But of the first type, (the nominative case), are these verses:
And Allah has stated ‘وَالِى’ as: ‘وَ مَا لَهُمْ مِنْ دوُنِهِ مِنْ وال’ Except Allah, there is no Guardian for them, so it means here the Guardian, that is, there is no Guardian for them.
And then, ‘Raqib’ has explained most of the verses in the Qur’an which are formed with the word ‘ولى’ and banned the guardianship of the Jews, the enemies of Allah, to be used; he has explained the related words to the ‘ولى’.
Anyhow, we tried to bring to you all the meanings related to this word from the words-book so that it becomes crystal clear to those unaware. All the different relevant meanings of the words ‘وَلايت’ such as ‘وَلىّ’, ‘مَوْلَى’, and the others, as they are explained in the “TAJ-ul-AROUS” there are twenty –one meanings for the word of guardian. All of them have the same meanings which are the base for the meaning of ‘Guardianship’. And the rest meanings of them are closely related to it; in other word, the main meaning of the Guardianship is in them.
The main meaning of the word is that ‘Raqib’ has explained it in the “Mofradat”, as in the root of the word ‘ولى’ he says:
الْوَلَاءُ وَ التَّوَالى أنْ يَحْصُلَ شَيْئانِ فَصَاعِداً حُصُولًا لَيْسَ بَينَهُما مَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُمَا.
وَلاء و تَوالى are two words that, two or more things are alike and there is nothing between them. That is, there is no veil between or after those two words to separate them from each other; and if there is anything between them it is exactly of their kinds, but nothing different.
For example, the unity and the oneness between the slave and his Creator takes place, which there is not any veils in any stages between them – this kind of oneness is very ‘وَلايت’.
And the position of oneness between the lover and the beloved, and the narrator and listener, the demander and the demanded are found, it is in a way that there is no separation between– this kind of oneness is also ‘وَلايت’.
And on this base, Allah the Highest is the Master of all being, that is, absolute and in the world of genesis, and all the creatures, without any exception, are the associates of Allah. It is because there is no veil between Allah, the creator, and the created creatures – except the creatures differ among themselves. However, in the world of legislative and Gnostic, the right Guardianship, is specified for those who have passed the different stages of disbelief, have ignored all cardinal desires and stepped on the right point of fact and servitude.
It is on this stage that both sides are called the ‘وَلىّ’; that is, the alien state has disappeared and the identity of ‘He’ has been manifested.
This is the fact of ‘وَلايت’, and from here we see that all the signs and attributes of ‘وَلىّ’ is obvious in the meaning of ‘فاعِل’, the subject, and without any defect, he sees his feature in the clear mirror as it is.
And then all the derivations of the word ‘وَلىّ’ and all the meanings that have been explained about it, are on this base and standard; because the main necessity of ‘وَلايت’ is the nearness, and nearness has also different degrees and types, that is, in every nearness the main meaning is being near to the word ‘وَلايت’ so that the nearness to manifest itself.
And upon this base, it is not right to say: ‘وَلايت, وَلىّ, and مَوْلَى’, as well all their derivations can be used with different meanings for all are verbally right, no, it is not that. However, they are right by virtue and only are verbally right in the same case they are used, and this kind of usage is correct and is used with all words.
And according this theory, wherever we come across with the words ‘وَلايت, وَلىّ, and مَوْلَى’, and other than those, but there were not any cortexes to lead us to the righteousness of them, we must, without any restriction, accept the apparent meaning of each word as it is. For example if it is said: ‘وَلايت only belongs to Allah’, we must say: ‘It means the assistant of Allah is with all being.’ And when it is said that a certain man has attained the position of وَلايت, it must be gathered that he has stepped at the stage of the behaviorism, Gnostic and the Divine witnessing; where there is not and screen between his and the Right Holiness Being, that is: all devils have given way to divinity within him, he has attained the absolute servitude position of the Right Holiness, the Honorable and Exalted.
Thus, by these explanations it becomes clear that wherever the word وَلايت, or وَلىّ is used, there is a kind of unity between two things, for example, it is between a master (owner) and a slave that the word has connected them, therefore, either of them is called, ‘وَلىّ’ – the relation between the master and slave is so. And the relation between bless-giver and the blessed one is the same, for the special tusk of each, either one is called ‘وَلىّ’; and the relation between the reliever and the relieved slave is similar. This relation is also between two men united by oath, two confederates, and two: lover and beloved, as well the bride and bride-groom are titled as ‘وَلىّ’ – as they have united and become relatives, they are considered as a family. And the neighbour is called ‘وَلىّ’, it is because two families are living close to one another, a cousin is also called ‘وَلىّ’, for he is of the closest relative, and in many occasions he is considered as the brother and is of the assistances.
When there is a special context for one of these meanings, we must add the word to it, otherwise it means the word وَلايت with its vast meaning and it brings into the mind that the speaker’s means so. It is obvious that the ownership in the plan and undertaking in the affairs, and taking the responsibility of the commands and the problems are all the result of وَلايت but not the main fact; when it is seen that the word وَلايت is translated as ‘the government, states and Sultan’, they have translated the appearance of the word but not its right and natural meaning.
The statement of the Master Al‘lāma Tabatabaee, may his soul be sanctified, on the meaning of Guardianship
Therefore, according to this fact, our respectable Master, the Holiness, the most rightful sign and Gnostic, the Late Ayat-ul-lah Tabatabaee, may Allah bestow upon us of his pure blessing, has stated in ‘Al-Velayat’ and the commentary of ‘Al-Mizan’ that:
الْوَلَايَة هِىَ الْكَمَالُ الْأخِيرُ الْحَقِيقِىُّ لِلْإنْسَانِ وَ إنَّهَا الْغَرَضُ الْأخِيرُ مِنْ تَشْريعِ الشَّريعَة الْحَقَّة الْإلَهيَّة.
‘وَلايت’ is the uppermost degree of man’s perfection; and it is the final aim and purpose of the rightful legislation of Allah.
And he has stated in his commentary that: although they have mentioned different meanings for وَلايت:
لَكِنَّ الْأصْلَ فِى مَعْناهَا ارْتِفَاعُ الْوَاسِطَة الحَائلَة بَيْنَ الشَّيْئَيْنِ بَحَيْثُ لَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُمَا مَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُمَا.
but the main point is its meaning, it is the removal of a veil from between two things, in a way that there remains nothing between those two things.
And then, to show the nearness of one thing to the other, they have used the different words of the nearness: as the relative nearness, the distance nearness, the position nearness and the honesty nearness and so on.
Therefore, either one in the term of وَلايت is known as وَلىّ; it is because either of those two is closely connected that the other words cannot. Therefore, Allah, the Glorified, is the وَلىّ (Master) of His believing slave, it is because He has the affairs of him under control, He plans his positions, He directs him to the straight path, and He commands and prohibits him of the things that are useful or harmful for him – and He assists him in the world and the Hereafter.
And the real believer is also the وَلىّ (Master) of his Creator; it is because in taking His commands and orders, he let himself be under His control. Then, in spiritual blessings, and in guidance, and anything follows: receiving the satisfaction of Allah is under the direct protection of Allah.
Anyhow, the Guardians of Allah are the specified believers, because Allah is their Master and Guardian in the spiritual and the everlasting life of them; and it is said: وَ اللهُ وَلىُّ الْمُؤمِنين ‘Allah is the Guardian of the believers.’
In the chapter of Jonah: 10/62 it is stated:
ألا إنَّ أوْلِيَاءَ اللَهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُون
‘… Beware! Indeed Allah’s friends – no fear shall be upon them, nor shall they worry, (Qur’an: 10/62).’
And after this verse, there is another verse which is commenting the word of ‘The Guardian of Allah’, and that is:
الَّذِينَ آمَنُوَا و كَانُوا يَتَّقُون
‘[The Guardian of Allah are] those who believe and [in this world] have the attributes of the pious.’
Thus, this attachment does not let the ‘the term of Allah’s Guardians’ include all the believers; while we see there are some among them about whom Allah says:
وَ مَا يُؤْمِنُ أكْثَرُهُم بِاللَهِ إلَّا وَ هُمْ مُشْرِكُون.
‘… most of them do not believe in Allah unless they associate other [deities] with Him, (Qur’an: 12/106).’
It is because the clause ‘الَّذِينَ آمَنُوَا و كَانُوا يَتَّقُون’ explains that they are the believers and all are pious, that is, before their belief they used to be pious, because it says: ‘الَّذِينَ آمَنُوَا و كَانُوا يَتَّقُون’.
This explanation clearly shows that before their believing, they had been pious for a while, and that we know their first belief was without piety, because either their believing was converged or it had been before that, specially the continual piety; therefore, the stage of this belief, another stage of the stages of belief, is other than the first one. And in the comment of the Chapter two, Al-Baghara, verse 130, it was explained that: ‘There is a different stage for any belief and Islam as well for the disbelief – some of them are higher than the others.’
The first and superficial stage in embracing the Islam is declaring two witnesses, and the immediate after it is the belief, which is confessing the meaning of witnesses in heart and accepting it; even if he has not attained the rightful religion and has not confessed the terms one by one.
Because of this, it maybe, some of the stages of disbelief mix up with belief and Allah states:
وَ مَا يُؤْمِنُ أكْثَرُهُم بِاللَهِ إلَّا وَ هُمْ مُشْرِكُون.
Then, continually the belief of the slave becomes clear and pure; it improves until the stage of the slave’s submission to the Holiness Glorified and Exalted and his total intendancy towards Him – as we know, the return of the entire being is to Allah.
And as much as one’s belief is improving and gets the higher decree, the belief too with the same decree increases. His confessing and submitting reach at that grade and the slave becomes in such a state that he surrenders to his Creator, he submits to His Divinity and Unity. In that state, his objection and anger wade away, and does not object to any commands, judgments, rules and uneasiness by Him. He does not oppose to whatever comes to him; this level of belief is certainly to Allah and being certain that everything is from Him, that is the real perfection in the belief, and through that, the slave has attained his uppermost servitude.
Allah, the Highest, has stated:
فَلَا وَ رَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىُ يحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِى أنْفُسِهِمْ حَرَجاً مِمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَ يُسَلِّمُوا تَسْليما. 
‘… But no [O Messenger]! By your Lord, they do not believe until they seek your arbitration in their dispute. Then they will not feel uneasy, [or doubt] the justice for your verdicts, but will surrender in full obedience, (Qur’an: 4/65).’
Thus, by what has been explained so far, it is obvious that the meaning of ‘belief’ in the phrase ‘those who believe’ is the very stage of perfection in the ‘Guardian of Allah’, or it is the stage near to the perfection.
And apart from this, Allah explains those ‘Guardian of Allah’, as:
لَا خَوْفُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُون ‘no fear shall be upon them, nor shall they worry.
This term clearly relates that the meaning of the belief is the very highest stage of belief that the slave attains his higher decree of the servitude; it is in this state that the slave sees all power, sovereignty and commands belong to Allah, and nothing is of his own so that to be upset by losing it or to be afraid of gaining or missing it.
It is because when one faces fright one expects a loss or harm might happen to him in any moment. That fright and sorrow is because the lack of a good friend or a bad thing waiting for him. And it is all because one is interested in something: such as the loss of his property, riches, children or his grace, otherwise, when one has nothing to be interested in he never fears or is worried about anything.
A slave that considers everything to belong to Allah and there is no partners to Him and no one can claim to be the partner, he sees no right to claim something is his and then to worry about its loss and to be worried about.
This is the very attribute that Allah states about His obedient worshippers and saints:
الَا انَّ اوْلياءَ اللَهِ لا خُوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ لَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُون.
‘… Let it be known that no fear shall be upon them, nor shall they worry.
Therefore, this group of the people who are the saints of Allah are supported and nothing worries them – nothing of the affairs of the world or the fright of the Hereafter worries them, but whatever Allah wills. We know that it is Allah’s plan to make them fear Him, and to be worried about losing the Allah’s generosity towards them – all these are the stages of submission to Allah.
The Holiness Al‘lāma, may Allah be satisfied with, after an eloquent discussion gathers that this free-of-fright state in this world is only for the saints of Allah; and he logically proves that this attribute is only belongs to them and this verse explains their situation. And at the end of his discussion he states: ‘This verse relates that these attributions are only for a certain group of the believers who, comparing to the other believers, are in a certain stage of belief. It is not for the common believers, and this comparison is obtained from the verse:
الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ كَانُوا يَتَّقُون.
‘[The Saints of Allah are] those who believe and [in this world] have the attributes of the pious.
Anyhow, the removal of the fright and the worries of some from the others does not mean that good and evil, benefit or loss, safety and perish, hardship and ease, joy and pain, blessing and disaster are the same for them; and they sense no difference between those. This is what a sensible person, even certain animals do not agree with, it is just that they do not care anything other than Allah – they know that whatever good or evil comes to them is by Allah. They are not afraid of anything but that which Allah ants them to be afraid of, and they are not worried of anything except what Allah wants them to be worried of.
The perfect Monotheism restricts the fact of power and ownership in Allah, the Glorified and Exalted, therefore, there remains no independence for anyone to express his being, to be proud of himself, to love or hate, to enjoy or to be sorrowful, and many other do’s and not do’s.
And that rightful believer that the Devine Light has embraced him, his fright, his agony, whatever he loves or hates are due to Allah – all activities of his is for Allah, because of Allah and of Allah’s.
In this way, with the contradiction in our explaining, a true believer fears none except Allah, through our saying, the fears of many things that harm him, and he avoids many things that are unpleasant to him wade away – so do understand this subject.
The brief explanation of that is in the commentary of “Bayan-as-Să‘ādah”; as well, the detailed statement of Al‘lāma is under the verse: هُنَالِكَ الْوَلَايَة لِلَهِ الْحَق states concerning the meaning of the Guardianship, and he says:
وَلايت with the upper vowel point means victory, dominating and training, but with the lower vowel point, وِلايت, it means the sovereignty and emirates; and the noble verse has been recited in both ways. And the term ‘هُنَالِكَ’ the definer showing the place, it means a certain stage of the soul which is pointed out with the place; that means when all passions and desires are cut for the sake of Allah. It becomes clear that the Guardianship is specified for the Holiness, the Right, and the Creator that has been manifested by His Own – He is the Right but no one else. Therefore, His Guardianship is eternal but the guardianship of anyone else is void.
Thus, the use of explaining the rightfulness of Allah, in this Guardianship’s subject, is that Allah is manifest in rightfulness, but those other than Allah are manifested in vain and void.
And in the commentary of the verse, the Late Al‘lāma himself has explained in the Chapter of Cave, verse 44:
هُنَالِكَ الْوَلَايَة لِلَهِ الْحَقِّ هُوَ خَيْرُ ثَوَاباً وَ خَيْرُ عُقْبا.
‘… There, ‘Guardianship’ belongs to True Allah – He is the Best reward-giver and the Best in results, (Qur’an: 18/44).’
He states: ‘The main recitation is with the upper vowel-point and ‘V’ sound, it is also recited with the lower vowel-point, in both cases the meaning is the same.’
And the commentators have mentioned that the term ‘هُنَالِكَ’ is related to the statement of Allah: and ‘احيطَ بِثَمَرِه’ refers to the affluence and the fruits of that man disbelieving in Allah and the Day of Resurrection; who relied on his dignity and finally was trapped with the wrath of Allah and perished; - that is, at the very time that destruction which is the time for the manifestation of Allah.
And they have also considered the word وَلايت as the victory and assistance, that is, Allah, the Exalted, is the assistant of man where he faces the danger and is cut off from everywhere. At that state he has no one to help him but Allah.
This meaning, by its own is a very good denotation, but it is not suitable for the verses have been used in this case; because the purpose is that to say any kinds of commands are only by Allah. And that the only Creator is Allah and He is the planer of everything; there is nothing for the others except imaginations, mirage and thoughts – and the decorative passing life.
And if the subject were as the commentators have explained, it would be better for them when explaining Allah, they would say: لِلَهِ الْحَق, in power, in dignity, in strength, but not simply saying that He is against the vain and void.
And also for His statement that: Allah Himself, the best reward, He Himself is the best Destiny, were not the pleasant way of explanation.
And the rightful thing to say is that we say: ‘و الله اعْلَم’, here the meaning of ‘وَلايت’ is ownership in planning, and this is the same meaning that is used in the other derivations, like this one in the statement of Allah: ‘إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُه’, indeed, your Guardian is Allah and His Messenger.
It means, at the time of death, when all means are cut off and man’s disability and abjectness become obvious, then, the main Guardian and Ownership is for Allah, and the whole plan of the universe is in the Power hand of Him; because He is Right, the plan is with Him and the commands come from Him.
However, except Allah, whoever is nominated as the partner of Allah, and is believed that they plan by themselves, are totally wrong. Those means could do nothing effective but whatever Allah permits them to do and gives authority in their fulfilling them. Those means are not independent; the only things are their appearances and names which are given by the people.
All means are void and wrong and they all belong to Allah; thus, Allah is Right in Essence, He is independent and rich in Nature.
In any case, if we compare Allah by the means that the false partners have set up for Him, (though Allah is beyond comparison,) the reward of Allah is better than them all. It is because the Creator gives the best reward and higher wages to one who believes in Him and refers to Him in his needs; however those partners and means give the wrong wages and wane reward which is not durable – and it is also by Allah. And Allah is the best for the final destination, because He is the Permanent Right that never has ending to His Being. His Name, Glories and Perfection never change, but those means are changeable and mortal whom Allah has created for the trial and ornaments of this passing world. They are the means that a godless man follows them and he calls them as his own beloved source of worship, he lures at them until his life comes to an end and death approaches – then, Allah cleans the surface of the land of such ornaments!
It must be known that the word ‘وِلايت’, with the lower vowel-point, has not come in its common usage in the Glorious Qur’an, however, ‘وَلايت’, with the upper vowel-point has been brought in two cases: one of them is the verse mentioned in the beginning of the lesson, and another one is in the verse 72, chapter 8, the Spoils (ăl-ănfāl):
إنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ هَاجَرُوا وَ جَاهَدُوا بِأمْوَالِهِمْ وَ انْفُسِهِمْ فى سَبيلِ اللَهِ وَ الَّذِينَ آوَوْا وَ نَصَرُوا أُولئِكَ بَعضُهُم أوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ لَمْ يُهَاجِرُوا مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ وَلَايَتِهِمْ مِنْ شَىْءٍ حَتَّىُ يُهَاجِرُوا وَ إنِ اسْتَنْصَرُوكُمْ فِى الدِّينِ فَعَلَيْكُمُ النَّصْرُ الّا عَلَى قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَ بَيْنَهُمْ مِيثَاقٌ وَ اللَهُ بمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصيرٌ.
‘… Surely those who have believed, and migrated and struggled in the way of Allah with their wealth and lives, and also those who have given them asylum and support are friends of one another. And you are not responsible for those who believe, but have not migrated, until they migrate. If they plead for support from you concerning religious matters, you must protect them except against any people with whom you have made a treaty. And Allah is the Seer over what you do, (Qur’an: 8/72).’
The meaning of this verse, in the sentence of ‘إنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَ هَاجَرُوا’ is the first immigrants who had immigrated before the revelation of this chapter, and the meaning of ‘وَ الَّذِينَ آوَوْا وَ نَصَرُوا’ is the Medina’s ‘ا نَصَار’, (the Helpers), who had given shelters to the Messenger and those who had immigrated with him. And at that time, the main Muslims included only these two groups, except a few who had embraced Islam, not immigrated but still remained in Mecca.
In this verse, Allah has assigned Guardianship between the Immigrants and the Helpers, as well among the Immigrants and Helpers. This guardianship includes the guardianship in heritage, guardianship in victory and guardianship in the immunity.
Therefore, any disbeliever who embraces Islam and migrates then his guardianship is penetrating; and according to this rule, some of them can be the guardianships of the others. That is, each Immigrant is another Immigrant’s guardian, and every Helper the guardian of another Helper, every Immigrant the guardian of every Helper, and every Helper the guardian of every Immigrant.
And as Al‘lāma Tabatabaee, may Allah be pleased with, has stated, there is not any witness in the verse to lead us know the guardianship is specified to the Immigrants or the Helpers so that, according to that base, they inherited one another in the beginning of the immigration, and then, by the verse ‘وَ اولُوا الْارْحَام’ it had been abolished. 
And the witness to the general meaning of guardianship in this verse is the exception to the victory; because He states: Except the Immigrants no one has the authority of the guardianship upon you; unless they ask you a remedy for the religious affairs and you assist them.
Anyhow, as in this verse, we cannot consider the word ‘guardianship’ as its real and true meaning so that to remove the veil of ambiguity for us, we have to take it as its common meaning which is closer to the real meaning; here it means as the guardian in heritage, the guardian in the victory and the guardian in the immunity.
Anyhow, the result of our discussion is that the real and true meaning of the guardian comes to sight when: two things or more to be, or to occur in a way that nothing else to be put between, this is the real meaning; then, they have added the distance nearness, or relationship nearness to it – this is what ‘RAQIB’ says; but our Master Al‘lāma, may Allah be pleases with, after approving the truth of this meaning, ha said that: Apparently the place nearness and the sensitive esteem that brings the guardianship to mind, is the first thing man can give credit to about the things and places. Then, contrary to ‘RAQIB’, he says about the place nearness in metaphor. Because the primer discussions prove that: at first, man became acquaintance with things through his senses, and he was occupied with them, and this process was prior to everything. 
Now, we are not to go through the differences of these two; though the opinion of the Master proves it and his experience approves it, however, the meaning of guardianship is just one, and it is, removing the screen between two things. According to this theory, wherever it is said that Allah owns the guardianship, and Allah is the only Master and the Guardian it means that there exist no veil between His Being and the entire being. Not any existing being can independently block His way and cause His illumination and attributions reach to His creatures.
Any imaginary screen is by Him alone and it has the divinity meaning, it has not the independent meaning, and if, somewhere without restriction and comparison we said: ‘The Messenger of Allah is His Guardian’, and ‘Ali is the Master for Allah’, and the immaculate Imams are at the positions of Imamate, they are the Saints of Allah, it means that they have reached at a point that there is not any veil between them and their Creator so that to a restricted kind of barrier between them – therefore, if there is a veil, it is just they themselves who are the nearest veil but between His and His creatures.
And there is no different in this subject, whether it is in the Gnostic Guardianship or the legislative one. In other word, either it is in the rightful Guardianship or the nominal; because the necessity of the real and true nearness – not the nominal – is the mediation in blessing and planning for the other world. And this affair is the natural and necessary matter that their holiness beings have attained it. Without doubt, the esteem and legislative guardianship have also come to them.
And now that, with the praise of Allah, we have ended up the explanation of the word ‘guardianship’, we will discuss on the quality of the Guardianship of those great ones in the future lessons – God-willing.
 It is Al'lama's precious book written
separately, and I the most humble being, have compiled it in a new hand-made
book along with seven other books including the prophet-hood and the Imamate of
his. These manuscripts were not published during his life, however, after his
death, his Guardianship manuscript, was published in the memory of Great Master
Al'lama Sayyid Muhammad Hussein Tabatabaee – but only the pages 251 – 305.