In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 68-71: Ibn Hajar’s statement about the weak personality and opinions of ibn Tei‘meiiah

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Ibn Hajar’s statement about the weak personality and opinions of ibn Tei‘meiiah

However, the great learned of the Sunnite have rejected ibn Tei‘meiiah and they have called him a disbeliever and misleading, they say: He is clearly believe in Allah’s physical being! And now we rewrite the same saying of Hafiz bin Hajar which is written in his book “ALFATAWI-al-HADITHA”, page 86, as well as its translation:

ابن تيميّة عبدٌ خَذَله اللَه و أضَلَّه و أعْماه و أصَمَّه و أذَلَّه، و بذلك صَرَّح الأئمّة الَّذين بيَّنوا فَسادَ أحواله، و كِذْبَ أقواله؛ وَ من اراد ذلك فعليه بمطالعة كلام الإمام المجتهد المتَّفق على إمامته و جلالته و بلوغه مرتبة الاجتهاد أبى الحسن السّبكى وَ وَلَدِهِ التّاج و الشّيخ الإمام العزّ بن جَمَاعَة و أهل عصرهم و غيرهم من الشَّافعيّة و المالكيّة و الحنفيّة؛ و لم يقصر اعتراضه على متأخّرى الصّوفيّة بل اعترض على مثل عمر بن الخطّاب و علىّ بن أبى طالب- رضى الله عنهما.

و الحاصل أنّه لا يقام لكلامه وزنٌ بل يُرمى فى كلِّ وَعْرٍ وَ حَزْنٍ، و يُعتقد فيه أنّه مبتدع ضالٌ مضلٌّ غالٍ؛ عامله الله بعدله و أجارنا من مثل طريقته و عقيدته و فعله، آمين (إلى أن قال) إنّه قائل بالجهة و له فى إثباته جزءٌ؛ و يلزم أهل هذا المذهب الجسميّة و المحاذاة و الاستقرار؛ أى فلعلّه فى بعض الأحيان كان يصرّح بتلك اللَّوازم فنسبت اليه؛ سيّما و ممّن نسبت إليه ذلك من أئمة الاسلام المتّفق على جلالته و امامته و ديانته و انّه الثّقة العدل المرتضى المحقّق المدقّق؛ فلا يقول شيئاً إلّا عن تثبّتٍ و تحقّق و مزيد احتياط و تحرٍّ سيّما ان نسبت الى مسلم ما يقتضى كفره و ردتّه و ضلاله و إهداء ردمه؛ الكلام.[13]

 Ibn Tei‘meiiah is a man who has been afflicted by Allah; He has misled him and turned him into the state of blindness and deaf – he has become a worthless man. Apart from the great learned have clearly explained his corrupt condition, and has discovered his excessive lies and announced them, they have said that: Whoever wants to know the fact, must study the thoughts of the jurisprudent Imam whose degree of knowledge is accepted by all nation, that is, to study the theory of Sheikh Abu-al-Hassan, or to study the statements of his son, the crown of the nation and the Sheikh of the community Ezz bin Jamaah, and the other contemporary and the others like the Shafiee and the Maliki as well as the Hanfi until he becomes equitant with the deviations of ibn Tei‘meiiah. Ibn Tei’meiiah has not only objected the latest tribe of Sufis, but he has rejected Omar bin Khattab and Ali bin Abī Tālib.

The outcome is that his sayings are worthless, because the scholars do not take his writings so serious and they believe that it is a waste of time studying them. They believe that he is an afflicted and mislead man; he is a man of innovation. Mat Allah wipe him away for his unjustness! And save us being trapped in his belief, and secure us from his tricks – Amen.

(Ibn Hajar continues his word until he says): ‘Ibn Tei‘meiiah believes that Allah has location, and to prove his word, he has written a separate booklet about this peculiar belief of his. And it goes without saying that his belief calls for Allah’s physical being – similar to every being He needs dwelling in a certain location. As ibn Tei‘meiiah, from time to time, expressed his theory and broadcast it, people knew him and called his religion ‘Allah resembles a man and He has His own dwelling.’ Specially he who has considered the physical being is this great man Sheikh Abul Hassan Sabki because he is a man of learned and accepted by the great scholars; Sheikh Sabki says nothing but by investigating everything and going through its authentic subject, especially in the Islamic point of view which leads to astray way and blood-shed (therefore, ibn Tei‘meiiah who has been branded as a disbeliever believe so).’ The great scholar, Ayatullah Mohsen Amin Jabal Aamoli says: ‘All the Wah‘habis’ tribe and the founder of their invitation: Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab, the one who planted this seed, Ahmad bin Tei‘meiiah and his student, ‘Ibn Ghabbim Juzi’ and followers claim that they are Monotheist; and in their belief they imagine that: he is the saver of the world of Monotheism and secures it against any disbelief; the Wah‘habis believe that it is only they who are the real Monotheist, and the rest of the Muslims are disbelievers!

However, the fact is that: Ibn Tei‘meiiah and ibn Abdul Wah‘hab as well as their followers allowed everyone to enter the Monotheism; and tore apart its screen; and took away its veil, and they related such titles to Allah that His Holiness position does not deserve it.

    وَ تَعَالَى عَمَّا يَقُولُ الظَّالِمُونَ عُلُوّاً كَبِيرا.

And Glory be to Him! How greatly Exalted is He over that which the oppressor say.

And they have assigned a higher place for Allah; they have positioned Him on a couch above the earth and heavens, they believed so, and also His coming down to the atmosphere of the earth – they interpreted the words of ‘coming, going, getting nearer with their apparent meanings and usages.

And they assigned two hands, a face, the right hand and the left, and fingers, palms and eyes from Allah; without translating the nature of these words they mentioned them as they superficially mean.

And they have also taken the attributes: anger, affection, satisfaction and many more as their shallow meanings and explained that: Allah speaks, or, His utterance can be heard, by saying so, they have placed Him in the common and natural position – all these are occurrences.

However, the case of ibn Teimeiiah differs; he is quite certain that Allah has a place and position for His own, as well the physical body, sitting on the real couch and speaking by means of the ordinary words. He is the first one who made his speculation to be known, and wrote different self-regulating thesis such as: “عقيده حَمَوِيَّة”and “رساله عقيده وَاسِطِيَّة”. And his students ibn Ghayyim Huzi and ibn Abdel Hadi and his admirers followed him.

It was why the contemporary scholars enjoined for his disbelief and abjectness, and they asked the Sultan to kill or jail him. Therefore, they arrested him and then sent him to Egypt; and there the scholars discussed with him, they commanded to jail him and they did. In the end he repented and later on broke his oath and finally died in the prison.

Now, we are going to make it clear for the learned whatever has been related about him so far:

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The opinions of the learned and the historians about ibn Tei‘meiiah

أحْمَدُ بْنُ حَجَرِ هَيْتَمِىّ مَكّىّ شَافِعِىّ,  the owner of the book “الصَّواعِقُ الْمُحْرِقة”, which is called: “جَوْهَرُ الْمُنَظَّم فِى زِيارَة الْقَبْرِ الْمُكَرَّم”, says: Ibn Teimeiiah violated the Right Holiness by his lecturing to the public on the pulpits that He possess physical body similar to man.

Ibn Hajar too in the book “الدُّرَرُ الكامِنَة”, according to the related account has said: concerning ibn Teimeiiah, people have divided into several groups: some of them have taken him as ‘personalizing’ Allah, it is because he has revealed his belief in the book of “حَمَويّه” and “واسطيّه” and some similar books, that: Allah possesses hands, legs, feet, feature and so on – they are of the attributes of Allah, and that Allah is seated on the couch. However, when he was objected that the necessity for this was modification in the Essence, his answer was: of course we believe that the need for every kind of modification is the location; in this way he believed of the modification for the Essence of Allah.

Some other people knew that he believed in dualism, because he had declared that إنَّ النَّبِىَّ لَا يُسْتَغَاثُ بِه, ‘people cannot call the Messenger and ask him for help in their hardships’, this is a manifest distrust and rejecting the respect of the messenger of Allah.

And he who was the most criticizer of the ibn Teimeiia’s action was Noor Bakri; and when they set up an assembly to condom his affairs, some audience said: he must be punished.

It was when Noor Bakri objected by saying: It is too small, if he has disrespected the Messenger, he must be killed, but if he has not done so then he should be freed.

And some took him for the cause of the discord, as he had said about Ali: “So far he has been disappointed whatever he has done or wherever has been, he has always been hoping to have authorities but has failed; and his fighting in the battles was getting a chairmanship but not for the piety. He loved the chairmanship while Othman was after the wealth.”

And he used to say: Abu Bakr was a Sheikh when he embraced Islam, and he knew what he was saying; however Ali embraced Islam when he was small and according to some, as they say, embracing Islam in infancy is not right.

And because of the speech of his in the story of Abu Jahl’s sermon, and because of the praise he has in the story of Abi al-Ass bin Rabi from which the grudge and enmity against Ali bin Abī Tālib is sensed, he has been considered as being a hypocrite; because the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, has stated:  

لَا يُبْغِضُكَ إلّا مُنَافِق.‏

‘O Ali, no one considers you as enemy except one who is hypocrite.’

And some people have attributed him having desires for the great Leadership, they say, because he has exaggerated ‘Ibn Tomart’,[14] he was fascinated in him and always praised him and admired him. And the same affair caused his imprisonment to be extended.  

Anyhow, the events of ibn Temeiiag are too many and they are manifested by his constant oppositions. Whenever he was condemned in the discussions, and the right became clear to him, he said: ‘I did not mean that, something else was going in my mind, then, he would mention a strange probability.

Ibn Hajar’s saying, in the book of “الدُّرَرُ الْكَامِنَة” came to an end.

And in “مُنْتَهَى الْمَقَالِ فِى شَرْحِ حَدِيثِ لَا تُشَدُّ الرِّحَال” of Mofti Sadr-ad-Din, it is related that he has said in that book: Sheikh Imam, the chief of the narrators, Sheikh Muhammad Borlosi has related it in his book thus: “إتْحافُ أهلِ الْعرْفانِ بِرُؤْيَة الْأنْبِيآءِ وَ الْملآئِكَة وَ الْجَان”.

Ibn Teimeiiah Hanbali, may Allah deal him according to His Justice, has taken even a further step by banning those taking a trip to visit the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants; he continues revealing his thoughts and imaginations until he goes beyond.

He even goes too far by violating the State of the Holiness Right who is the kernel of the greatest Perfection.

He has torn apart the Divine boundary and the Glory of Allah, and by having a private motive in personifying Allah, he has taken away His Lofty Status and Glory. And he has singled out anyone who objected his way of thinking by branding him to be astray! And he made many speeches concerning his ideas on the pulpits in the mosques and reached his voice to all: elderly and the youths, in not very long time he made everyone understand his false innovations.

It is related by the owner of the book “أشْرَفُ الْوسَائِلِ إلَى فَهْم الشَّمَائِل” that: He has given his point of view concerning ‘letting the two ends of the turban hang on the shoulders’, he has said:

Ibn Ghayyim Juzi has mentioned a strange subject from his teacher, ibn Teimeiia; it goes as: ‘When the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, saw that Allah has set His two hands on his shoulders, the Messenger respected those two locations and since then he let the two ends of his turban hang there!

Araqi says: ‘We didn’t find any origin or narrative for his claim.’

Then, the owner of the book “اشرف الوسائل” says: ‘This claim is also by these two ‘teacher and student’, because these two have personified Allah to strengthen their innovated creed, and they have said lots of nonsense so far; in their opinions, they tried to mislead the people from the Messenger’s rule.

تَعَالَى اللَهُ عَمَّا يَقُولُ الظَّالِمُونَ وَ الْجَاحِدُونَ عُلُواً كَبيراً.

Glory belongs to Him! He is greatly exalted over what the aggressors and the careless say.

And there are so many corrupts and nonsense statements from these two teacher and student, (ibn Teimeiia and ibn Juzi), that one loses his power of listening by listening to them; their sayings are just inventions, meaningless, misleading and void of truth. May Allah disgrace them as well as those who broadcast their opinions.

And Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal and greatest learned of the ibn Teimeiia’s creed, are weary of this shameful point of view; they hate the theory of his personifying and setting place and position for Allah. By the way, why shouldn’t they while this theory is totally rejected by the Sunnite.

That is all! The statements of “اشرف الوسائل” came to an end.

And it has been related by مَوْلَوىّ عَبْدُ الْحَليمِ هِنْدى, in the book حَلُّ الْمَعَاقِدِ, in the margin of شَرحِ الْعَقائد that: Ibn Teimeiia was Hanbali but he violated his limitation and began to work against the greatness of Right, and to prove his false imaginations, he assigned position and place for Allah. And he has great many errors until the narrator says:

‘In ‘Ghalah Jabal’, they set up a meeting to discuss with ibn Teimeiiah, and the great scholars, the respectable jurisprudents and his master, ‘قَاضِى الْقُضَاة زَيْن الدِّين مَالِكى’ took part in it, and in Temeiiah was also there. The discussion started and in a short while ibn Teimeiiah was condemned and was embarrassed.

Then, in the year 705, قَاضِى الْقُضَاة put him in jail and it was announced in Damascus ‘Whoever follows ibn Teimeiia’s innovated creed, is subject to death – his property and blood is legitimate taking away.’

Thus it has been related in “مرآة الجنان” of Imam Abu Muhammad Abdullah Yafiee: ‘Later on ibn Teimeiiah repented and was freed from prison in 707. No sooner had he left the prison than he announced himself to be ASHTARI. However, after a short while he broke his promise and revealed his secret and was sent to prison. Again he repented and was freed from prison and went to Sham to live there – great many events he brought up there and all recorded in the history books.

Ibn Hajar, in the first volume of “دُرَرُ الْكامِنَة” explains his condition and in the mean time, rejects his theories and statements. And DHAHABI has also done the same, apart from these two, many scholars have rejected him.

And in short, as ibn Teimeiiah has tried to personify Allah, and he has said: Allah has His own location to settle, because a thing occupies a place, and also it has been mentioned in the praiseworthy Criterion: الرَّحْمَنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَى, Allah, the Compassionate, is seated on the couch.’ On this basis, he believes the firmament if the place of Allah.

As ibn Teimeiiah himself believes in the eternality of Allah, and every single particle in the world is His creation, he was obliged to accept it and say: ‘The material of the firmament is eternal and old, however, the existing individuals are the creations and they come one after another. So, that everlasting subject and these created ones are the dwelling place for Allah!’

Therefore, the main subject is assigning the eternal place for Allah, and comparing with it, the other occupancies of the places are events, as the orators believe in the belonging the same. Abdu Halim’s statement also came to an end.

And it is from Yafiee in “مِرْآة الجنان” who has said about the sedition of ibn Teimeiiah: “That which ibn Teimeiiah announced in Egypt is that he said: ‘Allah has certainly been established on the couch, and his speech is by the means of sound and the letters man use. Since then, they announced in Damascus: whoever is after the belief of ibn Teimeiiah his blood is lawful to be shed.’ Yafiee’s expression also ended up.

And it is from the “History of Abul-Feda” in the event of the year 705 which is said: ‘In that year, Taghi ad-Din Ahmad bin Teimeiiah was called to go from Damascus to Egypt; there, they assigned a meeting for him, in that assembly he restricted to reveal his belief, he stopped saying anything because his belief was the personification.’

In a patent that was issued by the Sultan declared that ibn Teimeiiah was a cruel man: it was then ibn Teimeiiah let his idea spread and began writing. He continued and wrote about the Qur’an and the Attributes of Allah, the blasphemy and the ugliest ideas of his. He has pointed out some subjects that the scholars in Islam have considered them blasphemy and banned them. And most learned have come together against his claims; and all the scholars and the jurisprudences in Sham and Egypt have opposed him.’

We have learned that he had taken his opponents too humble and lowly, and consequently they followed him, they too practiced his theory by assuming that Allah has physical body and He speak by means of letters and sound. Abul-Feda’s statement also came to an end.

And some people have related in “Kashf-uz-Zonoon” that they have said whoever gives the title of Sheikh-ul-Islam to ibn Teimeiiah is an infidel. Kashf-uz-Zonoon’s statements also came to an end.[15]

Up to here, the Late Ayatullah Jabal Aameli, may Allah be pleased with him, has discussed about ibn Teimeiiah, but from now on, he is to discuss about “Muhammad Abd-ul-Wahab”[16] who was of the followers of ibn Teimeiiah. He discusses about visiting the graves, intercession, beseeching and so on. He says: ‘Abd-ul-Wahab too personified Allah and seated Him on the couch between the earth and the sky, in the firmament, and he assumed for Him having physical body, face, hands and the ears – love and anger. He has taken the manifest meanings of the words in the case of the Creator.

He has written a book called: “التَّوحِيدُ الَّذِى هُوَ حَقُّ عَلَى العَبِيد” and he has referred to the verse:

حَتَّى إذَا فُزِّعَ عَنْ قُلُوبِهِمْ قَالُوا مَاذَا قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ قَالُوا الْحَقَّ وَ هُوَ الْعَلِىُّ الْكَبِير.

‘… once, when fear is lifted from their hearts, [the criminals] say [to the preemptors], ‘What did your Lord say?’ They answer: ‘[He said] the Truth; for He is the Exalted, the Great, (Qur’an: 34/23).’

He says: he has assumed a high position by stationing Him in the firmament, and the attributes such as: anger, satisfaction, resting on a couch and so many similar ones. Then, he reasons his claim by the verse:

وَ مَا قَدَرُو اللَهَ حَقَّ قَدْرِهِ وَ الْارْضُ جَميعًا قَبْضَتُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَمَة.

‘… and they did not recognize the Lofty Position of Allah, as He has right to be recognized; and on the Day of Resurrection, the whole earth will be in His grip, (Qur’an: 39/67).’


And he says: Allah has fingers and the skies are placed only on one finger of His, and the earth(s) are on the next one; on one of His finger are the trees, and on another one are the waters. Soil, dust and sands are placed on one finger of His, and all the creatures are on the last one.

Next he quotes ibn Masood’s story about one of the Jewish scribers who went to the Messenger of Allah and explained to him what he had heard; and also he pointed it out that the Messenger’s smile was a good proof for accepting his saying: which was personifying and giving location and position to Allah.

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The belief of the followers of Abd-ul-Wahab

And after the death of Muhammad abd-ul-Wahab, his followers went on lecturing his theories as: Allah has physical body, feature, hands, and legs and so on. And they still said about the attributions of His.

In the fourth treatise, out of a complete five treatise, which is called “الْهَدِيَّة السَّنِيَّة” and belongs to Abd-ul-Latif, the grandson of abd-ul-Wahab including the Wahabi’s beliefs and are compared with the writing of Abu-al-Hassan Ash’ari, he says:

‘Allah, the Exalted is on His couch in the firmament,’ as He states:

 الرَّحْمَنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَى.

‘…the Mercy-giving [Who is] established on the [Ruling and Planning] Throne, (Qur’an: 20/5).’

He has two hands, though with no quality, as He states:

 لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَىَّ- بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ.

‘… for what I created with My hands – ‘… the hand of Allah is fettered, (Qur’an: 5/64).’

And He has two eyes, though with no quality, as He states:

 وَ يَبْقَى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَ الْإكْرَامِ.

‘…but only the Feature of the Majestic and Splendid Self of your Lord remains forever, (Qur’an: 55/27).’

And it gives evidence to these subjects: the narratives that the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, has related: ‘Allah will descend to the earth’s atmosphere and says: “Is there anyone to pray for pardon?”’

He goes on until he says: ‘and they recite in the Qur’an that Allah will descend on the Day of Resurrection; as it is stated:

 وَ جَآءَ رَبُّكَ وَ الْمَلَكُ صَفًّا صَفّا.

‘… and your Lord comes, and the angels stand row upon row, (Qur’an: 89/22).’

They get closer to the Creator in any manner they want, as He states:

 وَ نَحْنُ أَقْرَبُ إلَيْهِ مِنْ حَبْلِ الْوَرِيد

‘… and We are closer to him than the jugular vein [of his], (Qur’an: 50/16).’

And it is related in the fifth treaty of Muhammad bin Abd-ul-Wahab that: ‘And we believe that Allah, the Exalted has been settled on His couch in the firmament, and He has Lofty position there over His creatures – and His couch and divine is beyond the skies, for He states:

 الرَّحْمَنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَى‏

‘…the Mercy-giving [Who is] established on the [Ruling and Planning] Throne, (Qur’an: 20/5).’

Thus, we believe in the appearance of this phrase and discuss and prove the fact of establishing on the couch in the firmament, but without going through the details – we do not make an example for it either.

The Imam of “DAR-al-HIJRA, Malik bin Anas says, we too, according his statement, say: ‘when a man concerning the ‘Throne’ asked him, he answered:

الْاسْتِوآءُ مَعْلُومٌ وَ لْكَيْفُ مَجْهُولٌ وَ الْإيمَانُ بِهِ وَاجِبٌ وَ السُّؤالُ عَنْهُ بِدْع.

‘The meaning of ‘Throne’ is clear, but its quality is unclear; so it is necessary to believe it but questioning about is innovation.’

 Then, he says: So whoever resembles Allah to His creatures, is infidel, and he who rejects that which Allah has attributed Himself with, is infidel too. And we believe what has been revealed, for Allah, the Highest:

يَنْزِلِ كُلِّ لَيْلَة إلَى سَّمآءِ الدُّنْيَا حِينَ يَبْقَى ثُلْثُ اللَّيْلِ فَيَقُولُ...

Every night, when still one third of it remains, Allah descends to the world atmosphere and asks: “Has anyone repented?”

And concerning this, the Late Amin has stated: Only one of the two subjects is drawn from this statement, either embodiment or absurd, but both are impossible; because taking the meaning of establishment as the customary, without quality, is logically impossible, and it is embodiment with quality. Therefore, it must be interpreted as it is ‘the embodiment’. [17]

And ‘Deh‘khoda’ says: Ibn Teimeiiah is related to ‘Teima’, a town belonging to Sham, he is Taqi-ad-Din Abu-al-Abbas Ahmad bin Abdul Halim bin Abdus-Salam bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Teimeiiah Harrani (born in Lunar year 661 and died at 728 Hijri). His birth place is in Harran near to Damascus,’ and he says: ‘Except the Salafin, ibn Teimeiiah has discussed with almost many, such as Ashaera, the Rulers, the Sufi and he has considered all to be void of knowledge only because he himself believed in personification, and did not interpret the Qur’an deeply but only its manifest meaning. And he believed the visiting of the graves of the saints to be a kind of innovation; therefore, he is deserved to be known the pioneer of the Wahabi sect. [18]

Ibn Batota, on his trip to Damascus, has visited ibn Teimeiiah; so when he explains the Damascus Judges, concerning ibn Teimeiiah, he says: حِكَايَة الْفَقِيهِ ذِى اللَّوثَة the story of a jurisprudent who was stupid. Then, he continues: ‘In Damascus, among the great Hanbali’s jurisprudents, ibn Teimeiiah was the greatest and he would speak almost about everything; it was because he was unwise – إلَّاّ أنَّ فِى عَقْلِهِ شَيئا.

People in Damascus highly respected him; he always lectured for them in the mosques. Once when he was giving a lecture about a subject the jurisprudents rejected him and complained against him to Malik Nasir in Egypt. Malik Nasir ordered him to be sent to Egypt.

All the judges and jurisprudents came together at Nasir’s assembly, and at that moment, it was Sharaf-ad-Din Zawawi who was lecturing. He said: ‘This man has said such and such, and then, he continued counting whatever untruth he had already stated. Next he prepared all the letters and documents confirming his claim and presented them to the chief Judge.

The Judge of the judges asked ibn Teimeiiah: “What is your opinion about these?” He simply answered: “لَا إلَهَ إلَّاّ اللَه”‘There is no deity except Allah. Again the Judge asked: “What do you have to say?” This time too ibn Teimeiiah repeated his word. Nasir, the Ruler, commanded to put him in prison; he was jailed for many years and in the prison, he wrote a forty-volume commentary for the Qur’an and called them “بحر محيط”.

Ibn Teimeiiah’s mother took her complain to Malik Nasir and Malik Nasir ordered for his freedom. He came out of prison and again made mistakes by practicing his idea.

At the very time, I was in the mosque of Damascus, it was Friday and I noticed ibn Teimeiiah climbed the pulpit and began lecturing for the people in the mosque. He spoke on different subjects until he said:

إِنَّ اللَهَ يَنْزِلُ إلَى سَمَآءِ الدُّنْيَا كَنُزُولى هَذَا وَ نَزَلَ دَرَجَة مِنْ دَرَجِ الْمِنْبَر.

“Allah comes down into the earth’s planet as I am coming down from this pulpit now,” and by saying so, he came a step down from the pulpit.

Soon after, a Maliki jurisprudent, who was known as ‘Ibn az-Zahra’ began speaking against him and then started discussing with him. He totally rejected what ibn Teimeiiah had said. On the other hand, all the people in the mosque stood up and went closer to that man of jurisprudent and began beating him by all means: punching him and hitting him on the head with their sandals and shoes. His turban fell down on the ground and his silk skull-cap came to sight. They cried he was infidel wearing such garment. They dragged him to the house of Ez-Zad-Din bin Muslim, who was the judge of the Hanbali’s sect. The judged ordered his men to lash him and then put in prison – but the jurisprudents of Shafiee and Maliki did not approve his lashing and objected it.

Finally his case was sent to the Chief of the commanders, Seif ad-Din Tankiz; he was the best judge among the judges and the truthful. He wrote the whole case to Malik Nasir. He wrote him a long letter against ibn Teimeiiah, and pointed out all the unlawful acts of his. Then, he sent the letter to Malik Nasir, and he too after reading it ordered for the imprisonment of ibn Teimeiiah in the ‘Fortress’. They kept him in prison until he died. [19]

According to what has been mentioned so far, it becomes clear that ibn Teimeiiah believed in the personification of Allah and a good reason for that was that he step down the pulpit to demonstrate Allah’s coming down. It is because Allah’s descending relates his position, but: تَعَالَى اللَهُ عَنْ ذَلِك, Allah, the Exalted is free from that. Therefore, that which Muhammad Bahjat Attar has brought in his book “The life of ibn Teimeiiah” that: ‘when ibn Batoteh was in Damascus, ibn Teimeiiah was in prison in the Fortress, so it was another man lecturing on the mosque and saying such words; it must have been ibn Batoteh’s mistakes taking that man for ibn Teimeiiah.’ It is absolutely nonsense and is an unacceptable excuse! Because how could such a clever man like ibn Batoteh not recognize him and take an unknown man for ibn Teimeiiah? And above all, he himself has mentioned this story in details!

Besides, ibn Batoteh was as a tourist there, and at this part of his travelling he is mentioning his travelling. And it is clear that the tourists jot down their daily events on the same day they occur, but not later when they have forgotten the story. And ibn Batoteh stayed in Damascus for a while, and if this case was not Ibn Teimeiiah’s story, it would not remain unknown, it would become clearer and ibn Batoteh would write the correct event. And this travelling reminiscence is important for the historians and ibn Batoteh’s mistake would come to sight immediately.

Apart from these discussions, what is our claim to sanctify him so much, and for finding his errors we go so far. About such a man that almost all scholars in Islam have condemned him, even ibn Batoteh considers him as a half-witted man! And he calls him as a stupid sage! These mistakes of ibn Teimeiiah and Abdul Wahab are due to their ignorance of the Holy Qur’an and pondering on its verses.

They have leaned only one word, and it is: one cannot violate the Qur’an and the laws and traditions! But the question is, what is the Qur’an and how can we learn and understand it? The same Qur’an that is a catalogue and the knowledge program for the word scholars, sages and the learned until the Day of Resurrection – how can we interpret it? They read: وَجَاءَ رَبُّك, ‘which means ‘and your Lord came,’ and also the meaning of مجيء refers to ‘going’, so it is ‘Allah walks!’

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Words are set for common meanings

If they had taken a single step in correct literature, or in the Islamic philosophy, they would not say such nonsense.

Words are invented to represent the common things and situations; for example the phrase “مجيء” means ‘to come’ that is: gradually getting closer, and in the case of a man it means having two legs and walking by means of them, or for the animals moving with four, and the birds by means of flapping their wings. And in the events it depends on you, for instance, you say: It is raining, it is snowing, it is blowing, and there is an earthquake. Now, let’s see, do they have legs for their activities? Occasionally, you may say: Light came, the sun came to sight, and so on; do they have legs to come?! And in the spiritual events you say: He came round or Gabriel came, and in the case of non-spiritual you say: the traffic came to standstill; and you that neither of them has legs to come. Thus, the action of coming is not necessarily by means of legs, and it is rare for a nation to take the meaning of the word ‘to come’ for moving forward by the means of the legs.

Therefore, the sentence ‘Allah’s mercy came,’ means: He bestowed His mercy [to man]; He removed the veil of attribute for mercy and His attribute for mercy appeared to man.

And the clause ‘Allah came’, means that the screen of the ‘Egotism’ of the people has taken away, and in the point of dominion, they feel His Essence closer to them; they feel His Majesty and Loftiness without covering – this is the meaning of ‘to come’ here. Thus, the words are made for their vast and common meanings, and using them in a certain occasions is something else.

Above all, we say that the term “مجيء” is used in its real meaning, and its meaning is common; there is no specification in its use. It is not that to say in this case the term “مجيء” cannot be used in its original meaning which is moving by means of the legs or on four, this cannot be the right answer.

The word ‘firmament’ is always used with its real meaning, it is a common name with its special meaning, its meaning is not related to the material ‘firmament’ – everything’s firmament is proportional with it. The firmament of Allah is abstract – similar to Allah; it is not in the shape of a kind of being or material.

Allah is ‘the Hearing’; He hears with His Dominion Knowledge and comprehends things. He is ‘the Seer’; He sees with the Knowledge of His considering. ‘Allah has hands’ means He has the power of exercising; two hands of Allah are two attributes of the Majesty and Loftiness of His, as well the two names of Beauty and Majestic. These are not the figurative meanings so as someone to say we have no context to the figurative; and in the case of the lack of context we must take the meaning as the real and fact. Here, the imaginary context is not acceptable, because, in this case, the imagines differ.

These kinds of superficial discussions lead us to the barren land at last; however, the different situations of the words, with their common meanings, can solve our problem, for the fact are their usages.

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The loss of the Wah‘habis in understanding the facts of the Qur’an

Adoring the customary meanings of the verses of the Qur’an and applying them in the daily conversations invalidates the Book of Allah. And this kind of usage of the verses brings down the lofty and majestic position of the Divine Book. And this kind of adoration is against the commands of the Qur’an, and it invites us to ponder on it more. Being far away from the Divine Gnostic and the position of the Guardianship, and travelling to the affection world by referring to our inwards, and keeping away from the knowledge of reasoning and philosophic proofs give way to these dirty affairs come to existence.

Ibn Teimeiiah tries to benefit from the Qur’an and the laws and traditions but he has lost the course, and with the world of alas, in the acute thirst, he perishes in the middle of the burning field.

He passes his judgement that: ‘If one travels to Medina to visit the shrine of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, then, he must establish his prayer in full,[20] because his trip there is a sinful trip, for visiting the Messenger of Allah is an innovation.’ So, is it not because his enraging heart and his soul’s abjectness? When he says: ‘One who travels for pleasure or any kinds of enjoyments, or perhaps on business he must break and shorten his prayers but exception is that when takes a trip to Medina to visit the shrine of the Messenger of Allah. In the latter one his trip is unlawful and he must establish prayer in full!’

Their aim is to get benefit from the Qur’an but not to trespass it, then in the name of disbelief, they draw their swords against the Muslims. And with their void excuse: ‘Give a dog a bad name and hang him’ they bloodshed in Hijaz, Najd, Mecca, Jaddah, Iraq and Syria, and some other places. They even take away the lives of the infants in such a way that they prove the tyrannical Mongol being innocent. Then, they say: ‘This act of us is inviting people to the Monotheism.’ In their belief, taking the whole Muslims of the world as the infidel means Monotheism! So, this is the path of Wah’habis’ funded by Muhammad bin Abd-ul-Wahhab, and it is transmitted by the pioneer and great Leader of illogical thoughts, ibn Teimeiiah.

Whoever wants to know more of this event, should study the books about the Wah’habis and the history concerning their lives, so that to know keeping aside from the Guardianship of the Holiness Imam Sādiq and Ja‘fari Religion brings about such abjectness.

You do study the book of “كَشْف الْارْتياب فى أتْباع محمّد بن عبد الوهّاب” by the Late Amin; and also the book of “هِىَ هَذِهِ الوَهَّابِيَّة” by Sheikh Muhammad Jawad Mogh’neiiah so as to get to know the meanness of this tribe.

The question is that if one wants to get benefit from the Qur’an but without the aid of the Household, he finally falls out of the course – a berry of turquoise, gem and brilliant is purchased from the jeweler but not from a beetroot caller. 

Any subjects about the unity of Essence, the unity of the Attributes and the unity of the Actions we have written in this book or anywhere else; and also whatever of the pioneers of school of the Shiite, and the hoster of the banner of praise and the position of the intersession of Ali bin Abī Tālib and his forefathers; and also of the ‘Monotheism of Sadough,’ and ‘Oyun al-Akhbar’, and Naj-ul-Balagha we have related so far, are by the great Gnostic and highly respected scholars who have found their ways to this school of the Shiite – we have related exactly their statements and writings. You should carefully consider what the difference between their claims and our beliefs are. With such ideas of Wah’habis: either in their embodiment belief, or fundamental principles, their command about visiting the shrine of the Messenger of, or about their merciless killing in the name of Allah and the Messenger of Allah, are world of difference their beliefs and ours. And He has stated:                

وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَهُ لَهُ نُورًا فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ نُور.

‘… And to whomsoever Allah does not grant light, he has no light, (Qur’an:24/40).

The Wah’habis say: ‘The purpose of light in the Qur’an is the very apparent value and light of it; and the meaning of the darkness in it, is the plain darkness; so its inward meaning and interpretation has no meaning: you must take only the visible part and this the only way to benefit it.’

Now we must well consider it and see how bad effect their way of thinking damages the faith, and the religious commands and jurisprudence!

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The Story of Brigadier-general Gharib with Sheikh Wahabi

It is time we quoted the story of our Holiness Master, the miraculous sign of Allah, the greatest in the knowledge and Gnostic, Al‘lāma Tabatabaee, may Allah be pleased with him, and then, end up our discussion on this subject.

He related that: ‘some about fifteen years before [21] (it refers to the publication of this book), once when Brigadier-general Gharib had come to visit us, during our conversation he pointed at a subject that it was surprising, and in the mean time very interesting.

He said: “The year that I was honoured to take a Hajj Pilgrimage, my journey was from Sham to Jeddah sailing on a cargo ship. The ship was sailing more than a week on the water, so my old close friends and I were talking from the different angles and now and then practicing our Hajj rituals to learn them before disembarking the boat.

Among the passengers, there was also a Sheikh heading for Hajj, he was alone, sitting quiet but in pondering mood.

The early days, from time to time, we went to him and asked about some of our problems that we knew not. In the end, as we found him useful, we called on him more and finally asked him to join us. We invited him to be in our circle to talk, to dine and to rest all together, and above all, to learn something more from him. He accepted and joined us – one more was added to our company.  

We reached the Illuminated Medina where we could also be together and go wherever we wanted; the Sheikh was with us and we enjoyed and benefitted his presence with us – he was a man of patience, tolerant and learned.

One day, along with the Sheikh, we all went to the Media’s library where the chief of the library was a blind man – he was a Sheikh from the Wah’habis’ religion. We sat together and that Wah’habis’ Sheikh was speaking to us. As from the start he knew that we belonged to the Ja‘far Shiiite, he was trying to points his words against us: to reproach us, to offence, to relate us to idolatry, to call us the Jews and the Magi! He criticized everything related to the Shiite, quoted the narratives in anger and explained them in grudge, he recited the verses of the Qur’an and translated them and then, benefitted by condemning us. He was trying to prove that we were Muslims: we did not pray, did not fast and our Hajj Pilgrimage was only as touring and sightseeing but not the real worshipping! Our using the prayer stones, made of the dust of Karbala, in our daily prayers was a kind of worshipping the dead! Our visiting the graves and circumambulating the shrines were totally idolatry.’

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The Wah‘habis know only the superficial meaning of the Qur’an

He said: ‘The Shiite knows nothing of the Qur’an and they do not recite it, they are obliged to comment on it so that to get some meaning out of – this kind of recitation is destroying the Qur’an. The Qur’an’s apparent words must be translated, it must be translated at all – only the surface must be taken into consideration.

For example, the meaning of:

 اللَهُ نُورُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَ الْأرْض‏

‘…Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth, (Qur’an: 24/35),

is as it is; it must not be translated, the apparent meaning of the sentence is clear, so it is enough.

The Shiite says, and also writes it in their commentary: the meaning of ‘Light’ represents the ‘Real Light’, this is the self- commentary and it is unlawful.

The Shiite says the meaning of Light is that: ‘Allah illuminates the heavens and the earth,’ and this is against the apparent meaning.

The Qur’an clearly says: وَ جاءَ أَمْرُ رَبُّك ‘… and the command of your Lord came,’ this translation is wrong.

Anyhow, for a while he discussed about the similar things, and while he was speaking, the Sheikh friend of ours was sitting quiet and listening.

All of us got tired and felt depressed mostly because our Sheikh friend was sitting mute and saying nothing. We were thinking that he was not so impartial, we had taken him as a learned man so why he had given up there! By seeing him sit so idle, we wanted to object that Sheikh, the blind Wah’habi, and at least to tell him: this saying of you is wrong and it is a direct accusation; and your way of translation of ‘وَ جاءَ أَمْرُ رَبُّك’ is the corporeality assuming for Allah, and it is wrong. The Qur’an must be learned from those the expert on the Qur’an, but not from the unknown ones. The most familiar with the Qur’an are the Household and on top the Messenger of Allah, not the people like you translating it according to your sense and taste!

But, to begin with, we were not familiar with Arabic to express ourselves, and secondly we were respecting our Sheikh, who was a great learned, to say anything in his presence, as long as he was among us, our speeches seemed to be wrong. Right then, we decided to cut our relationship with the Sheikh as soon as we left the library.

Anyhow, that Wah’habis Sheikh continued his speech until he got dead tired and our Sheikh was also listening but without saying a word.

The Wah’habis’ Sheikh paused for a while and in the mean time, our Sheikh turned to him saying: ‘Perhaps you are trying so much or making you angry and tired, and trying to defend the Qur’an, Islam and the Messenger is that visiting the Messenger of Allah on the Day of Resurrection, and then your good deeds to become into the sight of the Messenger and to accept them?’

The Wah’habis’ Sheikh answered in anger twice: ‘Yes, yes!’

Our Sheikh said: ‘But I am sorry that you will not visit the Messenger of Allah on the Day of Resurrection!’

The Wah’habis’ Sheikh asked in anger: ‘What for; why not?’

Our Sheikh said: ‘It is just because you are blind! According to the statement of the Qur’an, as you translate it, whoever is blind in this world he is going to be blind and astray in the Hereafter:

وَ مَنْ كَانَ فِى هَذِهِ أعْمَى فَهُوَ فِى الْآخِرَة أعْمَى وَ أَضَلُّ سَبِيلا.

‘… And whoever is blind to things in this [world] will be the same in the Hereafter, and will be more astray from the path, (Qur’an: 17/72),

And you yourselves interpret this:

وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَهُ لَهُ نُورًا فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ نُور.

‘… thus, to whomsoever Allah does not grant light, he has no light, (Qur’an: 24/40),

Therefore, now that you are blind, you are going to be blind and more astray in the Hereafter! So have no insight therefore, you cannot see the Messenger of Allah.’

Our Sheikh expressed this statement and then sat quiet.

The Wah’habis’ Sheikh got so furious that as if was put on flame, or a chicken was slaughtered. He said no more and kept quite silent; he was just grumbling and moving side to side in anger.

On the other hand, we got so delighted by the utterance of our Sheikh that all of us were frantic with joy.

Then, finding the gathering in such dead end, we stood up and left the library. On the way we kept giving kisses to Sheikh, and even some of our friends embraced him, kissed him and pointed at his timely answer. We told him frankly that in the beginning he had made us tired and angry by his sitting speechless; and also told him that we even had condemned him. We added that: but finally, you carried out your duty in the best way. May Allah reward you through the Islam and the Qur’an!

This was a brief explanation about the Wah’habis’ belief.

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[13] "الغدير ", volume 3, page 217 .
[14] "ابْنِ تُومَرْت‏" is one of those who claimed Mahda'veiiat'ism, to be MAHDI, in the North Africa in the final part fifth and the beginning of the sixth centuries, he flourished and soon found many followers and got ready to fight. He established a chain of the pious men and then became famous as "The Believers Dynasty".
It has been explained in Deh-Khoda's Encyclopedia that: "ابْنِ تُومَرْت‏": Abu Abdullah, Muhammad bin Abdullah bin تُومَرْت‏"known as Mahdi Haraghi. Ibn Khaldon calls him as "أمغار", which meands a chief in Barbarian, and was born between 470-48- of Hijra in a small mountainous village of "سُوسُ الْأقصَى‏" in the North Africa. In his early ages he travelled to the East and learned religious lessons there. Ibn Khallakan says: He also received the statements of Abu Hamid Ghazali, then he returned to the North Africa. At the same time, the belief towards the West was in circulation, and the people there were fanatical; through their fanatical belief, onece they burn all Ghazali's books. It was then "ابْنِ تُومَرْت‏" claimed to be Mahdi, and he began to teach them enjoining to good and prohibiting to the righteousness; and joined his dynasty to Ali bin Abi Talib. A man known as "عبد المؤمن بن على‏", who followed his foot-steps after his death, helped him to strengthen his invitation. In 517, "ابْنِ تُومَرْت‏" sent Abd-ul-Mo'men to fight the "مُرابِطين‏", his army marched forth but because of the weakness of مُرابِطي, they proved to be stronger for years until ابْنِ تُومَرْت died in 522 or 524. His grave is in the town of TEI'NAM'MBE. And due to the will of ابْنِ تُومَرْت , became his successor and the chief to the dynasty of the pious (the Word-Book of ابْنِ تُومَرْت , page 297, first volume.)
And in his "أعلام‏", وَزَرْكُلِى‏ has explained some subjects and we are going to bring a small part of it here: Al-Mahdi ibn Tomart 485 – 524 Hijra; or 1092- 1130 by the Christian date.
Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Tomart Masmoudi Barbarian Abu Adullah renamed Mahdi, which is called The Mahdi of the righteous; he is the inviter of Sultan Abd0ul-Mo'men bin Ali the King of the North and the fonder of the basis for the believing government of Komeiiah. He is of the tribe of Hargha, the Tribe of the Mount of Sus in the North, and Haragha has adppted the second name as Hassan bin Ali, However, there are some different opinions in the background of ibn Tomart but we bring what in Hamash says about him: he came to the east and reached Iraq, and he went to the Hajj Pilgrimage, he stayed in Mecca for a while and then went to Egypt but the government there sacked his out. He returned to the North of Africa and gather some followers for him, then, he got closer to the patient King Ali bin Yusuf bin Tashfin. After a while, he rebelled against the King and then sheltered in the mountainous part of Teimalel. There, he preached to the people and made a handful of followers and soon after excited them to attack to Tashfin. They killed many men of the King and again resorted in the same mountainous area. By the assistant of his followers, ibn Tomart's plan succeeded, and he was titled as the Existing Mahdi by the Command of Allah. But before capturing Morocco, he passed away. He had set up a regulation and well-organized plan that after his death, abd-ul-Mo'men to continue his plan and capture the towns. He did so and finally became the Sultan of Morocco. Salawi says: he added the phrase " أصْبِحُ وَ لِلَهِ الْحَمْد" to the early morning prayer; "A'lam of Zaekoli", volume 7, pages 104 – 105. 
[15] " كَشْف الارتياب فى اتباع محمد بن عَبْدالوهّاب‏", Third printing, pages 129, 133.
[16] It is written in Sheikh Ahmad bin Zaini Dahlani's book, "خُلاصة الكلام فى امرآء البلد الحرام‏", that: Muhammad abd-ul-Wahab was born in 1111 Hijri and died in 1207, he lived for 96 years. He came through his new ideology and began inviting people in 1143; however, he became famous in 1150 – it is recorded in "كشف الارتياب‏", page 3 and page 5. And in a separate book that an English spy, Mr. Hamfer has written and titled "The discussions", and then Doctor J, Kh has translated it into Arabic, makes it clear that the uprising of Muhammad bin abd-ul-Wahab was totally against Islam and had a close connection with the oppressive English. And in the page of 83 of the book, it is written that in 1143 Muhammad abd-ul-Wahab was determined to propagate his new opinion and belief, therefore, he gathered enough supporters and transferred his idea to them but too dull to make out his real purpose.
[17] "كشف الارتياب‏", from the page 133 to 137.
[18] The Encyclopedia of Deh-Khoda, the word ibn Yeimeiia, volume 1, page 297.
" رحله ابن بَطُوطَة", (Journey of ibn Battota), Dar-e-Sadir Printing, Dar-e- Beirut, 1384 Hijri, pages 95 and 96.
[20] " رحله ابن بَطُوطَة", (Journey of ibn Battota), page 96.
[21] It is the date when the event was printed, the Festival of Fitr, year 1403 Hijri the lunar year, therefore, fifteen years earlier is said to be 1388 Hijri the lunar year.

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