In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Lesson 65-67: Attributes of a perfect man

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The Guardianship is the Base of any short-lasting Requisites and Effects

Anyhow, all these subjects that we have related in this lesson are by the greatest Gnostics and Philosopher of the Islam. These are the facts the Gnostics and the great philosophers get through by annihilating into the Names, Attributes and the Essence of the Lofty One. That is, in the position of the Guardianship there remain no veils, all the self-veils of the Gnostic tears apart and disappears; it is in this position that the Essence of the Holiness Right speaks for him, He sees, He hears and He receives things.

Try not disbelieving it, and do not take it as nonsense, because all these facts are at the position of the Gnostic and Unity; in other words, these facts are issued by the fact persons, by the people who have been annihilated in the Right. That is, by the Honourable and Exalted, because apart from Him, there is no root in the universe; in the beginning of the road to Gnostic, people considered themselves totally ignorant but by following the course they understood that they have been mistaking. They kept saying: there is no a independent effective being except Allah:

تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذِى الْجَلَالِ وَ الْإكْرَام.‏  

‘… Blessed be the name of your Majestic and Splendid Lord, (Qur’an: 55/78)!’

And the end of our course is towards the position of the Unity, and denying these disciplines blocks our course towards Allah, and closes the way to the Divine Gnostic. And consequently it lessens His blessings towards us and let us to wonder in the trifling materials until our death approaches:

ألْهَيكُمُ التَّكَاثُرُ حَتَّى زُرْتُمُ الْمَقَابِر. 

‘… The common conflict diverted you until you visited the graves, (Qur’an: 102/1-2)!’

The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, is the absolute pioneer in the course of the Guardianship and he is the main one and all the preceding messenger and the respectable apostles found their lights by the illuminating light of that Holiness.

That Holiness opened the way to Monotheism, Gnostic, presenting the Holy Names, Attributes and the main Essence to the nation; and the nation of that Holiness have benefitted the blessings which the preceding nations did not benefit them. 

And after that Holiness, and after that Holiness it was transferred to the Master of pious, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and then, to eleven respectable sons of his one after another until this position completely has been given to the Holiness Allah’s Remainder, ‘HOJJAT IBN AL-HASSAN AL-ASKARI’, may our souls be sacrificed to him. Therefore, the other rightful Guardian and the Divine Saints and Gnostics and the great religious learned benefit from him and attain perfection and reach the annihilation state.

Therefore, the Holy Being Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, himself is the pioneer for his nation, so were the Holy Imams and they are still in this position; and in the point of view of the learned and Gnostics, the genesis Guardianship is a simple and absolute affair; thus, whoever steps in this course, finds way to the generosity and blessing of the Holiness Right.

Therefore, is it not sorrowful for us denying this position of the Messenger and the immaculate Imams? Instead of taking it serious, to be satisfied by simply expressing void and meaningless words and terms; and taking such great honour and generosity as the dream and illusion!

The genesis Guardianship is of the necessity affairs and the essential means in the course of wisdom, Gnostic and witnessing the Holiness Right. Those whose hands are cut off from the Divine Knowledge are the rejecters of the Right, they have not wetted their throats by the water of life and have drunk of the fresh water consciousness; their livers have shrunk in the barren desert of life!

The moon casts the light of her when the dog barks

Every man weaves it according to his mind!

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The statement of the Master Al‘lāma Tabatabaee, may Allah be pleased with, about the Guardianship of the Imams, upon them be Peace,

Concerning the status and position of the Guardianship of the twelve immaculate Shiite Imams, who are the elected Imams by the Messenger of Allah, the Great Lost Al‘lāma, our Master, āyat-u-llah Tabatabaee, may Allah be pleased with him, has a brief explanation in his pamphlet, the Guardianship’ and now we are going to put it in Farsi, and then into English for your ease:


‘Among the different narratives that have been related in this section, there is one that in [the book of] ‘Behar’, part ‘Mahasin’, (the good deeds), has been related about the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, that:       

إنَّا مَعَاشِرَ الْأنْبيآءِ نُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ عَلَى قَدْرِ عُقُولِهِم.‏

‘We, the communities of the messengers, speak to the people according to their wisdoms.’

This statement is even better when the listeners cannot catch the meanings of some important affairs; and the meaning is clear because the Holiness stated: ‘نُكَلِّمُ’ [we speak], but he did not say, ‘نقول and ‘نبيّن’ or ‘نذكر’ and so on.

And this relates that the public instructions that the messengers, Upon Them be Peace, have stated, are at the level of their nations’ capacities, knowledge and intelligent. Their main intentions were to make their announcements easier, but not loading the listeners’ minds with the complex and heavy words and subjects. And in result, to tell them in short – not it was not so.

And in other words, the statement of the Messenger of Allah is the quality, but not the quantity of his statement. Therefore, this relates that the main purpose of the public instruction is the fact lying behind it and the intellects search for finding the meaning. And whatever subjects the messengers, Upon Them be Peace, have stated have multi-dimensions channels as: the proof, discussion and preaches, to declare them, but they have chosen the easiest way to transfer their advice to the listeners.

And here, it is understood that there is a specific way of making statements and delivering speeches as the divine public instructions, it is in a way that if we replace those statements with the common language of us and adding to them the pompous words, then the common intellects will reject them.

And this rejection is either because the recent statement does not go with the necessary subjects that are already with them, this is contrary to theirs or this new statement and whatever subjects they have already been said, and their intellects have accepted them, are inconsistent with each other.

It becomes clear that the way of learning the fact of these public instructions is different from what the intellect comprehends: that is the intelligent understanding and theoretical thought. So, try to understand this!

And among the narratives concerning this subject [41] is the famous and useful narrative:

إنَّ حَدِيثَنَا صَعْبٌ مُسْتَصْعَبٌ لَا يَحْتَمِلُهُ إلّا مَلَكٌ مُقَرَّبٌ أوْ نَبِىُّ مُرْسَلٌ أوْ عَبْدٌ مُؤْمِنٌ امْتَحَنَ اللَهُ قَلْبَهُ لِلإيمَان.‏      

‘Indeed, our narrative is the most difficult and unobtainable, and it has been known the most difficult and unobtainable; it is so that no one bears to handle it unless he is a ‘Near-Stationed Angel! Or he must be ‘the message-carrier’ Messenger, or a believing slave that Allah has tried their faith-bearing hearts.’

And from among the narratives there is one that is even more reliable than the previous one; and he relates it in “BASAEER” from Abu Samit that he said: ‘I heard the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, stating:

إنَّ مِنْ حَدِيثِنَا مَا لَا يَحْتَمِلُهُ مَلَكٌ مُقَرَّبٌ وَ لَا نَبِىٌ مُرْسَلٌ وَ لَا عَبْدُ مُؤمِنٌ..

قُلْتُ: فَمَنْ يَحْتَمِلُهُ؟! قَالَ: نَحْنُ نَحْتَمِلُه.‏

“Some of our narratives are so difficult that neither can a ‘Near-Stationed Angel, nor a message-carrying messenger and not a believing slave tolerate them.”

I had the honour to ask him: ‘Who can tolerate it?’

He stated: “We ourselves tolerate it.”

And of these kinds of narratives, which are benefit able, are:

قُلْتُ: فَمَنْ يَحْتَمِلُهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ؟! قَالَ: مَن شِئنَا.

‘I had the honour to ask: ‘So, may I be made your sacrifice, who can tolerate it?’

He answered: “Whoever we desire.”

And similarly, there is a narrative in the “BASAEER AD-DARAJAT” from Mofazzal saying: ‘The Holiness Imam Muhammad Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, stated:


إنَّ حَدِيثَنَا صَعْبٌ، مُسْتَصْعَبٌ، ذَكْوَانٌ، أجْرَدُ، وَ لَا يَحْتَمِلُهُ مَلَك مُقَرَّبٌ، وَ لَا نَبِىُّ مُرْسَلٌ، وَ لَا عَبْدٌ امْتَحَنَ اللَهُ قَلبَهُ للإيمَانِ..

أمّا الصَّعْبُ فَهُوَ الَّذِى لَمْ يُرْكَبْ بَعْدُ؛ وَ أمَّا الْمُسْتَصْعَبُ فَهُوَ الَّذِى يُهْرَبُ مِنْهُ إذَا رُئىَ، وَ أَمَّا اللذَكْوَانُ فَهُوَ ذَكَّاءُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ؛ وَ أمَّا الْأجْرَدُ فَهُوَ الَّذِى لَا يَتَعَلَّقُ بِهِ شَىْ‏ءٌ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَ لَا مِنْ خَلْفِهِ وَ هُوَ قَوْلُ اللَهِ::

 اللَهُ الَّذِى نَزَّلَ أحْسَنَ الْحَدِيث» فَأحْسَنُ الحَدِيثِ حَدِيثُنَا، وَ لَا يَحْتَمِلُ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْخَلَائِقِ أمْرَهُ بِكَمَالِهِ حَتَّى يَحُدَّهُ لأنَّهُ مَنْ حَدَّ شَيْئاً فَهُوَ أكْبَرُ مِنْهُ؛ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَهِ عَلَى التَّوْفِيقِ؛ وَ الْإنْكَارُ هُوَ الْكُفْر.

“Indeed, our narratives are difficult, frightful and hard dealing with and complex, therefore, never can a ‘Near-Stationed Angel, and the message-carrier messengers, or the slaves whose hearts Allah has tried bear them.

But here, the meaning of ‘صَعْبٌ’, difficult, is that no one has dominated it, and the meaning of ‘مُسْتَصْعَبٌ’, frightful, is that which people flee away when encountering it. And the word ‘ذَكْوَانٌ’is the enthusiastic, it inflames the Muslims, the purpose of the word ‘أجْرَدُ’ is nothing belongs to one either in front of him or in his absence. And this is the statement of Allah:

اللَهُ نَزَّلَ أَحْسَنَ الْحَدِيث.‏ 

‘Allah has sent the best narrative,’ because e the best narrative is our narrative.’ None of the creatures can tolerate it, unless he is able to measure it out, because one who measures something is bigger than that thing. And praise be to Allah; rejecting is disbelief and considered a sin.’[42]

The statement of the Imam, which in the beginning of the narrative says, ‘يَحْتَمِلُ’, no one can tolerate it; and under the narrative, ‘حَتَّى يَحُدَّهُ’, unless he measures it, relates to this that their narrative has different stages and some of them become clear by measuring them.

A good proof for our claim is the foregoing narrative of Abu Samit saying that: ‘مِن حَدِيثِنا’, some of our narratives are not tolerable. Therefore, the connection of this narrative with the first ones which say: ‘لَا يَحْتَمِلُهُ مَلَك مُقَرَّبٌ’, is in one category; it is clear that they have different stages.

And also it is the generalization of the Prophet who stated:

إنَّا مَعَاشِرَ الانبيآءِ نُكَلِّمُ النَّاسَ عَلَى قَدْرِ عُقُولِهِم.‏

‘We, the communities of the messengers, speak to the people according to their wisdoms.’

And the reason that the creatures are unable to limit and measure their definition is that which they have stated: ‘their capacities, (the creatures’ capacities), which is their physical beings and the essence of them are limited, and as they want to tolerate our narratives with their capacities they fail – their pots are too little to bear it.

This is why no one can wholly comprehend and bear their narratives, because the tusk unlimited and it is beyond the ability of man. All this is because their position and status are too great to be limited and measured. And this is the very “Absolute Guardianship’

And by the aid and the will of Omnipotent, we will explain some of the foregoing sections in details in the future,

And among the narratives, there is one that confirms the subjects that are discussed so far; for example the one that is related in “BASAEER AD-DARAJAT” where the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, has stated:

إنَّ أمْرَنَا هُوَ الحَقُّ؛ وَ حَقُّ الْحَقِّ؛ وَ هُوَ الظَّاهِرُ؛ وَ بَاطِنُ الظَّاهِرِ؛ وَ بَاطِنُ الْبَاطِنِ؛ وَ هُوَ السِّرُّ؛ وَ سِرُّ السِّرِّ؛ وَ سِرُّ الْمُسْتَسِرِّ؛ وَ سِرٌ مُقَنَّعٌ بِالسِّر.  

‘Indeed it is our command that is right, right of the right, it is manifest and the kernel of the manifest; so is it the kernel of the kernel, and mysterious, the secret of the mysterious. It is the veiled secret, a veiled secret hidden within the secret – it has been screened.’

And it has been related in some narratives that:

إنَّ لِلْقُرآنِ ظَهْراً وَ بَطْنَاً، وَ لِبَطْنِهِ بَطْناً إلَى سَبْعَة أبْطُن.‏

In fact, the Qur’an possesses the exterior and interior, and there are seven more interiors for its interior!

(The exterior of the Qur’an is ‘Command’ and its interior is ‘Knowledge’).

And in some oppressions and submissions narratives, in the “Monotheism” of Sadough, by Morazim, there is related a narrative from the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, that:

قَالَ: فَقُلْتُ لَهُ: فَأىُّ شَىْ‏ءٍ هُوَ، أصْلَحَكَ اللَهُ؟

قَالَ: فَقَلَّبَ يَدَهُ مَرَّتَيْنِ، أوْ ثَلَاثاً، ثُمَّ قَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: لَوْ اجَبْتُكَ فِيهِ لَكَفَرْت.‏

Morazim says: ‘I asked the Holiness Imam Sādiq: which one is that? May Allah bring peace in your affair!

Morazim says: The Holiness twice or three times pointed to me with his hand saying: “If I answer you concerning this affair, you will become a disbeliever!”

And it is put in the poems related to the Holiness Imam Saj‘jad, the master of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, that:

وَ رُبَّ جَوْهَرِ عِلْمِ لَوْ أَبُوحُ بِهِ             لَقِيلَ لِى أنْتَ مِمَّنْ يَعْبُدُ الْوَثَنَا.

‘And how great amount of knowledge is real and fact, however, if I state it, for sure I will be branded of the idolaters!’

And among the news, are the narratives concerning the ‘ADVENT’ which relates the Holiness Existing Mahdi, Upon Him be Peace, after his appearance; and it explains the religious secrets – and the Holy Qur’an confirms it.

And in “BASAEER AD-DARAJAT”, by Mosadat bin Sadagha, the Holiness Imam Sādiq has quoted his father, the Holiness Imam Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, relating:

قَالَ: ذَكَرْتُ التَّقِيَّة يَوْماً عِنْدَ عَلِىِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ. فَقَالَ لِى: وَ اللَهِ لَوْ عَلِمَ أبو ذَرِّ مَا فِى قَلْبِ سَلْمَانَ لَقَتَلَهُ وَ قَدْ أخَى بَيْنَهُمَا رَسُولُ اللَهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّم.‏

 He said: ‘One day, as the discussion was going on about the “dissimulation”, I asked my father, the Holiness Imam Saj‘jad, Upon Him be Peace, of the necessity of it, he said: “By Allah, if Abuzar knew what was going on in Salman’s mind, he would have killed Salman – though the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, had pronounced the formula of brotherhood between those two.”

And it is related that the Holiness Imam Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, trusted Jabir [43] with some subjects and then told him: ‘If you reveal them, Allah’s curse as well the curses of the angels will be upon you!’

And also there is a narrative in “BASAEER AD-DARAJAT”, by Mofazzal, which in brief it is: ‘After the demise of the Holiness Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, Jabir went to the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, and said: ‘I cannot bear these narratives, I cannot hide them any longer.’

The Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, ordered him to dig a hole in the ground and to push his head through that, and them announce those narrative within it and next to cover the hole with dust because the earth could keep his secrets.

And also in “BEHAR AL-ANWAR” from the book of “IKHTESAS” and “BASAEER AD-DARAJAT”, Jabir has said that the Holiness Imam Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, has stated that the holiness had told him:

يَا جَابِرُ مَا سَتَرْنَا عَنْكُمْ اكْثَرُ مِمَّا أظْهَرْنَا لَكُم.‏

“O Jabir, whatever we have kept secret from you is more than what we have revealed.”

And there are too many narratives in this ground, they are too many to be counted, and it is so that the Messenger’s companions and the Imams from the progeny of the Messenger, Upon Them be Peace, are considered as the secret-holders companions; so are Salman Farsi, Owais Gharanii, Komail bin Zeiad, Nakhaee, Meitham Tammar Kuffi, Roshaid Hajari and Jabir Jofi, may Allah be pleased with all of them.” [44]

However, the verse which was mentioned in the beginning of this discussion:

النَّبِىُّ أوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِم.‏

‘The Messenger is in priority to the believers than their souls,’ it points to the Guardianship if the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, upon all the believers, and the application of this Guardianship is in both: either in genesis or legislative; but in truth, the fact of the Guardianship is genesis and it is fact, then it comes to the legislative and good standing.

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The meaning of the Genesis or the legislative Guardianship

The meaning of the genesis Guardianship is that the Messenger of Allah is a real veil between Allah and His creatures, and he is the core of all blessings from Allah to His creatures: from life, knowledge and power and the rest of the blessings; and other blessings are received by him who is the reflecting mirror for the right.

The legislative Guardianship means that: the Messenger of Allah in the priority to decide, to have the authority of the believers in his hand, he takes the place of the believers in their decisions and affairs. In other words, if a believer wants to do something but the Holiness Messenger prohibits his doing that, he must obey the Holiness – forgetting his need and demand but obeying his command. He must carry out his command whatever it may be – whether going the war or keeping back from fighting, either receiving some riches or avoiding it, either marrying or divorcing her, leaving his home-town or living there; and all the commands of Allah comes to man by the Messenger and it is necessary obeying them.

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The story of Zeinab’s marrying to Zeid bin Haritha

Among the divine legislation practice of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, is the story of Zeinab, that that the Messenger, through the friendly love, married her to his freed slave, Zaid bin Haritha, and then when he divorced her, again, through the friendly love, the Messenger married her for his own.

Making the case vivid is that Zeinab was cousin of the Holiness Messenger, that is, she was the daughter of Omaimah, the daughter of Abdul Mot‘talib. Omaimah had already married to man called Jahsh and she gave birth to a daughter called Zrinab.

Therefore, Zeinab, the daughter of Jahsh was the daughter of Omaima, Abdul Mot‘talib’s daughter and the cousin of the Messenger.

Zeid bin Haritha was the slave of the Messenger of Allah and then the Holiness freed him; and after being freed, the Holiness called him as his adopted son – at that time, the story of the adopted children was natural and famous.

Of course, whatever the Messenger did based on the rules and wisdoms of his; now, we are going to explain some of them.

At the time of pagan sated, the Arabs considered their adopted children, known as ‘دعِيّ’, as their real children; and they had the same rights as the Arabs real children had: in marrying, inheriting and the other rules in the families. [45]

Therefore, those who had their adopted sons marry the girls; they took the brides as their daughters, as the intimate of theirs. So whenever the adopted sons divorced their wives, the Arabs would not marry them, because they said: they are the wives of our children, they used to be our brides and we must respect the law.

On the other hand, the nobility was customary among the Arabs; not a noble woman would marry a freed slave who was not respected among the people.

The great men among the Arabs would marry their daughters to the well-known people who were highly respected among the tribes. It was a big fault for a noble Arab to marry his daughter to an ordinary and slave man – they preferred to die than to break their custom. And their daughters would like to live alone than to marry such men.

The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was appointed by Allah to do away with such a custom.

Firstly to teach the people that the dignity of a man was his faith and piety, but not his fame and wealth, Therefore, any Muslim man, even if he is a poor freed slave, has right to marry the daughter of a noble man; and also the famous rich women could marry such freed slaves if they wanted to.

The main basis in the case of marrying, choosing a woman or a man to marry, is being at the same level – not in riches, the nobility of the tribe and fame but in faith and piety. [46]

And secondly to announce the people that the adopted son could not be as a real son, and he cannot have the rights of a real son; an adopted son is not a real son, nor is an adapter daughter a real daughter of one person. He can neither be the inheritor nor one to inherit him. Neither the freed boy is the intimate in the family, nor the slave girl. An adopted son can never be intimate to one’s wife, and neither can the bride be intimate for the members of the family. So if an adopted son divorces his wife one can marry her for his, because she is quite a strange woman and is not of the intimate member of the family. As He states:

وَ مَا جَعَلَ أدْعِيَائِكُمْ ابْنَاءَكُمْ ذَلِكُمْ قَوْلُكُمْ بِأَفْوَاهِكُمْ وَ اللَهُ تَقُولُ الْحَقَّ وَ هُوَ يَهْدِى السَّبِيل‏

‘… and He has not made your adopted sons [you consider as your sons] to be your [real] sons. This is just the utterance made by your mouths, but Allah states the Truth and He guides to the [Straight] Path, (Qur’an: 33/4).’ [47]


The Messenger of Allah wants to carry out these rules but he is afraid of the people; he is afraid of those newly embraced Islam to turn away and say: ‘This Muhammad has brought us a new religion that, (God forbid it), it is similar to the Magi-an, that is,   he approves marrying the inmates!’

However, this fright of the Messenger of Allah from the people was only to secure the religion of Allah. But Allah commands him: “Do not care them; just fear Me! Do fulfill this command.”

Similar to this command and reprove of Allah to His Messenger is in the case of Ghadir when He states:

بَلِّغْ مَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رَسَالَتَهُ وَ اللَهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاس.‏

[O Messenger!] Announce what has been revealed to you by your Lord; for if you do not do so you have not conveyed His message. Allah protects you from the people, (Qur’an: 5/67).’

Whenever a new command was revealed, but in the beginning the people could not stand it and were reluctant to listen to, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, put it in practice among his own family and close relatives. In this way, he let the people know that the Messenger of Allah himself was commanded to practice it, and he was fulfilling his duty to wipe out their worries, or present the ease of the task.

For example, when he wanted to do away with the usury, and frustrate the benefit of the usury which some ignorant people used to press some others to get it back, first he carried out the command with his uncle, Abbas. He annihilated all such usury he had taken from the people or still some people owed him and were going to pay him. It is well explained in the Farewell Pilgrimage that at ARAFAT was stated:

وَ وَضَعَ رِبَا الْجَاهِليَّة وَ أوَّلُ رِباً وَضَعَهُ رِبَا عَمِّهِ الْعَبَّاسِ رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْه. [48]

He ordained the ignorant era’s usury, and the first one he put in practice was his uncle Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him!

And when he wanted to cancel the blood money for killing the pagans and anyone of the non-Muslims, first he started it with his cousin, Rabiat bin Abdul Mot‘talib, which had happened in the ignorant era when he was a pagan, and his murderer was ‘Hozail’. Thus he stated it in his sermon: 

وَ وَضَعَ الدِّمَاءَ فِى الْجَاهِلِيَّة وَ أوّلُ دَمٍ وَضَعَهُ دَمُ ابْنِ عَمِّهِ رَبِيعَة بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ قَتَلَهُ هُذَيْلٌ.

فَقَالَ: أوَّلُ دَمٍ أبْدَأُ بِهِ مِنْ دِمَاءِ الْجَاهِلِيَّة مَوْضُوعٌ فَلَا يُطَالِبُ بِهِ فِى الْإسْلَامِ. [49]

And he states in the same sermon:

إنَّ دِمَآءكُمْ وَ أمْوَالَكُمْ حَرَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ كَحُرْمَة يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا، فِى شَهْرِكُمْ هَذَا فِى بَلَدِكُمْ هَذَا. ألَا كُلُّ شَىْ‏ءٍ مِن امْرِ الْجَاهِلِيَّة تَحْتَ قَدَمِى مَوْضُوعٌ؛ وَ رِبَا الْجَاهِلِيَّة مَوْضُوعٌ؛ وَ أوَّلُ رِباء أَضَعُ رِبَا الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَلِّب.‏

‘Let it be known that truly your blood money and your properties are unlawful to each other: on such a day as today, the “Day of Arafat”, which is a respectable day; and in this “Forbidden Month”,[50] the month of Dhul Hajjah, and also in this “Forbidden Town”, Mecca.

Know that I have trampled every single affair of the affairs of the ignorant era; I trampled the usury of the ignorant, and the first usury that I destroyed was the usury of Abbas, the son of Abdul Mot‘talib.’

Therefore, fulfilling the first command of his, the marriage affairs between the nobles and rank and fall people, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, wanted to start it with his own family and close relatives. So he went to Zeinab, Jahsh’s daughter (his cousin) to ask for her agreement to marry his adopted son who was a newly freed slave. It was too dear for Zeinab to accept it; and as it is put in the commentary of “Ad-Durr Al-Mansoor” that:

قال: خَطَبَ رَسُولُ الله صَلَّى الله عَليهِ وَ آلِهِ زَينَبَ بِنْتَ جَحْشٍ لِزَيْدِ بْنِ حَارِثَة فَاسْتَنْكَفَتْ مِنْهُ وَ قَالَتْ: أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِنْهُ حَسَباً، وَ كَانَتْ اْمْرَأة فِيهَا حِدَّة، فَأنْزَلَ اللهُ تَعَالَى:

وَ مَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَ لَا مُؤْمِنَة إذَا قَضَى اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أمْراً أنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَة مِنْ أمْرِهِمْ وَ مَنْ يَعْصِ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُبِينا. [51]

Ibn Jarir has extracted it from ibn Abbas, saying that: the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, acted as a suitor to marry Zeinab for Zeid bin Haritha; and Zeinab refused it by saying: ‘My personal merit is better than he is,’ and she was determined in her claim. It was then Allah sent down this verse:

‘… and it is not for any believing man, or believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter, to have any choice in their affair, once Allah and His Messenger have decided upon some matter. Anyone who disobeys Allah and His Messenger has wandered off into an obvious error, (Qur’an: 33/36).’


Due to the friendly love of the Messenger of Allah, Zeinab accepted marrying Zeid as her husband and she married him.[52] However, this marriage did not run peacefully, Zeinab always magnified her nobility against Zeid, the free slave of her cousin, Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah.

And this disagreement of Zeinab pushed Zeid in the corner and he always went to the Messenger of Allah and asked him to let him divorce his wife. However, the Holiness did not let him do and each time he told Zeid: ‘You must tolerate her, you should not divorce her.’  


وَ إذْ تَقُولُ لِلَّذِى أنْعَمَ اللَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْسِكْ عَلَيْكَ زَوْجَكَ وَ اتَّقِ اللَه.‏

‘… and [remember] when you said to him, the one Allah had bestowed him His grace, and you yourself had favored to, ‘Keep your wife to yourself, and fear Allah, (Qur’an: 33/37).’

They tolerated their mutual life until Zeid was quite exhausted and he went to the Messenger of Allah saying: ‘I cannot tolerate her any more, I have lost my patience, please let me to divorce her’ – the Messenger let her do what he wanted and he divorced her.

It was here that the Messenger received the second command of Allah concerning the cancellation of the adopted children, and then he put it into practice: but first by himself, that is, he married the divorced wife of his adopted son, Zenab, to show to the people that the wife of an adopted son cannot be considered as one’s bride, and marrying her was not a difficult matter. However, the Messenger was worried of the people, for it was not customary among the nation to marry the wives of their adopted children. So if he married Zeinab, they would say: ‘There! He has married with his own intimate daughter! And it would cause them to abandon their new religion, Islam, and their action would damage Islam.

This verse was revealed to say that o Messenger you are afraid of the people, why? Do not be afraid of them! Do carry out Allah’s command for He deserves being afraid of! And that Allah will manifest your marrying Zeinab but hiding it from the people, so the rest of the verse goes is:

وَ تُخْفِى فِى نَفْسِكَ مَا اللَهُ مُبْدِيهِ وَ تَخْشَى النَّاسَ وَ اللَهُ أَحَقُّ أنْ تَخْشَه.‏

‘… and you kept to yourself what Allah had disclosed and you feared people, although it was more correct for you to fear Allah, (Qur’an: 33/37).’

Then, to fulfill the command of Allah and do away with that heresy, though the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was fearing the people, he married Zeinab; Of course, Allah assisted him and the people felt weaker in front of his decision and with the command of Allah the story of adopted children keep running on the right course.

The rest of the verse goes as:


فَلَمَّا قَضَى زَيْدٌ مِنْهَا وَطَرًا زَوَّجْنَاكَهَا لِكَىْ لَا يَكُونَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَرَجٌ فِى أَزْوَاجِ أدْعِيَائِهِمْ إذَا قَضَوْا مِنْهُنَّ وَطَرًا وَ كَانَ أَمْرُ اللَهِ مَفْعُولا.

‘… however, when Zeid had accomplished what he would of her [and then divorced her,] We wedded her to you so that [in the future] there would be no objection for the believers in respect to their adopted son’s wives once they have accomplished their purpose with [and divorced] them; for Allah’s command must be fulfilled, (Qur’an: 33/37).’

Here, He emphasis the phrase of ‘accomplished what he would of her’ twice to make it clear that even after accomplishing what he would of her, there is no matter marrying the wife of the adopted son – this command is not only for lack of intercourse.

This was the whole fact event of Zeinab and according to the noble verse and the commentary of the Shiite, the friendly love of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was explained; however, the most commentaries of the Sunnite have explained the story the other way round. And as the Orientalists investigate Islam by the books and commentaries of the Sunnite, they see the Islam through their eyes they get involved in their doubts.  

The French GOSTAVELOBON points at it in his book “The History of the Civilization of Islam and Arab”:

‘The affection of the Messenger to women was so much that when once he caught sight of the nude body of Zeinab, the wife of Zeid, his adopted son, all of a sudden he felt like her; then, when Zeid understood the event, he divorced her and the Messenger married her for his own. 

This subject cast a bad reflection among the people and some of them began objecting it. However, as Gabriel always used to come to the Messenger, once he brought a revelation saying that the Messenger’s action was advisable – thus, the people became quiet. [53]

So far, by what we explained, it became clear that the main story was something else; it was quite opposite to this opinion of them. Al‘lāma Tabatabaee has stated:

‘According to the commentaries of the Sunnite, some of the commentators wanted to defame the Messenger of Allah, so they have said: that condition of the Messenger of Allah was the natural condition of human being which never can a man get rid of it; however, their statements are wrong:

First, this statement is about prohibition, that is, the Divine training was not in a way that to prevail the nature of the human being.

Secondly, in that case there remains no place for Allah’s blame and calling to account for the concealment of the affair; because in Islam, there is no justification for mentioning the married women and falling in love with them. Therefore, how could Allah take him to account for his hiding the affair and also his worry of the people’s reproving him? [54]

And by the Sunnite, similar to this unjust accusation are varied against the Messenger of Allah in the history, however, the Shiite is free from these kinds of accusations.

And perhaps the Sunnite’s excuse is that to bring down the Messenger of Allah from his Divine Position down to the earth and to prove that he is immaculate. On the other hand, by the means of the false narratives, to give the two Sheikhs higher respect and introduce them as the right Caliphs, then, consequently to set then at the same position of the Messenger of Allah. In that case, there would be no difference between the Messenger of Allah and them, or just very little. This is the greatest crime and treachery in the history; for lifting one defaming the Messenger and accusing him.

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The enmity and denial of the Sunnite the virtues of the Commander of the believers, upon him be Peace

And if someone says: ‘Similar to the Sunnite who made false narratives to give high respect to two Sheikh as well as Othman, the Shiite also have tried to praise Ali bin Abī Tālib.’ Then, the answer is that: ‘This statement is totally wrong, because after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, the government and politics were in the hands of the adherents of the Caliphs. It was the time that the adherents of Ali bin Abī Tālib were separated, imprisoned, beaten or murdered; and this was not only for a short period of time but it continued until the time of the removal of the dissimulation in the era of SAFAVIDE DYNASTY. It was by the verdict of the great learned and Sheikh Abdul Aali Missi Karaki Jabal Aa‘moli, known as the Investigator Karaki and the second Investigator. Therefore, when the power, authority and everything was in the hands of the oppositions, how could the Shiite invent false narratives? The Shiite could not even preserve his own rightful narrative and transfer them to the future generations – there are lots of historical witnesses to that.

When Sha‘fi‘ee , the greatest learned and the Imam of the Sunnite is questioned about his opinion concerning the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, he says:

مَا أَقُولُ فِى رَجُلٍ أسَرَّ أوْليآؤهُ مَناقِبَهُ تَقَيَّة وَ كَتَمَهَا أعْدَآؤهُ حَنَقاً وَ عَدَاوَة وَ مَعَ ذَلِكَ قَدْ شَاعَ مِنْهُ مَا مَلَأَتِ الْخَافِقَيْن.‏

‘How can I speak about a man that his friends, in their fright, hid his virtues and merits, and his enemies hid it through their grudges and enmity; according to their activities, his virtues and merits have been spread everywhere.’

And Sayyid Taj-ad-Din Aa‘moli has taken this substance from Sha‘fi‘ee who has said:


لَقَدْ كَتَمَتْ آثارَ آل محمَّدٍ             مُحِبُّوهُم خَوْفاً وَ أعْدَاؤهُمْ بُغْضا

فَأبِر زَمِن بَيْنِ الفَرِيقَيْنِ نَبْذَة             بِهَا مَلأ اللَهُ السَّمَواتِ وَ الْارْضَا

‘Certainly they refrained declaring the good deeds of the Household of Muhammad: his friends through their fright, and the enemies for their enmities towards them; however by that little bit which was remained from them Allah has filled up the heavens and the earth by that.’[55]

So, this statement must be considered attentively.

والسّلام‌ علينا و علي‌ عباد الله‌ الصّالحين‌

May peace be upon us and the rightful obedient worshippers!

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[41] (1) There are lots of these narratives and they have been related in different styles and can be benefitted; and Majlisi have brought them together in the first volume of "بحار ", printed in the pages of 117-126 of Kompany, under the title of

 باب انّ حديثهم عليهم السلام صعب مستصعب و انّ كلامهم ذو وجوه كثيرة و فضل التدبّر فى اخبارهم و التسليم لهم و النّهى عن ردّ اخبارهم‏

[42] The term " صَعْب‏ ‏" is said to a vicious animal that no one can ride it. On the other hand, the word "ذَلُول‏" refers to a tamed animal; and the attribute "" is said to an animal that for its fearfulness people run away when encountering it. Here, the Holiness has likened the narrative to such animals, that is not everyone can encounter the secrets of the Household of the Messenger; here, the term " ذَكْوان‏ " is drawn from " ذَكَتْ تَذْكُو النَّار ": " اشتدَّ لَهِيبُها؛ " _ similar to what Majlisi brings it in the narrative. The term: "ذَكّاء المؤمنين‏" means in any mood of excitement, panic and worry he excites the people. And "" is said to one who has no hair on his body; therefore her body is very beautiful. And they apply this word to any beauty, the result is that: "Our narratives are pure and free from any ugliness, and they excite the believers to move upward and follow us – however, it is difficult and intolerable for many people.
[43] Here, the purpose is Jabir bin Yazid Jo'fi, who was one of the greatest companions of the Holiness; not that famous Jabir bin Ansari.
[44] The Epistle " الوَلاية" of the great Al'lama, the miracle sign of Allah, Tabatabaee, may Allah be please with, the manuscript copy of mine , page 3-6. 
[45] Islam took away the ignorance’ custom and did not believe in maintaining anything such as inheritance, or the close relationship, not the respect of marriages. Therefore, according to the clear command of the Noble Qur’an the adopted son has no difference with the others and the title of adopted son never considers him to be the real relative of one. This command he been put in the verses of 4 and 5 in chapter 33 ‘AHZAB”.
Allah has not placed for any man two hearts within his breast; nor has He made your wives whom you declare [to be your mothers], your mothers, nor has He made your adopted sons [you consider as your sons] to be your [real] sons. This is just the utterance made by your mouths, but Allah states the Truth and He guides to the [straight] Path.

* Call those [adopted sons] after their own fathers; it is better as Allah is concerned. If you do not know who their fathers were, then they are your brothers in religion and your friends. There is no blame on you in the mistakes you have made, but that which your hearts purpose [is a blame on you], yet Allah is the Merciful Forgiving.
[46] In “Behar al-Anwar” Kompany’s punlication: volume 6, page 149, and from the publication of Horifi Heidary: Volume 16, page 223, in No, two they have written.
“Elal ash-Sharaye” Abi, Ane-Ghasim bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Ibrahim an-Nahawandi, from Salih ibn Rahwiia, from Abi Jawid Mola ar-Reza, Upon Him be Peace, quoting ar-Reza , Upon Him be Peace:
Gabriel came down upon the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and said: ‘O Muhammad, indeed your Creator Lord sends you peace, and states: “The virginity of the women is as the fruit, when the fruit is rotten there is no use in it, the excessive sunrise as well strong wind damages the fruit. And when the virginity is damaged the women’s repute damages as well as her husband.
So, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stood up and climbed up the pulpit and the people gathered around him, then he announced them whatever Allah, the Almighty had commanded him. Then, the people asked: ‘From what, O the Messenger of Allah?’ He answered from the hearts. They asked: ‘From the hearts?’ He answered: Some believers are the hearts of some others.
He did not descend the pulpit until he married Zobaah to al-Mighdad bin al-Aswad. Then, he said: ‘O people! Here, I have the son of my uncle marry Zobaah.’   
[47] It must be known that what has been entered to our daily life is that some people take the infants from the nurseries to their homes and feed and train it until it grows and reaches the age of maturity. Although it is a good thing to do and it is for the sake of Allah and His satisfaction, considering him as one’s own child, and behaving with his as the real child, obtaining the identity card for him as one’s own his child, making him as the direct inheritor is unlawful and is considered to be of the mortal sins.
The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, has cursed anyone who alters his identity and takes shelter under the title of someone else. The titles of: father, mother, brother, sister, uncle, material uncle, cousins and aunts which are through the rightful berth and family are the true ones.
In the Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage, the Messenger of Allah in his last sermon stated: ‘The curses of Allah, the angels of Allah and all the race of mankind are upon him who connects himself to one other than his own real father!’
[48] " سيره حلبيّه‏ ", volume 3, page 298.
[49] Same source.

[50] The purpose of the Prohibit Day is the Day of Arafat, which is very respectable day, and the Prohibited Month refers to Dhul-Hijja, which is the Month of Muharram, and the meaning of the Prohibited Town is the Town of Mecca which are respected and cannot be entered without wearing the pilgrimage garments.
[51] " الدّرّ المنثور ", volume 5, page 200.

[52] In the book of “AKHBAR ZEINEIAT”, by Abi al-Hussein Yahia bin al-Hassan bin Ja‘far bin Hojjat ibn Abidyllah al-A‘raj bin al-Hussein al-Asghar bin al-Imam as-Sajjad, Upon Him be Peace, which is of the most accurate books, and is of the ancient valuable work, and it carries the untouched date which is rewritten recently and published, by his chained of documents, about the condition of Zeinab, the daughter of Jahish, in page 103 and 104, it says:

   كانت زينب مِمّن هاجر مع رسول الله صلّي الله عليهِ و آلِهِ و كانت امراه جميله، فخطبها رسول الله صلّي الله عليهِ و آلِهِ علي زيد بن حارثه، فقالت: يا رسول الله! لا ارضاه لِنفسي و انا ايّم (*) قريش! قال: فاِنّي قد رضيته لكِ! فتزوّجها زيد بن حارثه.  

‘Zeinab, the daughter of Jahish, was among those who migrated with the Messenger of Allah, from Mecca to Medina, she was a beautiful woman. The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, asked for her marriage for Zeid bin Haritha. Zeinab said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I do not find him suitable to be my husband, because I am a widow from the Ghureish and must take my husband from among the Ghureish!’ The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, said: “I have approved Zeid to be your husband and I am satisfied with it.” Therefore, Zeid bin Harithah married her. Thus the forthcoming and custodian command of the Holiness becomes evident that although Zeinab said she was not pleased with her marrying with Zeid, the Messenger of Allah stated: “I am pleased with this affair, so I will marry you for Zeid.”

[53] "The Civilization History", pages 121, 122, the fourth section.
[54] "تفسير الميزان‏ ", volume 16, page 343.
[55] " الكنى و الالقاب‏", the translation of Shasiee, volume 2, page 316, Seida Printing.

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