القرى، اشهد على ذلك انك كذلك [87]

And also from Hakim Haskani, Sayyid Hashim Bahrani in the “Ghayat al-Maram” and in “Tafsir Borhan” has mentioned, in both of them he has used the phrase فالزقها he has put الصقها. However, in “Tafsir Borhan” under the phrase, it is as Haskani’s as we already mentioned.[88] In “Ghayat al-Maram” he has used امير القراء لفظ instead of امير الغزا. In “Ghayat al-Maram”, the narrator has mentioned Abu Barda Salami but in “Tafsir Borhan” Abu Barida.[89] And in “Mostadrak”, Hakim has related this narrative exactly as it is;[90] and he has mentioned in the “Yanabi al-Mawadda”, section 26, page 99, from Hakim Haskani that this narrative to be of Barida Aslami, and he has brought the phrase فالزقها instead of فالصق يده and continues it as: 

فقال: انت لكل قوم هاد. ثم قال له: انت مناد الانام و غاية الهدى و امير الغر المحجلين، اشهد على ذلك انك كذلك.

And then, he says: Ibn Sab‘baq Maliki has extracted the very narrative from the “Fosol al-Mohem‘ma” of ibn Abbas.

And Siyu:ti says: Ibn Mardoweiia has extracted the narrative from Abu Barza Salami who has said:

سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم يقول: «انما انت منذر» و وضع يده على صدر نفسه، ثم وضعها على صدر على و يقول: «لكل قوم هاد» [91]

And similar to this narrative has been related by Hakim Haskani, by means of his own documents, and from Abu Barza two other narratives have been mentioned.[92] And Sayyid Bahrani from Ibrahim Hamwini in the “al-Faraeed al-Semtain” with his documents from Abu Harirah Aslami;[93] as well, from Tha‘labi, with his documents, and in his own commentary from Saeed bin Jabir quoting ibn Abbas.[94] And ibn Shahr Aashub says: Hakim Haskani in the “Shawahid at-Tanzil”, and Marzbani in his book have composed about the revealed verses concerning the Commander of the believers and have said that Abu Barza has related the above narrative. [95]

The seventh stage are the narratives that related the Ascension of the Messenger of Allah; they have said that: The Guide and Leader of the nation is Ali bin Abī Tālib. Majlisi, by means of his documents, in the “Commentary of Forat bin Ibrahim” relates that Bara‘ bin Isa Tamimi has quoted the Holiness Imam Abi Ja‘far, Upon Him be Peace, stating that:

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم: لما اسرى بى الى السماء لم يكن بينى و بين ربى ملك مقرب و لا نبى مرسل، ما سالت ربى حاجة الا اعطانى خيرا منها فوقع فى مسامعى «انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد» فقلت: الهى انا المنذر فمن الهادى؟ فقال الله: يا محمد ذاك على بن أبى طالب، آية المهتدين و امام المتقين و قائد الغر المحجلين من امتك برحمتى الى الجنة.[96]

‘[The Holiness Imam Muhammad Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, has related it from] the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, that he sated: “When on the Night of Ascension they took me to the heavens, I reached a point that there was no veil, or screen between my Creator and I – there was neither an intimate angel there nor any messengers. I did not ask for anything better than this verse

 انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد I remembered right then. I had the honour to speak: ‘O my Creator! Did You assign me as a Warner and Inviter to the laws and religion, so who is going to be the Guide and Leader for the nation?’

I was addressed: O Muhammad, the Guide and Leader to the nation is Ali bin Abī Tālib. He is the Imam, the Leader for the righteous and pious, a sign for the guided ones, the pioneer of the benevolent and bright featured through the Light of Allah in the world to come – they have followed the Guide and Leader of the nation and will enter My mercy and paradise.

By means of his documents from Saeed bin Jabir, Hakim Haskani relates of ibn Abbas saying that:

قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم: ليلة اسرى بى ما سالت ربى شيئا الا اعطانيه [و] سمعت مناديا من خلفى يقول: يا محمد «انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد». قلت: انا المنذر فمن الهادى؟ قال: على الهادى المهتدى القائد امتك الى جنتى غراء محجلين برحمتى.[97]

The Messenger of Allah stated: On the night when they ascended me to the heavens, whatever I wanted from my Creator He granted it to me, then, I heard one calling me from behind saying: “o Muhammad, you are the Warner and ther is a Guide for every nation.” I said: If I am a Warner then who is the Guide and the Leader?

He stated: ‘He is Ali bin Abī Tālib, he is the Guide and Leader – that is, the guided one and the Guide is he and he leads the nation to paradise. And your nation will be bright featured and they will join to My mercy with the very sign of brightness on their faces.’

And it is here that Abu Naeem Isfahani has related of Hozaifat bin al-Yaman in three different ways that:

قال: قال النبى صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم: ان تستخلفوا عليا- و ما اراكم فاعلين- تجدوه هاديا مهديا يحملكم على المحجة البيضاء.[98]

‘He says, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stated: ‘I wonder you, after me, to accept Ali bin Abī Tālib as the Caliph – I see you such a people that not letting him be the Caliph of the Muslims – however, you would find him such a just leader that he would direct you to the straight path.’

And Abu al-Fotoh has related this narrative in his commentary and then he has said: There is a sign here, and in that sign is a glad-tidings for you, and that is, the Messenger of Allah has called Ali bin Abī Tālib a Guide and the guided one, and on the other hand, as we know according to the verse of

 “و لكل قوم هاد ” the first Imam is هادي  ‘The Guide ’ and the Last one is مهديThe Guided’, thus, you are sure to be saved. Because the Messenger of Allah has stated:

لن تهلك الرعية و ان كانت ظالمة مسيئة اذا كانت الولاة هادية مهدية.

‘The subjects and nations, though are aggressive and evil doers, will not be destroyed unless they have guided Leaders and directors.’

Have you not considered how nicely the poet has composed it:

تَلْقَى الامَانَ عَلى حِياضِ مُحَمَّدٍ             ثَؤلاءُ مُخرِفَة وَ ذِئبٌ اطْلَسُ

لاذِى يَخافُ  وَ لا لِذَلِكَ  جُرأة             يَهْدِى الرَّعِيَّة مَا اسْتَقامَ الرَّئِيسُ. [99]

(There poem is from Komeit, the poet of the Household, and has the Shiite religion. He is upset that the others have usurped the rights of the offspring of Muhammad; and he is pointing to the Advent of the Existing of progeny of Muhammad that in His Time justice will spread all over the world – when a sheep does not fear of the wolf, nor does the wolf oppresses the sheep, and the poem means):

‘At the time of Muhammad’s progeny, you will see,

a wolf and a lamb can live in harmony and mercy;

They drink out of a pond side by side, in joy’

Lamb is not in panic of the wolf – both will enjoy!

At this point, Zagha Kufeiia announces the justice of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, against Mua‘wiyah bin Abi Sofyan and calls to witness the verse «انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد» .

By the means of his documents, Hakim Haskani has related of Abdullah bin Aamer that he has said:      

ازِعِجَتِ الزَّرْقَاءُ الكُوفِيَّة إلَى مُعاوِيَة فَلَمَّا دَخَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ قالَ لَها مُعاوِيَة: مَا تَقُولِينَ فِى مَوْلَى المؤمِنِينَ عَلىَّ؟ فَأَنشَأت تَقُولُ

صَلَّى   الإلَهُ   عَلى  قَبْرٍ   تَضَمَّنَهُ             نُورٌ فَأصْبَحَ فِيهِ العَدْلُ مَدْفُوناً

مَن حَالَفَ العَدْلَ وَ الإيمَانَ مُقْتَرِناً             فَصارَ بالْعَدلِ وَ الإيمَانِ مَقْرُوناً

 فَقالَ لَها مُعاوِية: كَيفَ غَرَرْتِ فِيهِ هَذِهِ الغَريرَة؟ فَقَالَت: سَمِعْتُ اللهَ يَقُولُ فِى كِتابِهِ لَنِبِيِّهِ: «إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَاد» الْمُنذِرُ رَسُولُ اللهِ وَ الهَادِى عَلِىٌّ وَلِىُّ اللهِ. [100]

‘They took Zargha, who was a woman living in Kufa, to Mua‘wiyah, and when she was in his presence, Mua‘wiyah said: ‘What is your opinion about Ali, the Master of the believers?’ Right then Zargha composed two couplets as:

‘May Allah’s blessing be on that grave amid,

Covered with light, and within justice buried;

He was a man of belief with great justice and deed

Thus, belief and justice always accompanies him!’

Mua‘wiyah told her: ‘How did you come to this poem of praise about him?’

Zargha answered: I heard it through the Book of Allah which was sent to His Messenger saying:

 «انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد», because منذر is the Messenger of Allah and هادي  is Ali bin Abī Tālib, the Guardian of Allah [in the land].

Moreover when, after the martyrdom of the Holiness Imam Hassan, Upon Him be Peace, in Medina, Gheis bin Saeed Ebada came face to face with Mua‘wiyah, and disputation erupted between two, Gheis bin Saeed Ebada referred to the verse «انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد» to prove that it was revealed for the virtues and dignity of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.[101]

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The narratives which denoting that  هَاديrefers to all the Imams of the Housed, upon them be peace

The eighth stage are the narratives that indicate the word هادي  is not only about the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, it is about all the immaculate Imams, one after another, to have this title. And these narratives are divided in two sections:

The first section are the narratives that show us the Glorious Qur’an has not been revealed for a certain and specific person, if it was so, then by the death of that person the Qur’an would also disappear. However, as the Qur’an is a living Document so its verses and text must remain forever.

Sayyid Bahrani and Majlesi have related Abdur Rahim Ghasir in “Tafsir Ay’yashi” that he has said:

قَالَ: كُنتُ يَوماً بينَ الايّامِ عِندَ أبى جعفَرٍ عليه السّلام فَقالَ: يا عَبدَ الرَّحيم، قُلْتُ: لَبَّيْكَ، قالَ: قَوْلُهُ «إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ» قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عليهِ وَ آلهِ وَ سلَّم: انَا المُنذِرُ وَ عَلِىٌّ الهادى، مَنِ الهادى إلى اليَومِ؟[102]

 فَسَكَتُ طَويلًا ثُمَّ رَفَعْتُ رَأسى فَقُلْتُ: جِعِلْتُ فِداكَ هِىَ فِيكُمْ تَوارَثُونَها رَجُلٌ فَرَجُلٌ حَتَّى انْتَهَت إلَيكَ فَأنتَ جُعِلْتُ فِداكَ الهادى. قالَ: صَدَقْتَ يا عَبْدَ الرَّحِيمِ إنَّ القُرآنَ لَا يَمُوتُ وَ الايَة حَيَّة لَا تَمُوتُ فَلَوْ كَانَتِ الاية فِى الاقوامِ مَاتُوا فَمَاتَ القُرآنَ وَ لَكِن هِىَ جَارِيَة فِى الباقِينَ كَما جَرَتْ فِى الماضِينَ. وَ قَالَ عَبدُ الرَّحِيمِ: قالَ أبو عَبداللهِ عليه السّلام: إنَّ القُرآنَ حَىُّ لَمْ يَمُتْ وَ إنَّهُ يَجرى كَما يَجرِى اللَّيْلُ وَ النَّهارُ وَ كَما يَجْرِى الشَّمْسُ وَ القَمَرُ وَ يَجْرِى عَلى آخِرِنا كَما يَجْرِى عَلى أَوَّلِنَا. [103]

[Abdur Rahim Ghasir] says: On a certain day, I was in the presence of the Holiness Imam Muhammad Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, and the Holiness stated: ‘O Abd-ur-Rahim! The Messenger of Allah stated: “The purpose of منذر in the verse of «انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد»  refers to me, that is, I am the Warner and هادي  is Ali bin Abī Tālib, but who is هادي today?’ Abd-ur-Rahim Says: I kept quiet for a while and then raised my head saying: May I be made sacrificed to you, that verse is about you, and they have, one after another, inherited it from your fathers until it has reached you – may I be made sacrificed to you, today you are هادي  the leader of the nation.

The Holiness stated: ‘O Abd-ur-Rahim, you are quite right, the Glorious Qur’an never dies, thus the verses of the Qur’an are alive forever. If a verse of the Qur’an is specified for a certain men, then when he dies, the verse will also disappear. However, as the Qur’an was for the people in the past in will remain the same for the future people.’

Abd-ur-Rahim says: I hear the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, say: ‘The Qur’an is always alive and it will never die, it will always flow as the night, day, the sun and the moon circulate – as the verses of the Qur’an were about the people in the past it will be the same for us and for the long future ones.

And Muhammad bin Ya‘qūb Kolaini, by means of his documents, relates of Abu Basir in “Kafi”

قالَ: قُلتُ لابِيعَبداللهِ عليه السّلام: «إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَاد» فقالَ: رَسُولُ اللهِ المُنذِرُ وَ عَلِىٌّ الهادى. يا با مُحَمَّدٍ هَل مِن هادٍ اليَومَ؟ قُلتَ: بَلى جُعِلْتُ فِداكَ مَا زالَ مِنكُم هادٍ بَعْدَ هادٍ حَتَّى دُفِعَتْ إلَيكَ. فَقالَ: رَحِمَكَ اللهُ يا با مُحَمَّدٍ لَوْ كَانَتْ إذا نَزَلتْ آية على رَجُلٍ ثُمَّ ماتَ ذَلِكَ الرَّجُلُ ماتَتِ الكِتابُ، وَ لَكِنَّهُ حَىٌّ يَجرى فَيَمَن بَقِىَ كَما جَرَى فِيمَن مَضى. [104]

[Abu Nasir] says: ‘I was honoured to ask the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, what the comment of انما انت منذر was.’ The Holiness stated: ‘The meaning of منذر is the Messenger of Allah, and هادي  is Ali.’ Then, the Holiness asked me: ‘O Aba Muhammad, are there guide and leader nowadays?’ I said, may I be made sacrifice to you, so far, there were always Guides and Leaders from you, the Household among the nation – which is now your turn.

The Holiness said: ‘O Aba Muhammad, may Allah have mercy upon you, you are quite right, for if a verse is sent down for a certain man, then when he dies the same verse will also die, and in this way, Allah’s Book will disappear. However, the Qur’an is a living document and it will exist among the coming generations – in the same way it was in the past.’

The second group includes the narratives that without comparing the verse «انما انت منذر و لكل قوم هاد» to the pure Imams and reasoning from the Qur’an, they straightforward introduce the Imams, Upon Them be Peace, as the Guidance.

Abu al-Hassan Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Ali bin great Shazan, from the sect of Sunnite, by his documents, has related Abdullah bin Omar that: 

قالَ: قالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم: بِى انذِرتُمْ وَ بِعَلىِ بنِ أبى طالبٍ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ. وَ قَرَأ: «إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَاد». و بِالحَسَنِ أُعطيتُمُ الإحسانَ وَ بِالحُسَينِ تَسْعَدُونَ وَ بِهِ تَشقُونَ. أَلا وَ إنَّ الحُسينَ بابٌ مِن أبوابِ الجَنَّة مَن عَانَدَهُ حَرَّمَ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ رِيحَ الجَنَّة. [105]

[Abdullah bin Omar] said that: The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stated: “Because of me you people have been invited to Allah, and you became frightened from the chastisement of Allah, and by Ali bin Abī Tālib you found your way and walked on the straight path towards Allah.”

Then, the Messenger of Allah referred to the verse of انما انت منذر as a witness saying: “Because of Hassan you have been favoured by Allah, and because of Hussein you will become prosperous or wretches. O people, know that Hussein is as a gate of the gates of paradise, whoever shows enmity toward him, Allah will not let him smell the fragrance smell of paradise.”

And Ay’yashi quoting Mas‘at bin Sadagha who has quoted the Holiness Imam Ja‘far Sādiq quoting his father and grandfather, Upon Them be Peace, that have related:   

قَالَ: قالَ أمير المؤمنين عليه السّلام: فينا نَزَلَتْ هَذِهِ الايَة «إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَاد». فَقالَ رَسولُ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عليه وَ آلهِ وَ سلَّم: أَنَا المُنذِرُ وَ أنتَ الهادى يا عَلِىٌّ فَمِنّا الهادى و النَّجاة وَ السَّعادَة إلى يَومِ القِيامَة. [106]

The Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, said: ‘The verse of «إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَاد»  has been sent down concerning us; and the Messenger of Allah stated: “I am the Warner, and you o Ali, are the Guide and Leader, and you are always the Guide and Leader of the people to prosperous until the Day of Resurrection – and the emancipation of the people are by us.”

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The sermon of the most Generous Messenger, Bless be to him and his Descendants, on resorting to the Two most Precious Ones: the Book and the Household

Sheikh Sadough Muhammad bin Ali ibn Babweiia Ghummi, by his documents from Hussein bin Yazid bin Abd Ali relates from his father quoting the Holiness Imam Hassan, Upon Him be Peace, that one day, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, lectured a sermon for the people, and after praising Allah, he said: “O people! As if my death is approaching  and I muse embrace the invitation of Allah, so:

وَ إِنى تَارِكٌ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ كِتابَ اللهِ وَ عِتْرَتِى أَهْلَ بَيْتِى، أَما إن تَمَسَّكُتُمْ بِهِما لَنْ تَضِلُّوا، فَتَعَلَّمُوا مِنْهُم وَ لَا تُعَلِّمُوهُم فَإنَّهُمْ أَعْلَمُ مِنكُمْ. لَا تَخْلُو الارضُ مِنْهُمْ وَ لَوْ خَلَتْ لانْساخَتْ بِأهْلِهِا.

“And I am leaving with you two precious things: the Book of Allah and my family members who are of my Household. O people, so far as you refer to them, you will not get lost. Do learn new knowledge from my Household, but do not try teaching them anything for they are the wisest among you. The earth will never be void of them, but is supposedly it is, then it swallow all who are living on it.”

Then, he stated:

اللهُمَّ إنِّى أعْلَمُ أنَّ العِلْمَ لَا يَبِيدُ وَ لَا يَنْقَطِعُ وَ أنَّكَ لَا تُخْلِى الارضَ مِن حُجَّة لَكَ عَلَى خَلْقِكَ ظاهرٍ لَيْسَ بِالمُطاعِ أَوْ خائِفٌ مُغْمُورٍ كَيلا تَبْطُلَ حُجَّتُكَ وَ لَا تَضِلَّ أولِياؤكَ بَعْدَ إذ هَدَيْتَهُمْ أُولَئِكَ الاقَلُّونَ عَدَداً الَاعظَمُونَ قَدْراً عِندَ اللهِ.

“O Creator! I know that knowledge will never be damaged or ruined, and that You will never leave the earth without any proof in – either the apparent proof that people obey his commands or the unseen proof that people are always anxious of him. Because of Your proof not to be annulled and Your slaves not be misled after being guided, not to be without Guardian or Master how few they are in number and how great in ranks they are!”

When his sermon ended and he descended the pulpit I asked him: O Messenger of Allah, are you not the Proof of Allah for all His worshippers?

He said: “O Hassan, Allah states: إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ وَ لِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَاد» فَأنَا المُنذِرُ وَ عَلِىٌّ الهَادى , ‘O Messenger, you are the Inviter to the religion of Allah and the laws and there will be for every nation a Guide and Leader. I am the Inviter to Allah and the Warner of His chastisement, and Ali bin Abī Tālib is the Guide and the Leader.”

I said: O Messenger of Allah, you said that the earth will never void of the proofs of Allah.

The Holiness stated: “Yes, Ali bin Abī Tālib is the proof of Allah upon the creatures and so is the Imam after me, and after him, you are going to be the proof and the Imam, and after you, Hussein is proof and Imam. And Allah, the Elegant and Aware has informed me that there will come a child from the loin of Hussein whose name to be Ali after his grandfather’s name, then when Hussein passes away, his son Ali will take the position of Imamate and will be the proof and Imam after his father.

Then, Ali will have a son called after my name, he resembles me more the others. His knowledge is my knowledge and so is his command my command. He will be a proof and Imam after his father. Allah will honour him a son called Ja‘far who is going to be the most honest and righteous of all, he is the proof and Imam after his father.

Next Allah will honour him a son called Musa, same as the Musa bin Imran, and his worshipping is severe and he is going to be the proof and Imam after his father. Allah, the Highest, will give a son to Musa called Ali who is the treasure of knowledge and wisdom, and he is going to be the proof and Imam after his father. Then, Allah will create a son in the loin of Ali being called Muhammad and he too will be the proof and Imam after his father.

Again Allah will honour a son to Muhammad called Ali and he is going to be the proof and Imam after him..

And then, Allah will bestow a son to Ali called Hassan and he the proof and the Imam after his father. And Allah, the Almighty, in Hassan’s loin, creates the Existing Imam among the Household who is the final Proof and Imam for the Shiite, and he is the illuminator of the light in the hearts of his followers. He will be absent for a long period, no one sees him, during that long time many of his followers turn away however, his sincere friends will stay steady and say: ‘When is the time for his advent if you are telling the truth!’

وَ لَوْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنَ الدُّنيا إلّا يَوْمٌ وَاحِدٌ لَطوَّلَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ ذَلِكَ اليَوْمَ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ قائِمُنا فَيَمْلأ الارضَ قِسْطاً وَ عَدلًا كَما مُلِئتُ ظُلماً وَ جَوراً، فَلَا تَخولُوا الارضُ مِنكُمْ، أعطاكُمُ اللهُ عِلمى وَ فَهْمِى، وَ لَقَدْ دَعَوْتَ اللهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعالىَ أَن يَجْعَلَ العِلْمَ وَ الفِقْهَ فى عَقِبى وَ عَقِبِ عَقِبى وَ فى زَرْعى وَ زَرْعِ زَرْعى. [107]

‘If the present life comes to a end, but remains only a day, Allah will prolong it until our Everlasting Imam comes to sight to bring peace and serenity to the oppressed people in the chaos world. The earth will not be voided of you the divine proofs, Allah has honoured my knowledge and insight to you. I have implored Allah to bestow my knowledge to my children and great grand children – all my offspring to come.’

(This noble narrative includes such remarkable points that they must be explained in details).

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The successive narration of the Two most Precious Ones

The first point is the Two most Loved Facts: Allah’s Book and the offspring of the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah has assured people that beseeching those two facts brings prosperous and wipes out perversion and misery. This narrative is related by successive narrators and more than thirty companions of the Generous Messenger, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, have related it in their books and documents. And apart from the Shiite scholars and their authentic documents, more than two hundred great Sunnite scholars have related it in different ways and styles[108] – and it has been put in more than five hundred books of them.[109]

Al‘lāma Mir Hamid Hussein Laknawi Hindi Nishabori, may Allah be pleased with him, in the volume twelve of the “ABAGHAT al-ANWAR” has specified a discussion concerning this narrative, and he has divided it into two sections, the first part is about the document of the narrative and the second part is specified explaining it in details.[110] And Mirza Najm ad-Din Sharif Asgari has written a separate book about it called: “Muhammad, Ali, the story of the Two most Loved Facts, and the narrative of As-Safina” from the documents of the Sunnite. And God-willing, we are going to explain it in details in the future.

The second point is that the Messenger of Allah states: You do not teach anything to me Household because they are wiser than you are: لَا تُعَلِّمُوهُمْ فَإنَّهُمْ أعْلَمُ مِنكُمْ. The most scholars of the Shiite and Sunnite have related this narrative to be from the Messenger of Allah, and we also related it from Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari on the page 21, Knowing the Imam – 3.

And if we add this sentence of the holiness to the another sentence of him that the Holiness Imam Hassan, Upon Him be Peace, has related it, then we can realize the Imamate and the Imams’ leadership from it, and the sentence is as he says:

وَ قَدْ سَمِعَتْ هَذِهِ الامَّة جَدِّى صَلَّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم يَقُولُ: مَا وَلَّتْ امَّة أمْرَها رَجُلًا وَ فِيهِمْ مَن هُوَ أَعْلَمُ مِنهُ إلّا لَم يَزَل يَذْهَبُ أَمْرُهُمْ سَفالًا حَتَّى يَرْجِعُوا إلى مَا تَرَكُوهُ. [111]

‘And indeed this nation has heard from my grandfather, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, that he used to say: Never a tribe or a group entrusts his social affairs to a man in his group but he causes corrupt in it unless he is the most learned and looks after it properly.

By putting these two sentences of the Messenger of Allah together we understand that the immaculate Imams, Upon Them be Peace, who have the whole affairs of the people in their hands, must be the most learned, with certain ability to run the nation and to look after the religious and social problems of all. And above all, the Messenger has stated of their highly position and knowledge, and in the meantime, he has stated that a leader most be the most learned – which are the main points.

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The sermon of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, about the knowledge of Household

The Holiness Commander of the believers, Upon Them be Peace, has stated in “Nahj-ul-Balagha”, within the sermon 142:

أَينَ الَّذين زَعَمُوا أَنَّهُمْ الرّاسِخُونَ فِى العِلْمِ دُونَنا كَذِباً وَ بَغْياً عَلَيْنا أن رَفَعَنا اللهُ وَ وَضَعَهُمْ، وَ اعْطاناً وَ حَرَمَهُمْ، وَ أدْخَلنَا وَ أَخْرَجَهُمْ، بنا يُسْتَعطَى الهُدى وَ يُسْتَجلَى العَمى. إنَّ الائِمَّة مِن قُريشٍ غُرِسُوا فِى هَذَا البَطْنِ مِن هاشِمٍ، لا تَصْلُحُ عَلى سِواهُمْ وَ لَا تَصْلُحُ الوُلاة مِن غَيْرِهِمْ. [112]

‘Where are those who by lying and having enmity towards us claim that they are more furnished with knowledge than we are? Contrary to their claim, Allah has lifted our status and position but kept them in lowliness. He has honoured us of His blessing and knowledge but deprived them having them. It is by us the guidance of the people, and everyone has a share from our guidance. And it is by us the outside and inside visions illuminate, and everyone can remove the veil of ignorance from upon his eyes and see the things clearly. The Leaders and the Guides of the society have always been from the tribe of Quraish, and in the Household, it was from the tribe of Bani Hashim. The Imamate and the Leadership are not permissible for anyone but them – the commanders of the nation must not be of the other [tribes].’

And in the sermon 145 he states:

وَ اعْلَمُوا أنَّكُم لَن تَعْرِفُوا الرُّشدَ حَتَّى تَعْرِفوا الَّذى تَرَكَهُ، وَ لَنْ تَأخُذُوا بِمِثاقِ الكِتابِ حَتَّى تَعْرِفُوا الَّذى نَقَضَهُ، وَ لَنْ تُمَسِّكُوا بِهِ حَتّى تَعْرِفُوا الَّذى نَبَذَهُ، فَالتَمِسُوا ذَلِكَ مِن عِندِ أهلِهِ فَإنَّهُمْ عَيْشُ العِلْمِ وَ مَوْتُ الجَهْلِ، هُمُ الَّذينَ يُخْبِرُكُم حُكْمُهُمْ عَنْ عِلْمِهِمْ وَ صَمْتُهُمْ عَنْ مَنطِقِهِمْ وَ ظَاهِرُهُمْ عَن بَاطِنِهِمْ لَا يُخالِفُونَ الدِّينَ وَ لَا يَخْتَلُفُونَ فِيهِ، فَهُوَ بَيْنَهُمْ شَاهِدٌ صَادِقٌ وَ صَامِتٌ نَاطِق. [113]

 ‘You should know that you will never know guidance unless you know who has abandoned it, you will never abide by the pledges of the Qur’an unless you know has broken them, and you will not cling to it unless you know who has forsaken it. Seek these things from those who own them because they are the life spring of knowledge and death of ignorance. Those are the people whose commands will disclose to you their [extend of knowledge]. Their silence will disclose their [capacity of speaking] and their outer appearance will disclose their inner self. They do not go against religion, and do not differ from one another about it, while that [Qur’an] is among them a truthful witness and a silent speaker.’

Therefore, for the sure happiness and getting to know the meaning of Allah’s Book beseech the Qur’an but through the right ones – the Imams of the Household – who own the right knowledge and are aware of the life, death and the ignorance [of the people]. They are the ones whose commands are apparent and their knowledge is inward, and their silent is due to their great souls and the sign of their vast awareness of the secrets of the world and the miracles of the firmament. Their appearances prove their servitude, and their humility is the sign of their inward serenity and connection to the Holy Perfection. They never differ in the affairs of the religion, and never oppose one another. For them, the religion is the honest proof  and a silent orator; (and religion is the best proof for their fact and their fulfilling their duties silently).

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The attributions of the Imam in the supplication of the Day of Arafa of the Holiness Imam Saj’jad, upon him be peace

The Holiness Sayyid as-Sajedin, Zain al-Aabedin, Upon Him be Peace, in the prayer of Arafah, which is the 47th supplication of the “Al-sahifa as-Al-saj‘jadeiia” recites:   

اللهُمَّ إنَّكَ ايَّدْتَ دينَكَ فى كُلِّ اوانٍ بإمامٍ اقَمْتَهُ عَلَماً لِعِبادِكَ وَ مَناراً فى بِلَادِكَ بَعْدَ أن وَصَلْتَ حَبْلَهُ بِحَبْلِكَ، وَ جَعَلْتَهُ الذَّريعَة الَى رِضْوَانِكَ، وَ افْتَرَضْتَ طاعَتَهُ وَ حَذَّرْتَ مَعْصِيتَهُ، وَ امَرْتَ بِامْتِثَالِ امْرِهِ وَ الإنتهاءِ عِندَ نَهْيِهِ، وَ الّا يَتَقَدَّمَهُ مُتَقَدِّمٌ، وَ لَا يَتَأخَّرَ مُتَأخِّرٌ، فَهُوَ عِصْمَة اللّائذينَ وَ كَهْفُ المُؤمِنِينَ وَ عُرْوَة المُتَمَسِّكِينَ وَ بَهاءُ العالَمِينَ.

‘O Allah, surely You have confirmed Your religion in all times with an Imam whom You have set up as a guidepost to Your servants and a lighthouse in Your lands – after his cord has been joined to Your cord!

You have appointed him the means of Your good pleasure, made obeying him obligatory, cautioned against disobeying him, and commanded following his commands, abandoning his prohibitions, and that no forward-goes ahead of him or back-keeper keep back from him!

So he is the preservation of the shelter-seekers.

[He is] the cave of the faithful, the handholds the adherents, and the radiance of the world!’

The Late Sayyid Ali Khan Kabir has written a fine explanation on this part of the supplication of “Al-sahifa as-Al-saj‘jadeiia”, and now we are going to re-explain it in short: the Holiness Ali bin al-Hussein, Upon Him be Peace, has explained the attributes of the position of Imam in four cases:

The first is the phrase عِصْمَة اللّائذينَ. That is, there is no hindrance against the Imam who is going to guide one to the straight path and save him from going to extreme.

The second is the term كَهْفُ المُؤمِنِينَ that is the Imams are the shelters of all the faithful, those who refer to them in all events and doubts and ask them for the remedy how to get rid of their problems.

The third one is the عُرْوَة المُتَمَسِّكِينَ that is those people who beseech them and carry out their commands they remain secured and are saved against the unknown disasters befallen them.

The fourth part is بَهاءُ العالَمِينَ that is the world rule and system, the freshness and beauty of the scenery of the world are related to Him. As the entire world behave according to His rules and nature, the base of justice, the fairness balance and the pillars of rightness and honesty are set up among them.

And logically considering the case, this supplication points to the necessity of Imam in all times. However, when it is considered sensibly, everyone has someone in life to cooperate and live socially with. Generally, with the appearance of the new civilization there misunderstanding is born among the people; it is because the human natured is after benefit and accumulating things. Everyone is after his passion and want to quench his thirst – that is lust, thus, he easily gets angry with the smallest thing in his life and stands against it. It is why quarrel begins, fighting break out and consequently they kill one another, the towns and cities are destroyed and chaos will be everywhere. In that case, there must be a law and rule to govern the people and bring peace and comfort to them. That kink of law and rule is the very ‘religion’ which corrects the worldly affairs of people and it trains them to behave and learn how to stop the others’ aggression. It also assign a way how to get closer to Allah, and it teaches them the knowledge beyond man’s being aware of; it directs man how to think about the Hereafter. Therefore, by all means the religion teaches man how to step on the straight path.

This base of religious training must be fulfilled by the human being because, in this field,  the supervision the angels is impossible, and animals own lower insight than man to instruct him. And the instructor must be confirmed by the signs and verses of Allah so that people to be humble in front of him and  to accept his invitation – and that is called the miracle.

Therefore, in the laws and rules of the Creator, the All-mighty, such a person is necessary and indispensible.

And as in disciplining the world, Allah does not withhold sending down the rainwater, for the earth needs water to grow trees, grass and vegetation, and the animals need water to keep their lives going and so do the entire creatures similarly the discipline of the world needs an Imam to let people know the affairs of the world and the Hereafter.

Yes, that is the case. One who makes the eyebrow grow just for beauty, not necessity, then, how does He spare sending an Imam, a certain blessing and mercy, whose instruction is just to direct man to the straight path!  

Therefore, it is only the favour of Lofty position of Allah, who has created and sent to man such a person to assist him during the course of his life and to build his happy ending in the Hereafter. Such a man is Allah’s vicegerent in the earth, he is the Imam whom has been sent for the guidance of the servants, he is the centre of grace and blessing and has been assigned as the illuminator in the earth.

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The necessity of the Imam’s being in the society

Now, if it seems dubious for some that this reasoning relates only the dispatching of the Messenger by Allah who had the laws and rules for himself, but it does not related the Imam. The answer is that: as human being needs a messenger to learn religion and wisdom from him, so does he need a guide to keep that religious laws and wisdom and safeguard them. It is because it is not possible for man to look after the Divine laws and rules and the Book of Allah; and besides, the Book by its own, without the explanation of the Imam, cannot answer the questions of the people.

The Book includes the brief and lengthy subjects, decisive and ambiguity, public and private, the absolute and particular, the abolished and abrogated, the secret knowledge and many more that, apart from messenger or the successors of the messenger, they are beyond men’s imaginations to understand. It is just Imam who, by his own great soul, is able to understand the whole knowledge of the Messenger – he receives it with ease and transfers it to the people in the best way possible.

And if someone says: by practicing the religious jurisprudence in the Book Allah one can amend his needs. His answer is simply that, practicing the religious jurisprudence is  prohibited, and if it is permissible, it is in the case of necessity; and as the needs does not mean anything to Allah so He must send the Imam with the vast knowledge to see to the demands of the people. This grade and degree is not possible for everyone unless he has the holy soul, high wisdom, the divine insight, pure heart and fine attributes and free from grudge so that the Divine Knowledge to be illuminated in him. Therefore, some learned men have said: the fact of prophecy never disappears, its nature exists forever; and it is not abrogated but adheres the name of the messenger and apostle, and because the revelation angel does not come to the messenger he banishes – and on this base, there are numerous narratives from the immaculate Imams among the nations and narrators.

Messenger is one to whom the angels appears and speaks to him, and prophet is he who dreams the angel in his sleep and speaks to him, and it is possible for one to be a messenger and prophet in the same time; and the relater is one who just hears the voice of the angel but without observing him. And this famous narrative is by the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, who has stated:

إنَّ فى امَّتى مُحَدَّثين مُكَلَّمِينَ.  

‘There are some among my nation whom the angels of Allah speak to.’

And this is also from the Holiness who has said:

إنَّ لِلَّهِ عِباداً لَيْسُوا بِأنبيآءَ يَغْبِطُهُمُ النَّبِيُّون .

‘In fact Allah has servants who are not of the angels but the angels emulate them.’

And there are lots of narratives for the Imam’s being which are related by the Sunnite and Shiite – all are related from the narratives. [114]

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The part of the Imam is not only saving the system of the society

Of course, it is not concealed to the clear-sighted believing critic that this kind of reasoning for proving the Imam’s being is making the society understand the subject, however, the status and position of the Imam is beyond our imagination and that which we are trying to explain with our dumpy perception.

Through the narratives in our disposal, we come across strange subjects concerning the personality of the Imam, for example: the life of man depends on him, if there is no Imam the earth gulps down the people living on it, and he is the cord of Allah, he is the essence of the Great Names, he is the verse of the greatest right, he is the guardian of the creation, he is the main source of life and he is the assurance of the hearts. Therefore, if against the explained reason someone says: if the aware sages and wise people among a nation carry out the laws and rules according to the needs of their people, and train the people to obey that law, and above all, from the very child-hold they try to teach and train the people not to lie, not to steal and not to be aggressive against the others; such as some countries who know nothing of the religion but they discipline and need no Imams to guide them what to do and what not to, then there is no need having some as Imam on top!

But, as we mentioned it already, the position of the Imam is not only to keep order, to guide the people to Allah and guard the people’s rights, his main task is his relationship with the Creator.

When man steps on this natural world, and is separated from the Holy world and is deprived of the original illumination, he unknowingly becomes depressed – whether he is a dignified person or of the rank and file, he lives in the society or disconnected from it, he feels a great loss within himself.

Therefore, supposing that a single man: without having a wife and children, parents, brother or sister, a partner or a neighbour, commander over him or slave to one or a chief, but he is living in a pleasant island. He has everything necessary in his disposal but he is always worried of something unknown to him, a kind of distressed always disturbs him, whenever he thinks of his weak points he becomes most worried, the feeling of falling far from his real destiny poisons his pleasant life in that pleasing island, and changes that natural beauty into the devilish hell in his sight – he has a loss but is unaware!

Man does not find serenity and peace unless he is intimate with Allah, as it is stated

أَلَا بِذِكْرِ اللَهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوب.[115]

‘O, behold! Hearts feel tranquil in Allah’s remembrance!’

The peace, tranquility and the remembrance of Allah will not settle in the heart except by the training of a perfect trainer who has gone through all the paths up to the Hereafter; and his tongue utters:

 سَلُونِى قَبْلَ أَن تَفْقِدُونِى

Do ask me before being unable to fine me!’

It is he who can be the Leader [if the nation] but not one who is lacking this attribute. Either a man must attain this position or being trained under the direct control of such a man; the first one is Imam while the second one the follower – there is no the third way. In the Glorious Qur’an, the case of those in the hell is well explained that they say to the keepers of the hell:

وَ قَالُوا لَوْ كُنَّا نَسْمَعُ أَوْ نَعْقِلُ مَا كُنَّا فِى أَصْحبِ السَّعِيرِ﴿10 فَاعْتَرُفُوا بِذَنْبِهِمْ فُسُحْقًا لِاصْحبِ السَّعِير [116]

‘[And they] say: If we  had either reached at a position that we could think about the things and need not any guide, or had followed one who were the source of thoughts and knowing  and had received his knowledge straight from Allah, we would not be in the hell today. Those in the hell confess their sins, so curse be on them and death!’ It is benefitted from this verse that the sin of the people of the hell is that they have lived on their own way and have not accepted the Imam’s training . Even if they have the most superb idea it is not enough – either one should have the exact status of the Imam or he should follow an Imam, otherwise his certain place is the hell.

In another part of the Qur’an, Allah divides the slaves in three parts:

وَ كُنتُم أزواجًا ثَلثَة﴿7 فَأَصْحبُ الْمَيْمِنَة مَا أَصْحبُ الْمَيْمِنَة﴿8 وَ أَصْحب الْمَشْئِمَة مَا أَصْحبُ الْمَشْئِمَة﴿9 وَ السبِقُونَ السبِقُونَ﴿10 أُولَئِكَ الْمُقِرَّبُون [117]

‘… then you will be in three bands:So [a group is] the companions of the prosperity; what companions of the prosperity! And [a group is] the abject; who are the abject? And the ‘Foremost’ [who] are the foremost! Those are the nearest [to Allah], (Qur’an: 56/7-11).’

And at the end of the chapter He states:

فَأَمَّا إِن كَانَ مِنَ الْمُقَرَّبِينَ﴿88 فَرَوْحٌ وَ رَيْحَانٌ وَ جَنَّتُ نَعِيمٍ﴿89 وَ أَمَّا إِن كَانَ مِنْ أَصْحبِ الْيَمِينِ﴿90 فَسَلمٌ لَكَ مِن أَصْحبِ الْيَمِينِ﴿91 وَ أَمَّا إِن كَانَ مِنَ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ الضَّالِينَ﴿92 فَنُزُلٌ مِن حَمِيمٍ﴿93 وَ تَصْلِيَة جَحِيمٍ﴿94

‘… but if he, (the moribund), is of those brought nearer, contentment, fragrance and a garden of bliss [wait for him] and if he is of the People of the prosperity, so [he is said:] ‘Peace be on you,’ from the People of the prosperity. However, if he is of the astray rejecters, his welcome is to be with scalding water, and entering into the depth of Hell, (Qur’an: 56/88-94).’

The purpose of those nearer are the immaculate Imams, Upon Them be Peace, and many have been trained by them, reached their destination and have lied down in the Peaceful Court of Allah; they have attained this verse as:

يأَيُّتُهَا النَّفسُ الْمُطْمَئِنَة ارْجِعِى إِلَى رَبِّكَ رَاضِيَة مَرْضِيَة.

And the purpose of the People of the prosperity are the people who have followed and obeyed the Imam for the sake of the religion but they have not reached their destinations and have not attained the highest position.

And the meaning of the abject ones refers to those who are the rejecters and liars. They are the obstinate people who followed their own desires and opinions and turned away from the Imam.

And the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, states this fact to Komail bin Zeiad Nakhaee in the Nahj-ul-Balagha:

قالَ: يا كُمَيْلُ إنَّ هَذِهِ القُلُوبَ أوعِيَة فَخَيرُها أوْعاها، فَاحْفَظْ عَنِّى مَا أَقُولُ لَكَ: النّاسُ ثَلثَة: فَعالِمٌ رَبّانِىُّ، وَ مَتعَلِّمُ عَلى سَبِيلِ نَجاة، وَ هَمَجٌ رَعاعٌ أتباعُ كُلِّ ناعِقٍ، يَميلونَ مَعَ كُلِ ريحٍ، لَم يَسْتَضيئوا بنورِ العِلْمِ، وَ لَمْ يَلْجَأُوا إلى رُكنٍ وَثِيقٍ. [118]

Kumeil bin Zeiad said: The Commander of the believers, Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, on me on my hand and both set out to the graveyard. When the Holiness was in the outskirt of the town, took a deep breath and stated: O Kumeil, these hearts are as the pots and the best of them is the heart that has most capacity. Try to memorize what I am telling you, and do not forget it.

People are in three groups: the first are the learned people who know Allah and the instructors of the stray people, the second group includes the learners who follow those secured learned, and finally are the ignorant people – the selfish, careless and means who follow every right or wrong call without knowing it. They move where the wind blows, their hearts have not been illuminated with the knowledge and have not relied on a reliable resort.  

Here, it is clearly understood that the Holiness he appointed the people in three factions.

The first section includes the divine learned who are the Imams or those educated and trained by the Imams, those, in whose hearts, the divine Light has been illuminated, they have passed out the cardinal desires and have fettered Satan by their own hands. They have become aware of the entire world, their hearts are light and their conscious alert – they are right and leading the human race to the righteousness.

The second are those people who have become the followers of the first, the divine learned, ones and have started to behave – their hearts are lighted through the first ones and walking forward by their guidance.

The third are the ordinary rank and file people who are following their own passions and leading their lives as the animals do; they have absolutely fallen back and never can feel who the first or even the second groups are.

Therefore, the responsibility of the Imam is to guide the people and connect their hearts to the Lofty position of their Creator. It is obvious that the philosophy of the creation is on this basis, therefore, it is been related in the narratives that: if there are no more than two persons in the whole world, one of them must obey the another.

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[73] "الدر المنثور ", volume 4, page 45, and "تفسير الميزان‏ ", volume 11, page 360 related from الدر المنثور.
[74] "غاية المرام‏", page 235, the fifth narrative, and مناقب" ابن شهرآشوب‏ ", volume 1, page 567, " ینابیع المودّة ", section 26, page 99. Hamwini has also related the same narrative by means of his document extracted from Abu Horairah.
[75]مناقب" ‏ ", volume 1, page 567.
[76] "شواهد التنزیل", volume 1, page 299.
[77] Same source.
[78] Same book, page 300.
[79] "غاية المرام‏", page 236, the ninth narrative, and "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page 518.
[80] "بحار الانوار ", volume nine, page 76.
[81] "الدر المنثور ", volume 4, page 45, and "تفسير الميزان‏ ", volume 11, page 360, related by means of "المنثور المنثور" "غاية المرام‏", page 235 narrative five, and , مناقب" ابن شهرآشوب‏ ", volume 1, page 568, and " ینابیع المودّة ", section 26, page 99, with a little phrasal differences by quotation of Tha'labi in "Kash'saf" explanation. 

[82] "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page 519, and "بحار الانوار ", volumes 9, page 75, and the commentary of "تفسير ابو الفتوح‏ ", volume 6, page page 463, and , "تفسير الميزان‏ ", volume 11, page 360, and مناقب" ابن شهرآشوب‏ ", volume 1, page 567. 
[83] The footer of volume 1, page 293 of "شواهد التنزيل‏".
[84] "شواهد التنزيل‏ ", volume 1, page 293-296.

[85] "شواهد التنزيل‏ ", volume 1, page 302.

[86] Ibn Shahre Ashub, "مناقب", volume 1, page 567, and "بحار الانوار ", volume 9, page 57.

[87] "تفسير ابو الفتوح‏ ", volume 3, page 278.

[88] "تفسير برهان ‏", volume I, page 519.

[89] "غاية المرام‏", page 237, narrative twenty.

[90] "تفسير الميزان‏ ", volume 11, page 360.

[91] "الدر المنثور ", volume 4, page 45.

[92] "شواهد التنزيل‏ ", volume 1, page 297 and 298.

[93] "غاية المرام‏", page 235, the second and third narratives, and "بحار الانوار ", volume 9, page 75 from مناقب" ابن شهرآشوب‏" .

[94] Same source.

[95] Ibn Shahre Ashub, "مناقب ابن شهر آشوب", volume1, page 567, and "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page 519.

[96] "بحار الانوار ", volume 9, page 76.

[97] "شواهد التنزيل‏ ", volume 1, page 296.

[98] Ibn Shahre Ashub, "مناقب ابن شهر آشوب", volume 1, page 567, and "بحار الانوار ", volume 9, page 75, related from مناقب.

[99] The commentary of Abul-Fotooh Razi, "تفسیر ابوالفتوح رازی", volume 6, page 463.

[100] "شواهد التنزيل‏ ", volume 1, page 302.

[101] "غاية المرام‏", page 236, narrative fourteenth, related from Salim bin Ghais Hilali Kofi, and "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page 519.

[102] He has put the term ' الی' in "تفسير برهان ‏", so has he put it "غاية المرام‏", however, Majlisi has not mentioned it in "بحار الانوار".

[103] "غاية المرام‏", page 237, narrative sixteenth and "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page 519 and "بحار الانوار ", volume 9, page 76.

[104] "کافی اصول ", volume 1, page 192, and in "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page 518, and in "غاية المرام‏", page 235, narrative three has been repeated.

[105] "غاية المرام‏", page 235, narrative six, and "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page 519.

[106] "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page 519.

[107] "غاية المرام‏", page 236, the narrative eleventh, and "تفسير برهان ‏", volume 1, page pages 517-518.

[108] He has put this statement as the the introduction at the beginning of the "عبقات‏", part one of the twelfth volume – at the first part right opposite the page one.

[109] The index for the sources of the documents of "حديث ثقلين‏" 'The Two Most Loved Facts', from the page 1165 to 1188, which is the last part of volume twelve of "عبقات الانوار"

[110] The sum of these two parts, which makes the twelfth volume, is published by the "مؤسّسه نشر نفائس مخطوطات اصفهان‏"in six volumes.

[111] " ینابیع المودّة ", page 482, section ninety. And in "غاية المرام‏", page 298, under the title of 'the twenty-sixth narrative', within the sermon of the Holiness Imam Hassan, upon him be peace, who has mentioned it when paying homage with Mua‘wiyah; and he has mentioned this narrative by the means of another document in the page of 298 and 299, under the title of the twenty-seventh narrative, and he has mentioned the same statement of the Holiness concerning the guardian-ship of the nation.

[112] "نهج البلاغة ", the first part, page 262.

[113] "نهج البلاغة ", sermon 145, part one, page 267, and "ینابیع المودّة ", page 446.

[114] The Explanation of "شرح صحيفه‏", by Sayyid Ali-Khan, page 500.

[115] Surah 13, "رعد", Verse 28.

[116] Surah 67, "ملک", Verses 10 & 11.

[117] Surah 56, "واقعه", Verses 7-11.

[118] "نهج البلاغة ", part 2, page 171.

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