In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 72-75: The explanation and the comment of the verse of Guardian

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The explanation and the comment of the verse of Guardian

So far, whatever has been mentioned was about the occasions of revelation of the verse of the Guardianship, and we got to know that by the successive descending of the verses and the opinions of the great majority of the scholars the revelations concerned the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. Now, let’s see, in the point of the jurisprudent of the Qur’an, what are the relations of the verses with.

As it was already mentioned, the word ‘ولِى’ is the paradigm of ‘فعيل’, from the infinitive of the Guardianship. As Raghib Isfahani has put it in the “Dictionary of the Gur’an”: the word ‘الولاء’ with the vowel point, (zebra), over the letter ‘و’, as it is explained:

وَ التَّوَالِى أنْ يَحْصُلَ شَيْئآنِ فَصَاعِداً حُصُولًا لَيْسَ بَيْنَهُمَا مَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُمَا

توالي and ولِى are two or more things that nothing stands between them, they are only by their own.’ This is the true meaning of the Guardianship; the rest meanings of that, such as: victory, affection, friendship and interference and similar meanings are drawn from the main root, which are used while having the main sense within.

Therefore, the word Guardianship carries no more meanings with it; even if it is used in other terms, it really has the very meaning of Guardianship. Wherever there is no another word to give it another meaning, it saves the original meaning of it as the Guardian; however, if we want to draw another meaning out of it, we add attributes or explanation to the word.

This is the meaning of the Guardianship and any derivation word of it; as it is mentioned, it can also be used in different meanings such as: victory, affection, friendship and so on.

Raghib has said: when the word تَوَلِى’ by itself, and without any indicative letter becomes transitive, it also denotes the meaning of Guardianship, as: وَلَّيْتُ سَمْعِى كَذَا؛ وَ وَلَّيْتُ عَيْنى كَذَا، وَ وَلَّيْتُ وَجْهى كَذَا I noticed that with my eyes and ears when I turned my face towards it. Allah states:

فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَة تَرْضَاهَا[72]

‘… So We are to turn you [r face] to a Direction that will satisfy you.’

فَوَلِّ وَجْهِكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَام‏ [73]

‘… thus, turn your face toward the Sacred Mosque

وَ حَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَه‏ [74]

‘… And wherever you [Muslims] are, turn your faces toward it, (Qur’an: 2/144).

When the word ‘تولِى changes into transitive by means of the letter ‘عن’, whether it is spoken or printed, it means to reject, and keep afar. [75]

Now, it is understood that the meaning of ‘Guardianship’ is the very specific closeness, and the spiritual meaning of that is: there is a right for the Guardian that no one has it.

Therefore, that which one brings about changes in the conditions, a guardian can carry out it by his own authority – the guardian can fulfill it as the main person does, like the guardian for a corpse, because the inheritor is really a guardian. All that which the dead man could do during his life now the inheritor (the guardian) can do it behalf of him. This kind of guardian is known as ‘the guardianship of inheritance’.

And so is the minor inherence who has authority to do all the small affairs for the dead person.

And so is the victory guardian who is always ready to defend the battling affair.

And it is obvious that Allah, the Highest, if the Guardian of His creatures in the affairs of the world and the Hereafter; so is He the Guardian of the believers in their affairs of the religion, invitation, guiding them towards the perfection, bestowing them blessings, securing them against the problems. And so is the Messenger the Guardian of the people and on top the believers, but under the Guardianship of Allah and with His permission; the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, too has the permission of the Guardianship of Allah over the nation of the Messenger of Allah. Therefore, in the verse:

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا 

We must take the meaning of the Guardianship ass it is, and its meaning is bringing about changes in the condition, no matter what it is: physically or spiritually.

In the noble verse, the term of this Guardianship has been declared in singular form as: ‘your Guardianship’, but not ‘your Guardianships’, while the predicative is in plural form, as:

اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِين

It is because ‘guardianship’ is a single affair and is not in plural form, it is because the main Guardianship is in the Essence of Allah, the Omnipotent – it is use figuratively for the Messenger and the others.

And with the word ‘إِنَّمَا’, which is a restriction word, the fact refers specially for Allah, the Messenger of Allah and his rightful Caliphs, who have removed all the veils and there remains no veil between them and the Holiness Right.

And on base, the Guardianship is a unique affair; and the Guardianship of Allah, the Messenger of Allah and the donator bowing down to pray is the same Guardianship, and it has one interpretation. And a good proof for this meaning is the next verse that He states:

فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُون‏

That is, whoever accepts the Guardianship of Allah, and His Messenger, and also the Commander of the believers are all of the party of Allah. It is because they are all under the same Guardianship which is the unique affair and belongs to Allah – of course the party of Allah is always among those who prevail.

It must be known that:

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَوة وَ يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوة وَ هُمْ رَاكِعُون.‏

The meaning of this verse referred to Commander of the believers only at the time of the Messenger of Allah, but it was not that only to be used for that Holiness; that is the plural form is used in the singular meaning, but the purpose is the other way round. This kind of usage is very normal, and it is found in the speeches of the orators, and sometimes it is considered to be of a good literature. Of course, the usage of the plural form for the singular is not right, but the usage of plural in plural meaning, about a single person is not a problem. Absolutely the usage of the term of: وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا in the point of literature is the same plural form, but there is no more than a man in it and he is the Holy Being of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.

And the secret of the plural term might be that it wants to teach us that given this position to him is not without reason, but it is due to the attributes that Holiness possesses.

And secondly, in this point of view, the noble verse has kept its totality and included the twelve Imams: the rightful Caliphs of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and has brought them all under its dominion.

With these explanations that we have carried out, it becomes clear that the Shiite, in their commentaries, have explained the case clearly. And they have clarified that the revelation of the verse was for positions of the commander of the believers Ali bin Abī Tālib. And it has been said that this generous verse of the Qur’an is about the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers which is necessary for his Imamate.

However, the Sunnite, whose religion is against the Guardianship, though they have so many proofs and confessed the verses have been sent down for the sake of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, when translating this verse, everyone of them has gone his own way so that to wipe away the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers.

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The doubts of Fakhr Razi about the verse and the answers to them  

Fakhr Razi, in his commentary, has tried as much as he could to avoid the rights of the Commander of the believers, which is the very Imamate, however, as you will witness it his trial has changed into ‘alas’ and sighing! As it is clearly stated:[76]   ثُمَّ تَكُونُ حَسْرَة عَلَيْهِم ‘so it was naught but alas for them; the whole verse goes as:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُنْفِقُونَ أمْوَالَهُمْ لِيَصُدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَهِ فَسَيُنْفِقُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونَ عَلَيْهِم حَسْرَة ثُمَّ يُغْلَبُون.‏

‘… For sure, the disbelievers spend their wealth to bar [people] from the Path of Allah, thus they will go on spending it until regret will be their lot, (Qur’an: 8/36).

Here, the question is how can the movements of the flies cover the sun’s surface and stop the rays of it!

The most deprived [in life] is that bat

Who is the open enemy to sun – just that!

Now, we are to mention Fakhr Razi’s objections one by one, and then we will answer them properly so that you take into the consideration how much he was off the course!

1- He says: ‘As these two verses are between two groups of the verses that reject the Guardianships of the Jews and the Christians (of course, he takes the word ‘Guardian’ as ‘assisting and supporting) so the meaning of the Guardian in these two verses are ‘assisting and supporting’. And the first one of those verses is:

يَا أيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَ النَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَآءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَ مَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إنَّ اللَهَ لَا يَهْدِى الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِين.‏

 ‘… O you who believe! Do not take the Jews or Christians as [your reliable] friends; they are friends of each other. Any of you who makes friends with them, is one of them; surely Allah does not guide such wrongdoers, (Qur’an: 5/51).

And the second one goes as:

‘… O you who believe! Do not take friends from among those who make a jest and sport of your religion – either those who were given the Book before you, or the disbelievers – and fear Allah if you are [really] believers, (Qur’an: 5/57).

And according to these, the similarity of the styles prove that the meaning of the Guardianship in all these verses are the same, so in the verses of the ‘negative commands’ they cannot be translated as the assistant or supporting; nor can they be taken as the leaders and Imams in these verses.

The answer is that what for and with which reason do they take the meaning of the foregoing verse as ‘assisting and supporting’? This is a false claim and senseless utterance. In all verses, the word is used with its real meaning as the ‘Guardian’ which means a veil between two things.

In the verses of prohibition, Allah avoids us taking the Jews and the Christians as our Guardians and making friends with them, so do these mean in the other verses. Getting closer and making friends with them mean giving the authority to interfere in the affairs of the Muslims, while with great many witnesses and proofs in these verses we get to know that the meaning of the Guardian is not ‘assisting and supporting’ as they say. Because He states: بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ بَعْض‘… some of the disbelievers are like some others.’ Or He states: وَ مَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإنَّهُ مِنْهُم‘… and anyone of you who accepts their guardianship he is from them.’ It is obvious that the necessity of their accepting the Guardian in that way is asking help and assistant when they need to. However their looking for assist is something else; as it is stated:

وَ لَوْ قَاتَلَكُمُ الُّذينَ كَفَرُوا لَوَلَّوُا الْأدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُونَ وَلِيًّا وَ لَا نَصِيرًا.

‘… and if those who disbelieve fought against you, they would certainly turn their backs and they would not find any friend or supporter, (Qur’an: 48/22).

Here we see that He has assigned the Guardian as the participant of the assistant and has turned towards it through the inclination.

And in the verse of the Guardianship He assigns and clarifies that those of you who are not veils between you and them, and they are quite close to you, so that they have made unity with you is Allah, His Messenger and he who donated his ring while bowing down to pray. And the necessity of this kind of closeness, interference the affairs and relating them to life, is the Imamate and the leader as the Guardian but not something similar to the Guardian.’

2- He says: ‘the verse relates that at the time of the revelation of the verse the believers have the attributes of the Guardianship, therefore, if the Guardianship dominating, which is the very Imamate, its necessity is that, at the time of the revelation of the verse, Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, must have been an Imam, but as it is not so, and also according to the Shiite’s opinions, he was assigned as the Imam in the time of the Messenger, therefore, the word Guardianship in the verse must be translated as assistant or affection.’

The answer is that the Holiness was at the position of Guardianship even at the time of the Messenger of Allah; and we have mentioned that the meaning of the Guardianship is different from the Imamate. The Guardianship of the Holiness, after the Messenger of Allah, is his authority, looking after the people and governing the nation’s affairs.

3- He says: ‘Allah has assigned seven attributes for the believers in this verse, and those seven are: الَّذِينَ- آمَنوا- يُقِيمُون- يُؤْتُون- هُم – رَاكِعُون and the use of plural form with the singular meaning: though one can use them, it is much better to translate them in the way they appear in print.

The answer is that here, plural form is not used as the singular, but the plural form is used, as it is, in the plural form. Therefore, it carries the general meaning of the plural, and that plural form does not represent more than a single one, and he is none but Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace. And it is is not permissible in the first case but the second form. Our Master, the Holiness Al‘lāma Tabatabaee, may Allah be pleased with, has put it in ‘Al-Mizan Commentary’ and discussed on the whole matter.[77]

And many a time we notice it in the Holy Qur’an that any commend is always mentioned in the plural form, while it is generally singular. Similar to this verse:

الَّذِينَ قَالَ لَهُمُ النَّاسُ إنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ جَمَعُوا لَكُم.‏

‘… those, when to whom [some] people said, ‘your enemies have gathered to oppose you, (Qur’an: 3/173).

Here, the speaker النَّاسُthe people' refers only to one person who is Naeem bin Masoud Ashjaee.

And like the verse:

ثُمَّ أَفِيضُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاس.‏

‘…then, [after going to Mash‘ar al-Haram and remembering Allah,] set out [for the Land of Mina] from where the people are setting out, (Qur’an: 2/199).

 Here, the meaning of ‘the people’ is the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, alone.

And the verse:

الَّذِينَ قَالُوا لِإخْوَانِهِمْ وَ قَعَدُوا لَوْ أَطَاعُونَا مَا قُتِلُوا.  

‘… those who [remained at home and] said of their brothers: ‘If they had just listened to us, they would not have been killed, (Qur’an: 3/168).

The spokesman here is only Abdullah bin Abi bin Salol, the chief of the opponent in Medina.[78]

And we mentioned that in the verse:

يَا أيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذوا عَدُوِّى وَ عَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْليَآء.

O you who believe! Do not take My enemy and your own enemy for friends, (Qur’an: 60/1).

In this verse, the addressee is only Khatib bin Abi Bolta‘a who was spying for the people of Mecca.

And alike the verse:

الَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ بِالَّيْلِ وَ النَّهَارِ سِرّاً وَ عَلَانِيَة.

‘…those who spend their wealth, [in the way of Allah,] by night and day, privately or publicly, (Qur’an: 2/274).

The donators in this verse refers only to Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace.

And similar the verse:

وَ مِنهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ النَّبِىَّ وَ يَقُولُونَ هُوَ اذُنٌ قُلْ اذُنُ خَيرٍ لَكُم.‏[79]

‘…and some of them hurt the Messenger by saying: ‘He’s all ears!’ (And whatever they call him he accepts it) Say, ‘it is good for you that he is all ears, (Qur’an: 9/61).

In this verse, the speaker is only one person, he is one of the hypocrites called: Abdulla bin Nabtal. [80]

And it is surprising that among all the verses we have mentioned, there is only one plural verse that it really means plural, but almost all the commentators of the Sunnite believe that the speaker in that verse is only Abdullah bin Obay; the verse is:

فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَنْ تُصِيبَنَا دَآئِرَة. [81]

‘…yet [O Messenger] you see those, in whose hearts are diseases, race among them saying: ‘We fear lest a misfortune may strike us, (Qur’an: 5/52).

Then, how in here and in the next eleven verses have the words use in the plural forms:[82] الَّذِينَ- قُلُوبِهِمْ- يُسَارِعُونَ- فِيهِمْ- يَقُولُونَ- نَخْشَى- تُصِيبَنَا- فَيُصْبحُوا- أسَرُّوا- أنفُسِهِم- نَادِمِين but the main purpose was a single person? This is very common, but what about the verse of the Guardianship, is it unlawful to take it in the same way? Whereas, there are only two verses gap between this verse and the verse of Guardianship! And like the verse:

أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَى مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ.

‘…or are they jealous of the people whom Allah has bestowed out of His grace, (Qur’an: 4/54).

In the book of “Alghadir”, volume 1, page 372, it is written that ibn Moghazeli in “Managhib” and ibn Abi al-Hadid in “The Explanation of the Naj-ul-Balagha”, volume 2, page 236, and Hazrami Shami in “Rashfa”, page 27, have written that this verse has been specially sent for the position of Ali bin Abī Tālib only.

And in the volume 3, page 163-167, of “al-Ghadir”, Al‘lāma Amini have put twenty verses of the commentary documents of the Sunnite, which in all them he has brought them in plural form though the purpose is only one person.

In many verses of the Qur’an, the subject begins with the word: يَسئَلُونَك and then, the command is explained, however we know that the addresser is only one person; like the generous verse:

يَسْئَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُون‏

 ‘…they ask you what they should donate, (Qur’an: 2/215).

And like the verse:

يَسْئِلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأهِلَّة

‘…they ask you about the changes if moon’s phases [in the surface of the sky], (Qur’an: 2/189).

And like:

يَسْئَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَة أَيَّانَ مُرْسَاهَا

‘…they ask you when the hour of the Resurrection is set up, (Qur’an: 7/187 – 79/42).

And if it is said that, in these verses which are put in that way, in the past, there were some people whose opinions were allied with the questioner; or in their action they were in the same opinions with the doer. And Allah answers them in plural so that the plural form to include them. It must be said that the outcome of the subject is that: the use of these kinds of words in plural are permissible, and it is proved in the verse: إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُه and perhaps the secret to it is that: all kinds of the religious and spiritual generosities, as well the position of the Imamate that is in this verse, is something away from the actions of the believers, but it is their sincere thoughts – also perhaps it is for the other rightful Imams who gradually approach the position of the Imamate.

Apart from all these, we see that most of the relaters of these narratives are the companions of the Holiness Messenger and the followers that they use to live at that time of the companions, and naturally they were among the Arabs so they were quite acquainted with their language Arabic – neither their language was bad nor it has been changed. Therefore, if they did not approve this kind of usages in their language they would naturally not accept them; they were truly careful and avoided applying bad or weak words in their language. Even now we never see their mistakes in their writing or making doubts in choosing the narratives.

Zamakhshari, the master of literature, in “Kash‘shaf” says:

‘How can you tell me whether this verse is right; while it has been sent down for the position of Ali bin Abī Tālib but it is in plural form?’

Then, he says: ‘Yes, it has been brought in plural form; thought the aim of the revelation is only a single man. It is because people to have a relish for such a word and to come to hold high position to it – though it is the characteristic of the believers to respect all and always to be eager to take things as good and to be good; never being delayed in doing good even bowing down to pray.’ [83]

4- He says: ‘Ali bin Abī Tālib was more learned in the Qur’an than these extremist Shiites, and if this verse referred to his Imamate, then he would better reason at it in a session for the extremist Shiites cannot say that: he has not done it for the precautionary dissimulation, but they say: ‘On the Day of Council, he has discussed on the Ghadir Khum and reasoned at the discussion, and he has counted all his virtues and priorities, but as he has not referred to this point, we become certain that this verse is nothing to do with his Guardianship.’

But this utterance of the extremist Shiites is wrong – may Allah curse be upon them!

The answer is that: on the Day of Council, the Commander of the believers discussed on this verse, and in the presence of Sa‘d bin Abi Wagh‘ghas, Othman, Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf, Talha dn Zubeir, he took them for an oath to Allah and said:

 فَهَلْ فِيكُمْ أحَدٌ آتَى الزَّكَوة وَ هُوَ راكِعٌ فَنَزَلَتْ فِيهِ: «إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَوة وَ يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوة وَ هُمْ رَاكِعُونَ» غَيْرِى؟! قَالُوا: لا.   

‘Is there anyone among you to pay the due welfare tax (Zakat) while he is bowing down to pray, and then, this verse:

 إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَوة وَ يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوة وَ هُمْ رَاكِعُونَ

to be sent down for him, except me?’ All of them answered, ‘No.’

And we have already related this reasoning of the Holiness in this assembly on the Day of the Council; it was among the narratives No 16, from “Ghayat al-Maram”.[84] We also related it from Sheikh Tabarsi. [85]

And it was not only in the case of the Council but in the beginning of the usurpation of the Caliphate, when reasoning with Abu Bakr, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, referred to this verse and stated:

أَنْشُدُكَ بِاللَهِ أ لِىَ الْوَلَايَة مِنَ اللَهِ مَعَ وَلَايَة رَسُولِ اللَهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ فِى آيَة زَكَوة الْخَاتَمِ أمْ لَكَ؟! قَالَ: بَلْ لَك.‏

‘I take you for an oath to Allah that: is the Guardianship of the Messenger of Allah, in the verse of the ring donation, the Guardianship of Allah is yours or mine?’ Abu Bakr said: ‘It is but yours.’

And we already related this reasoning after the usurpation of the Caliphate, under No, 15 from “Ghayat al-Maram” from Sheikh Sadugh.[86]

We also related it from Sheikh Tabarsi from Ihtejaj. [87]

5- He says: ‘Suppose that this verse is related to the Imamate of Ali bin Abī Tālib, however we have come to the agreement with the Shiite on this affair that this verse had nothing to do with the Imamate of that Holiness in the first place it was revealing. It is because at the time of the Messenger of Allah Ali was not competent; therefore, we must consider that his Imamate was after the demise of the Messenger of Allah. So we accept it as it is, that is the Imamate of Ali was after the Imamate of Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman – Ali’s Imamate was not assigned before that time.

The answer is that this verse refers to the active Guardianship of the Holiness which the Imamate, possession and command is related to it, and when the Messenger of Allah passed away it was the necessity of the Guardianship.

6- He says: ‘A deserving one to the position of Ali, Upon Him be Peace, must be attentive to the remembrance of Allah, so how can one hearing the voice of a beggar to be attentive at his prayer and mentioning Allah?’

The answer is that the lack of hearing takes place at the position of being annihilated in Allah, not at the position of standing for Allah; and the position of the Holiness at that time was both: the annihilation and subsistence, and it is clear that the subsistence after annihilation superior.

7- They say: ‘Donating the ring while one is praying is common and every man’s action, but the position of Ali above doing such a thing.’

The answer is that: ‘It is not of every man’s action, and the action itself refers to the other good deeds at the time of prayer.’

8- They say: ‘It was known that Ali, Upon Him be Peace, was a poor man and he had not enough wealth to pay Zakat for.[88] And on this basis they say: ‘When he donated his own only three loaves of bread the ‘Chapter of هل اتي’ was revealed for his position, but this revelation was that he was a poor man and all his wealth was those three loaves of bread. However, if he had enough money to pay Zakat for, he would not deserve so much praise.

And above all, paying the Zakat is compulsory and an urgent thing to do, so how did he start his prayer before sorting out his necessary and urgent affairs?’

The answer to this question is that: ‘The donation of the ring was as the recommended act but not as the known obligatory Zakat which is customary in the religion – its command united with the Islamic laws and rules after the revelation of the Qur’an. Whenever, the name of Zakat is mentioned, it is taken is the command of Allah, like prayer and fast.

In many verses of the Qur’an we see that the previous messengers are encouraged to pay the Zakat. But it is obvious that at that time, the terms of Zakat was not in this way of us nor was it on nine this as: wheat, barley, raison, dates, gold, silver, cow, camel and sheep; yet if it was at the state liable to taxation and in a certain amount.

Therefore, Zakat means donating of one’s property for the sake of Allah.

Concerning the Holiness Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, Allah states:

وَ أَوْحَيْنَا إلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَ إقَامَ الصَّلَوة وَ إيتآءَ الزَّكَوة.

‘…and We inspired them to perform good deeds, and to establish prayer and pay the due welfare tax – and they kept worshipping Us, (Qur’an: 4/54).

And He states about the Holiness Ishmael:

  وَ كَانَ يَأمُرُ أهْلَهُ بِالصَّلوة وَ الزَّكَوة وَ كَانَ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيا.

‘…and he made his family pray and pay the due welfare tax and he was approved by his Lord, (Qur’an: 19/55).

And concerning the Holiness Jesus, while still in the cradle, He states:

وَ أَوْصَانِى بِالصَّلوة وَ الزَّكَوة مَا دُمْتُ حَيا.

‘…and enjoined me to pray and pay the due welfare tax as long as I live, (Qur’an: 19/31).

And also in many Meccan verses the term Zakat has been added, like: the noble verse:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن تَزَكَّى﴿14 وَ ذَكَرَ اسْمَ رَبِّهِ فَصَلَّى‏ ﴿15

‘…surely prosperous is he who purifies himself * and mentions the name of his Lord and prays, (Qur’an: 87/14-15).

And so is:

الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوة وَ هُمْ بِالْآخِرَة هُمْ كفِرُون.

‘…those who do not pay the due welfare tax, and disbelieve in the Hereafter, (Qur’an: 41/7).

وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَوة فَاعِلُون‏

‘…and those who are the payers of the poor-due, (Qur’an: 23/4).

And apart from these verses which are in the Meccan chapters, especially the chapters that had been revealed early in the beginning of the mission, like the chapter of حم سَجدة and the similar, and at that time the Zakat was not in its similar way as it is.

And we still do not know what these rejecters of the Guardianship and the verses concerning the Guardianship understand of the term of Zakat in these verses! Perhaps the term of Zakat in the Qur’an refers to ‘donation’; like:

خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَة تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَ تُزَكِّيهِمْ بِهَا وَ صَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ إنَّ صَلَواتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَهُم.‏

‘… [O Messenger!] Take alms out of their wealth in order to purify them by means of it; and pray for them – your prayers will mean relief for them, (Qur’an: 9/103).

This verse denotes that the term of Zakat, in common use, is a type of donation; it is used as ‘ZAKAT’ because it is the manifestation of pureness and the term of Zakat has gradually becomes common in use.[89]

9- They say: ‘We do not agree that the Guardianship in the verse not to be common, and neither we believe that the word ‘إنَّمَا’ to be restriction, because Allah states:

إنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْحَيوة الدُّنْيَا كَمَآءٍ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَآء. [90]

 ‘…in fact, the likeness of the present life is that of water We send down from the sky, (Qur’an: 10/24).


And there is no doubt that the life of this world had its own special exemplary; and also Allah states:

إنَّمَا الْحَيَوة الدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌ وَ لَهْو. [91]

‘…the worldly life is but a play and pastime, (Qur’an: 47/36).

And there is no doubt that sometimes this play and pastime appear in disguise. [92]

Answer: All the pioneers of the literature have made it clear that the word of ‘إنَّمَا’ is for restriction; it means ‘no, but otherwise’, for example the clause ‘و إنَّما زَيْدٌ كَريم’ means ‘مَا زَيدٌ إلّا كَرِيم’ Zeid is not but a generous.[93] Here the statement of Fakhr Razi is too far away from the fact, and as it is clear from his other statements, he has uttered it by ignorant – and how he has fallen back from the fact! And now, we refer to a single example of ‘إنَّما’ from the great Sheikh Abul Fotuh RAzi:

The verse is a very good reason for the Imamate of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and the verse if reasoning that: Allah, the Highest, has proved His Guardianship with the word إنَّما, and it is the proof of the One and negating the rest; as one may say: ‘إنَّمَا الْعَالِمُ فُلَانٌ’ that is: ‘هُوَ الْعَالِمُ لَا غَيْرُهُ’ and ‘إنَّمَا لَكَ عِندِى دِرْهَمٌ’ indeed you have one dirham with me, which means: ‘لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَىَّ إلَّا دِرْهَم’ you have not more that a dirham with me.

The poet says:

وَ لَسْتَ بِالْأكْثَرِ مِنْهُمْ حَصَى        وَ انَّمَا الْعِزَّة لِلْكَاثِر

It means that: whoever is a shatter has not honour. As He sates:

إنَّمَا اللَهُ إلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ

which means:

لَا إلَهَ إِلَّا اللَهُ الْوَاحِد [94]

Anyhow, we put the statement of Razi in here so that it becomes clear that how much the opponents of the school of the Shiite trying to deny the fact, no matter how much they may try but they will disgrace themselves at last. By their hopeless but continues cursing the extremist Shiites, which is the only weapon for the weakest they want to keep away the Shiite from the truth and fact!

On the other hand, they interpret and comment on the verses of the Guardianship for the benefit of the others of the common; but then again, they state and interpret all the verses that are about the enmity of the opponents of the Household other than what they are!

And we saw the interpretation of the verse ‘purification’ in volume three of ‘Knowing the Imam’[95] that how they want cunningly relate this the verse to the wives of the Messenger, and then, they object against one chapters which is clearly about the two wives of the Messenger ‘Asisha and Hfsa’ while their commentators agree the positions of two women, they want, by any means possible, to dignify them and present them to be pure and chaste.

Here, the state of the Commander of the believers, Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, who is oppressed, becomes quite clear that how they ignored that possessor of oceans of knowledge, the tolerant, patient and the virtuous man – they did the worst thing possible to him!

Right! This is the meaning of the mean world which is the carcass of the people of the world; the rightful government and Guardianship remains beyond the veil, and when he advert, he will surely turn apart the stomachs of these carcass-like figures. That Government is the government of knowledge; and, concerning him, the honest of the Household of Muhammad stated:

لِكُلِّ انَاسٍ فِى الْبَرِيَّة دَوْلَة      وَ دَوْلَتُنَا فِى آخِرِ الدَّهْرِ يَظْهَر.

For every tribe of the people, in each era, is a Rule and Lord

But our Master will come to sight at the end of this world!

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94[*] How beautifully the poet of the household, ibn Hallad Abdi has composed this poem in the 4th century:
كذا الذي قد ضمِن المدح له مِن ربِّهِ ربّ العلي قرآنه
فقوله وليّكم فاِنّما يخصّ فيها هو لا فلانه
ثلاثة الله و الرّسول و ال لذي تزكّي راكِعا برهانه
This is the one who is praised by his Lord Most High, the Lord of the Qur’an
The words of his are as your Guardian, for they are of his not from whom you know!
They are three: Allah, the Prophet and the one who purified his proof while bowing!
(Al-Ghadir, volume 4, page 161 - 162)


[72] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 144.
[73] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 144.
[74] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 144.
[75] "مفردات‏", printed in 1381, page 534.
[76] This sentence is a part of the verse 36 in chapter eight "انفال‏", and the whole verse goes as:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُنْفِقُونَ أمْوَالَهُمْ لِيَصُدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَهِ فَسَيُنْفِقُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونَ عَلَيْهِم حَسْرَة ثُمَّ يُغْلَبُون.

'Those who disbelieve‏ and spend their wealth just to deviate people from the right path of Allah, and try to block the way to reach Allah, they spend such means of them but in the end they lose hope and cry alas!' They have both loose their wealth and have not achieve their goal. We chose this verse as an example against those like Fakhr Razi who has enmity with the Shiite. Who do their most the distort the main meaning of the Household but in the end become hopeless; because as it is said: 'Clouds can never cover the sun forever.'
[77] "تفسير الميزان‏ ",volume 3, pages 224 and 225.
[78] " تفسير تبيان‏ ‏ ", Sheikh Tousi, volume 1, old printing, pages 547 and 548.
[79] "تفسير الميزان‏ ", volume 6, page 7.
[80] "تفسير الميزان‏ ", volume 9, page 337.
[81] "تفسير الميزان‏ ", volume 6, page 7.

[82] It is in the case that we take the terms "قلوبِهِم‏" and "انفسِهِم‏", which are noun governing the genitive and the noun in the genitive case, as a whole, otherwise they exceed thirteen cases.
[83] "تفسير كشّاف‏", in the comment of the verse of the Guardianship, the first press, in the publishing House of Sharghei'iah, volume 1, page 264.
[84] Page 239 of this book from غاية المرام of Skeikh Tousi, in the book of Aamali.

[85] Page 244 of this book from "احتجاج‏" of Tabarsi.

[86] The page of 239 of the same book from "غاية المرام‏" of Sheikh Sadough.

[87] The page of 244 of the same book from "احتجاج طبرسى‏ ‏".

[88] The explanation that Ali, upon him be peace, was a poor and beggar is an obvious hatred against him, because a beggar is said to someone that has nothing to run his life, or he is no power to work. Although the Holiness Ali had no riches, he had the power to work; he provided his livelihood by laboring and working hard. He not only accepted no donations in his lifetime, but the narratives prove that he freed more than a thousand slaves. He handed over to the charity his properties, water-wells, gardens and palms gardens for the sake of Allah. Who would hang a leathern ban on his shoulder and went door to door to the poor houses and delivered simple bread and dates to nourish them how can himself be a poor man! Yes, it can be said that he never saved any wealth for himself, but he donated whatever he earned soon after. So he is rich, and even too rich! But the poor Fakhr Razi did not know that being poor because of much donating, is the sign of being rich and needing nothing! However, this of of Ali innocence when he donates his ring to the beggar while bowing down to pray, however, the ignorant want to introduce him as a poor!

[89] Note: All kinds of ZAKATS are considered to be donation, and so is every donation the ZAKAT. As giving in the is purification, it is called ZAKAT, (the purification); in the process of time, the name of ZAKAT took the place of that obligatory donating in the charity (Sadagha).

[90] Surah 10, "یونس", Verse 24.

[91] Surah 47, "محمد", Verse 36.

[92] The Commentary of Fakhr Razi, the publication of "دار الطباعة العامرة", a set of 20-volumes, volume 3, pages 619- 622.

[93] The funniest thing is that this is the very witness that Fakhr Razi has already mentioned. Instead of the term "إنّما", the word "مَا" and " الا" are used, similar to the verse 32 in the chapter of 6, "An'aam": "وَ مَا هَذِهِ الحَيَوة الدُّنْيَا إلَّا لَهْو وَ لَعِب‏", and in the verse 64, the verse of 29, "the Spider": "وَ مَا الحَيَوة الدُّنْيَا إلَّا لَهْو وَ لَعِب‏", the life of this world is nothing except game and passion!

[94] "تفسير روح الجنان‏", Publication of Mozaf'fari, volume 2, page 176.

[95] Lessons 40-45.

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