In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 72-75: The Commentary of the Verses 55 & 56 of the surah "مائده"

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lesson 72 – 75: Commentary on the verse

 “إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.


The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:


إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ وَ مَنْ يَتَوَلَّ اللَهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَإنَّ حِزْبَ اللَهِ هُمْ الْغَالِبُون‏.

‘… Your protector is only Allah, and His Messenger and those who have believed, establish prayer, and, pay the due welfare tax when bowing down [to pray]. And anyone who takes Allah as his Master, and His Messenger and the believers for friends [is victorious]; for indeed the party of Allah is victori­ous, (Qur’an: 55/56).


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All that which the Shiite has announced so far, whether in their commentators or the relaters, or whatever they have brought in the books of virtues or the histories, is that: the Commander of the believers, Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, while bowing done to pray in the mosque, gave his ring to a poor who asked him for a help. And the Messenger of Allah was sitting in the mosque-home when Gabriel brought him this verse of the Guardianship. The Messenger of Allah started reading it when a group of people came in and sat close to the Messenger, then some asked: ‘Has anyone donated his ring in the middle of the prayer?’ The poor man who was sitting among them, answered, while showing the ring to the Messenger of Allah, said: ‘Yes, this is the ring which the man who was praying offered me, and I took away it from his finger.’ Then, the gathering raised their voices chanting, ‘Allah is the Greatest!’ In the mean time, the Messenger of Allah too began praising Allah for His appointing the position His Guardianship to go to the Commander of the believers after the Messenger of Allah.

Apart from the Shiite’s unanimous opinions, most of the Sunnite’s scholars have brought this event in their books. In the point of view of the authentic documents and the historical credit they consider it to be perfect. On the whole, any man of learned does not doubt that this verse is about the Guardianship of Ali bin Abī Tālib.[1]

And without any term and condition, this verse proves the absolute Guardianship and the Imamate of the Commander of the believers; and this is of the clearest verses of the Qur’an on this subject. It is because the verse has considered the Guardianship of the Holiness at the level of the Guardianship of Allah and His Messenger. And it becomes clear that the Guardianship is a unique affair mainly specified only for Allah and subordinately to the others. Here, it becomes obvious that that Holiness too, like the Messenger of Allah, had attained the highest degree – he had quenched his thirst from the unique spring of Unity of the Greatest Holiness; therefore, his genesis and the legislative dominion upon the people was due to his receiving his efficiency from the Essence of the Right and then, shining by His the most beautiful Names and Attributes.

Ibn Shahr Aashub says: the nation of Islam unanimously belives that this verse is about Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, and was sent down for him when he was at the state of bowing down and handed over his ring to the poor man, when praying in the mosque. In this respect, there are no differences among the commentators of the Qur’an. Tha’labi and Mawardi, Ghoshairi, Ghazwini, Razi, Nishabori, Falakki, Tousi and Tabari mention it in the commentaries; and also Saddi, Mojahid, Hassan A’mash, Otba bin Abi Hakim, Ghalib bin Abdullah, Gheis bin Rabi, Abaya Rabee, Abdullah bin Abbas and Abuza Ghaffari have related it in the same way.

And also ibn Bayyi, in his book “MA’RAFAT-al-OSOOL” has quoted of Abdullah bin Omar bin, Ali bin Abī Tālib. And Wahedi in his book “ASBAB NOZOL-al-KORAN” quoted it of Kalbi, from Salih, from ibn Abbas in the book “FAZAEEL-as-SAHABA” from Hamid Tawil from Anas, and Soleiman bin Ahmad in his “MO’JAM O’SAT” from Ammar, and Abu Bakr Beihaghi in the “MOGHANNAF” (MOSANNAF KH,L), and Muhammd Fattal in the book “TANWIR” and his book “RUZAH” from Abdullah bin Salam and Abu Salih and Sha’bi and Mojahid and Zarart bin A’yun from Muhammad bin Ali; and Natanzi in the book of KHASAEES from ibn Abbas, and Abanata from Falaki from Jabir Ansari, and Nasir Tamimi and ibn Abbas and Kalbi have all mentioned this narrative in different style but one meaning in the books.  

And in the book of “ASBAB-al-NOZOL”,it is related from Wahedi that:[2] Abdullah bin Salam went to the Messenger of Allah along with some of his tribe, and started complaining that their house were far away from the mosque, they also said that: ‘Our relatives who are Jews, by seeing that we had embraced the Islam, they rejected us. Now, they are not in the spoken mood with us, they never took companion with us and they do not marry our girls.’ After their complaining, there came down a verse.

And after the revelation of the verse, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, went to the mosque, there he met a beggar and asked him, “Has anyone given you anything?” He replied: ‘Yes, a ring made of silver,’ but, in some narratives it has been: gold.

The Messenger of Allah asked: “Who has given this ring to you?” When pointing to Ali, he replied: ‘That man, when he had bowed down in his prayer.’ [3]

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The narratives concerning the verse of Guardianship

In the commentary of Tha’labi, it is written that the beggar said:

اللَّهُمَ اشْهَدْ انِّى سَأَلْتُ فِى مَسْجِدِ رَسُولِ اللَهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْه وَ آله وَ سَلَّم وَ لَمْ يُعْطِنِى أحَدٌ شَيْئاً وَ كَانَ عَلِىٌّ عَليْه السّلام رَاكِعاً فَأوْمى بِخِنْصِرِهِ الْيُمْنَى فَأقْبَلَ السَّائِلُ حَتَّى أخَذَهُ مِنْ خِنْصِرِهِ، وَ ذَلِكَ بِعَيْنِ رَسُولِ اللَه صَلَّى الله عَلَيْه وَ آله وَ سَلَّم.‏[4]

‘O my Creator Lord! Please as a Witness that, in the Mosque of the Messenger I asked for some help but no one responded to my need, then, it was Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, bowing down to pray who offered me his ring on his right hand finger.’ At that moment the beggar went closer and while demonstrating his act he showed how he had received the ring.

Then, when the Messenger of Allah ended up his prayer, he raised his face to the heavens and said:

رَبِّ اشْرَحْ لِى صَدْرِى﴿25 وَ يَسِّرْ لى أمْرِى﴿26 وَ احْلُلْ عُقْدَة مِنْ لِسَانِى﴿27 يَفْقَهُوا قَوْلى﴿28 وَ اجْعَل لِى وَزِيراً مِنْ أهْلِى﴿29 هَارُونَ أخِى﴿30 اشْدُدْ بِهِ أزْرِىَ﴿31 وَ أشْرِكْهُ فِى أمْرِى﴿32

O my Lord! My brother, Moses implored you saying: ‘O my Creator! ‘Ease my breast for me!  Make my task easier for me,   and loosen a knot from my tongue [so that] they may understand my say. And grant me a helpmate from my own people – Aaron, my brother. Increase my strength by means of him and associate him with my affair, (Qur’an: 20/25-32).

Now, O my Lord! For the demand of Moses You sent him a Reading that says:

سَنَشُدُّ عَضُدَكَ بِأخِيكَ وَ نَجْعَلُ لَكُمَا سُلْطَاناً فَلَا يَصِلُونَ إلَيْكُمَا.

 “We will strengthen your arm by means of your brother and grant both of you authority so that, with [the help of] Our signs, they will not overtake you; you, and anyone who follows you, will win out, Qur’an: 28/35).”

اللَّهُمَّ وَ أنَا مُحَمَّدُ نَبِيُّكَ وَ صَفِيُّكَ! اللّهُمَّ اشْرَحْ لِى صَدْرِى، وَ يَسِّر لى أمْرِى، وَ اجْعَلْ لِى وَزِيراً منْ أهْلِى، عَلِيّاً، اشْدُدْ بِهِ ظَهْرِى.‏

‘O my Lord! And now this is Muhammad, Your Messenger and Your chosen one! O my Creator, do greaten my breast for me, and ease my affairs for me, and do assign a Minister for me from among of my offspring, preferably, Ali; and strengthen my back with his help.’

Abuzar says: ‘By Allah, the statement of the Messenger of Allah had not yet ended up when Gabriel came down by the permission of Allah and said: “O Muhammad, read!” The Messenger of Allah asked: ‘What should I read?’ Again Gabriel said: “Read:

إنَّمَا وَليُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذينَ ءامَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَوة و يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوة وَ هُمْ رَاكِعُون [5]

‘… Your protector is only Allah, and His Messenger and those who have believed, establish prayer, and, pay the due welfare tax when bowing down [to pray].’”

It is related by the Abu Ja‘far, Upon Him be Peace, that: ‘A group of the Jews embraced Islam and among them were Abdullah bin Salam, Osaid,  Th’albat, Benjamin and ibn Surya  who said: “O Messenger of Allah, Moses chose Joshua bin Noun as his Successor so who is your Successor; and who is the Governor-General after you?” To their question, the above verse revealed.

The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, commanded them to stand up, and they did, and all went to the mosque when a beggar was leaving the mosque. So the Messenger of Allah asked him: “O man! Has anyone given you anything?”

He answered: ‘Yes, this ring.’

The Holiness asked his who had given it to him.

The man, while pointing to Ali, said: ‘That man who is praying now.’

The Holiness asked him when he had given it to him.  The man answered when he was at the bow-down position.

فَكبَّرَ النَّبِىُّ وَ كَبَّرَ أهْلُ الْمَسْجِدِ، فَقَال صَلّى الله عَلَيْه و آله و سَلّم: عَلِىُّ بنُ أَبِى طَالِبٍ وَلِيُّكُمْ بَعْدِى! فَقَالُوا: رَضينَا بِاللَهِ رَبّاً وَ بِالْاسْلَامِ دِيناً وَ بِمُحَمَّدٍ نَبِيّاً وَ بِعَلّىٍ وَلِيّاً فَانْزَلَ اللَهُ تَعَالَى: «وَ مَنْ يَتَوَلَّ اللَهَ وَ رَسُولَهَ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَإنَّ حِزْبَ اللَهِ هُم الْغَالِبُون. [6]

So the Messenger of Allah chanted: ‘Allah is the Greatest,’ and he was followed by the gathering in the mosque and all chanted: ‘Allah is the Greatest.’ Then, the Messenger of Allah stated: “From now on, Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, is your Guardian.” They also said: ‘We are quite pleased to Have Allah as our Creator, Islam to be our religion, Muhammad as our Messenger and Ali as the Guardian of us;’ And then, Allah revealed this verse.

وَ مَنْ يَتَوَلَّ اللَهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَإنَّ حِزْبَ اللَهِ هُمْ الْغَالِبُون‏.

‘… and anyone who takes Allah as his Master, and His Messenger and the believers for friends [is victorious]; for indeed the party of Allah is victori­ous.’


Then, Shahr Aashub continues saying: ‘It is put in the book of Abu Bakr Shirazi that the poor man begged for something, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, drew his hand on his back so that the man to take the ring away from his finger. Therefore, the beggar did so and drew the ring off from his finger and began praising him for his donation. It was then, while Allah being proud of the Commander of the believers, He stated to the angels:

“O My angels, do you not witness how this slave of Mine act; his body is busy in the state of praying while his mind is always with me? He is giving away his belonging for the sake of Mine! I take you as the witnesses that I am pleased with him; so am I pleased with his offspring.” It was then Gabriel descended carrying this verse.

And it is put in the book of “MISBAH” that: this donation was on the twenty-fourth of DHI HAJJAH; and in the narration of Abuzar, it was at the time of Mid-day prayer – it is also related that event took place at the noon supererogatory prayer.

And it has been related in SADOUGH’s “Amali” of ibn Babwiiah that Omar bin al-Khattab had said: ‘I have donating almost forty rings while I was bowing down to pray so that to receive what Ali has been given, however all were in vain!’

It is related by Wahidi in “ASBABEN NOZOOL” that:

وَ مَنْ يَتَوَلَّ اللَهَ يعنى يُحِبُّ اللَهَ، وَ رَسُولَهُ؛ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يعنى عَلِيّا، فَإنَّ حِزْبَ اللَهِ يعنى شِيعَة اللَهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ وَ وَليِّهِ؛ وَ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ؛ يعنى هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ عَلَى جَمِيعِ الْعِبَاد.

Whoever undertakes the Guardianship of Allah, that means He likes him, so does He like His Messenger; and the meaning of ‘those who believe’ is Ali, and the meaning of ‘the party of Allah’ is the followers of Allah, the Messenger of Allah and the Guardian of Allah. And the meaning of ‘the prevailing’ is those who prevail over all creatures.’

So, in this verse, first Allah has initiated with His Own, then with the Messenger of Allah, and finally with His own Guardian – and He has begin the next verse in the same way.

And accurate calculation proves that the sentence: 

إنَّمَا وَليُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذينَ ءامَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَوة و يُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوة وَ هُمْ رَاكِعُون.‏

Is at the same level with the sentence:

مُحَمَّدٌ الْمُصْطَفَى رَسُولُ اللَهِ وَ بَعْدَهُ الْمُرْتَضَى عَلِىُّ بْنُ أَبِى طَالِبٍ وَ عِتْرَتُه.‏

The numerical alphabet of both is the same that is: “3580”. [7]

And it is related in “KAFI” from the Holiness Imam Bāqir, Upon Him be Peace, quoting his father, and his grandfather, Upon Him be Peace, that he has stated:

لَمَّا نَزَلَتْ إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ اجْتَمَعَ نَفَرٌ مِنْ أصْحَابِ رَسُولِ اللَهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيْه وَ آله وَ سَلَّم فِى مَسْجِدِ الْمَدِيْنَة وَ قَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ: مَا تَقُولُونَ فِى هَذِهِ الْآيَة!

قَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ: إنْ كَفَرْنَا بِهَذِهِ الْآيَة نَكْفُرْ بِسَائِرِهَا (كَفَرْنَا خ ل) وَ إنْ آمَنَّا فَإنَّ هَذَا ذُلٌّ حِينَ يُسَلَّطُ عَلَيْنَا عَلىُّ بْنُ أَبِى طَالِبٍ!

فَقَالُوا: نَعْلَمُ أنَّ مُحَمَّداً صَادِقٌ فِيمَا يَقُولُ؛ وَ لَكِنْ نَتَوَلَّاهُ وَ لَا نُطيعُ عَلَيّاً فِيمَا أمَرَنَا فَنَزَلَ: «يَعْرِفُونَ نِعْمَة اللَهَ ثُمَّ يُنْكِرُونَهَا» يَعْنِى وَلَايَة مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلِىٍّ خ ل) وَ أكْثَرُهُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ بِوَلَايَة عَلِى.‏ [8]

When the verse إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ was revealed, a few of the companions of the Messenger of Allah gathered in Media Mosque, and some of them asked the others what their opinions were about that verse.’

Some of them said: ‘If we disbelieve and reject this verse, it means we have disbelieved and rejected all the other verses! On the other hand, if we believe in this verse, then it is a means of our disgrace, and causes Ali bin Abī Tālib, to dominate us.’

And a bit later, they said: ‘We know that whatever Muhammad says is correct and proves his honesty, therefore we accept his Guardianship upon us, but we never ever will listen to Ali!’

At that moment this verse was revealed:

يَعْرِفُونَ نِعْمَة اللَهِ ثُمَّ يُنْكِرُونَهَا.

Although they know the Guardianship of Allah (‘s Messenger and Ali) but they rejects Ali’s Guardianship.’

And Ali bin Ja‘far has related it from Abu-al-Hassan Mosa-bin- Ja‘far, Upon Him be Peace, concerning Allah’s statement:

وَ اذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَة اسْجُدُوا لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إلَّا إبْلِيسَ

‘… and when We stated the angels: “Prostrate before Adam,” they [all] prostrated except for the Devil who refused

He has related that:                                                                                     

أوْحَى اللَهُ إلَيْهِ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ! إنِّى أمَرْتُ فَلَمْ اطَعْ فَلَا تَجْزَعْ أنْتَ إذَا أمَرْتَ فَلَمْ تُطَعْ فِى وَصِيِّك.‏

Allah sent down the revelation to His Messenger stating that: “O Muhammad! I commanded but was not obeyed, and you too do not despair concerning the Guardianship you announced but they did not take it serious.”

Therefore, according to this statement:

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ

‘…and those who have believed, establish prayer, and, pay the due welfare tax when bowing down [to pray],’ fulfills the Guardianship in a specific way for whom he has assigned him as our Guardian, and He wipes away the meaning of the Guardian from anyone else.

And the meaning of ‘وَليُّكُمُ’ is that being stable on your affairs, and his obeying to be compulsory to you; then when this meaning is proved his Imamate is also proved! Because no one has right to interfere into the affairs of the Imamate, and after the Messenger, his obedience is not essential, unless he is an Imam, and his chastity has been proved. Because when Allah made his obedience essential, as He has made His obedience as well the obedience of the Messenger essential, the command of obedience refers to him – and this is the reason for his chastity.

It is because if he is not innocent he may commit many ugly affairs and obscene, in that case it is not fair following him, then, the result will be that Allah has commanded to obscene. And as we know that Allah never commands to the ugliness, therefore, the command to his obedience is due to his chastity, and this verse is the proof of chastity.

And proof of the term of Guardian in this verse conveying  the meaning of the Guardianship is the statement that “MOBARRA” has put in his book “The Phrases on the Attributes of Allah”, where he says: ‘إنَّ الْوَلِىَّ هُوَ الْأوْلَى ’, the Guardian is one who is in the highest position to deal with the affairs.

And the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, has stated:

أيُّمَا امْرَأة نَكَحَتْ بِغَيْرِ إذْنِ وَلِيِّهَا.

 ‘Any woman who marries without her guardian is the same.’ And of this category is ‘the guardian foe the blood money,’ and’ فُلَانٌ وَلِىُّ أمْرِ الرَّعِيَّة’ an unknown is the guardian of the tribe.

وَ نِعْمَ وَلِىُّ الْأمْرِ بَعْدَ وَلِيِّهِ             وَ مُنْتَجَعُ التَّقْوَى وَ نِعْمَ الْمُؤَدِّب‏ [9]

‘And how nice Guardian is he after so nicer Guardian

And how pure and pious Leader is, and adviser Guardian!

Therefore, at this state, the fastidious’ question must be taken serous.

And the verse singles out some of those believers who have paid ZAKAT, and put away those who have not paid; on the other hand, it considers their paying the ZAKAT in the state of bowing down in their prayers. This has not occurred to all believers, and also as the position of the Guardian is specified to the people other than mentioned in the verse, rejects it; because it is mentioned with the term of ‘أيُّمَا’ and the process of paying ZAKAT has not happened by anyone but Ali bin Abī Tālib, and not one has claimed it; so it become quite clear that the Guardianship is specified only for Ali.

Concerning this event, there are successive narratives by the Shiite, and they are apparent to the opponents while are benefitted.

But, the question is that why the event of the Guardianship of that Holiness has been mentioned in the plural form in the Holy Verse, and has been continued with pronoun ‘الَّذِينَ’, while the Holiness is single, not plural! The answer if: it is similar to the plural statements addressing the single person in the Qur’an; as the noble verse:

الَّذِينَ قَالَ لَهُمُ النَّاسُ إنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ جَمَعُوا لَكُمْ فَاخْشَوْهُم.‏   

‘… those, when to whom [some] people said, ‘Your enemies have gathered to oppose you, (Qur’an: 3/173);’ in this verse, the word, ‘people’ refers to (Naeem bin Masood Ashjaee).

And also the verse the noble verse of:

إنَّ الَّذِينَ يُنَادُونَكَ مِنْ وَرَاءِ الْحُجُرَات.‏

‘… surely most of those who call you from outside your [residential] chambers, (Qur’an: 3/173).

Here, ‘الَّذِينَ’is used for (Thabit bin Ghais bin Shimas).

And the verse:

يَقُولُونَ لَئنْ رَجَعْنَا إلَى الْمَدِينَة لَيُخْرِجَنَّ الْأعَزُّ مِنْهَا الْأذَل.‏

‘… They say, ‘If we return to Medina, the mighty will surely expel the lower’, (Qur’an: 63/8).

In this verse, those who say stands for Abdullah bin Abi bin Sloul.

Apart from all those explanations, the term ‘إنَّ الَّذِينَ آمنوا is not applied for all because it is specified for the prayer and donating ZAKAT at the state of bowing down to pray. [10]

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The Islamic elegies of the poets since the beginning of the Islam concerning the ring-given in the charity

Concerning the Commander of the believers’ donating a ring, the great poets of Islam have composed numerous poems  that how he offered his ring to the poor man. Here, we are to bring a piece put in the ‘Manaqib’ of ibn Shahr Aashub; Khozaimat bin Thabit [11] says:

1. فَدَيْتُ عَلِيّاً إمامَ الْوَرَى                   سِرَاجَ الْبَرِيَّة مَأْوى التُّقَى

2. وَصَىَّ الرَّسُولِ وَ زَوْجَ الْبَتُولِ             إمامَ الْبَرِيَّة شَمْسَ الضُّحَى

3. تَصَدَّقَ خَاتَمَهُ رَاكِعاً                      فَأحْسِنْ بِفِعْلٍ أمَامَ الْوَرَى

4. فَفَضَّلَهُ اللَهُ رَبُّ الْعِبَادِ                  وَ أنْزَلَ فِى شَأْنِهِ هَلْ اتَى

1- May I be made sacrificed to Ali, who is the Imam of the creatures; he is the illuminating light of the people so is he the shelter for the pious.

2- He is the Successor of the Messenger of Allah, the spouse of BATOOL AZRA, and the Imam of all the people; and he is the shining sun of the mid-day.

3- It is he who donated his ring while bowing down in his prayer, so how nice is this action in front of the people of the word.

4- Thus, it was on this basis that the Creator of slaves honoured him blessing, and sent down the chapter of ‘هل اتي’ for his honour.   

And Khozaimat says:

1. ‏ أبَا حَسَنٍ تَفْدِيكَ نَفْسِى وَ اسْرَتى             وَ كُلُّ بَطيى‏ءٍ فِى الْهُدَى وَ مُسَارِعِ

2. أ يَذْهَبُ مَدْحٌ مِنْ مُحِبِّكَ ضَايِعاً                وَ مَا الْمَدْحُ فِى جَنْبِ الْإلَهِ بِضَايِعِ

3. فَأنْتَ الَّذِى أعْطَيْتَ إذْ كُنْتَ رَاكِعاً            عَلِىُّ فَدَتْكَ النَّفْسُ يَا خَيْرَ رَاكِعِ

4. فَأنْزَلَ فِيكَ اللَهُ خَيْرَ وَلَايَة                     وَ بَيَّنَهَا فِى مُحْكَمَاتِ الشَّرَايِعِ

1- O Aba al-Hassan! May I, as well as my tribe, be made sacrificed to you, as well as those who take steps in the way of guidance whether slow or fast!

2- Does panegyrize of your friends and lovers fall into oblivion, while never any panegyrize said for Allah is forgotten!

3- You are the same man who gave away in the middle of prayer! O Ali, may I be made sacrificed to you, the best of prayer!

4- And it was why Allah sent down for you the best position and the state of the Guardianship, and He stated of the laws and commands of the religion in the decisive verses.

And as it is put in the poetical works of Hemiary, Hisan bin Sabit [12] says:

1. عَلِىٌّ أمِيرُ المؤمِنينَ أخُو الْهُدَى             وَ أفْضَلُ ذِى نَعْلٍ وَ مَنْ كَانَ حَافِيَا

2. وَ أوَّلُ مَنْ أدَّى الزَّكَوة بِكَفِّهِ                 وَ أوَّلُ مَنْ صَلَّى وَ مَنْ صَامَ طَاويَا

3. فَلَمَّا أتَاهُ سَائِلٌ مَدَّ كَفَّهِ                      إلَيْهِ وَ لَمْ يَبْخَلْ وَ لَمْ يَكُ جَافِيَا

4. فَدَسَّ إلَيْهِ خَاتَماً وَ هُوَ رَاكِعٌ                 وَ مَا زَالَ اوَّاهاً إلَى الْخَيرِ داعِيَا

5. فَبَشَّرَ جِبْرِيلُ النَّبِىَّ مُحَمّداً                   بِذَلِكَ وَ جَاء الْوَحْىُ فِى ذَاكَ ضَاحِيَا

1- Ali is the Commander of the believers, he is an assistant brother and guide, he is the most virtuous of the creatures – whether for those on run or those who were walking barefoot.

2- He is the first man, who paid the ZAKAT voluntarily, and he is the first man who prayed; and he deliberately went on fasting with the empty stomach.

3- And when the beggar got closer to him, he drew out his hand to him – he was not sparing, nor did he oppress.

4- He gave the ring to the beggar in secret while bowing down to pray; he always was in crying mood in front of Allah, and he always invited to good and goodness.

5- And it was why Gabriel brought a good news to Muhammad, and there revealed a verse on this occasion of the ring – it was so vivid and crystal clear.

And the post of the Household, Hemiary [13] says:

1. مَنْ كَانَ أوَّلَ مَنْ تَصَدَّقَ رَاكِعاً             يَوْماً بِخَاتَمِهِ وَ كَانَ مُشِيرَا

2. مَنْ ذَاكَ قَوْلُ اللَهِ إنَّ وَلِيَّكُمْ                بَعْدَ الرَّسُولِ لِيُعْلِمَ الْجُمْهُورَا

1- Who is the first man who, by drawing his hand to beggar, donated his ring to him when he was bowing down to pray?

2- Who is that man concerning him the statement of was revealed announcing: He was, after the Messenger, their Guardian of the people and to reach the news to the people?

And also Hemiary says:

1. نَفْسِى الفِدَاءُ لِرَاكِعٍ مُتَصَدِّقِ             يَوْماً بِخَاتَمِهِ فَآبَ سَعِيدَا

2. أعْنِى الْمُوَحَّدَ قَبَلْ كُلِّ مُوَحِّدٍ             لَا عَابِداً صَنَماً وَ لَا جُلْمُودَا

3. أعْنِى الَّذِى نَصَرَ النَّبِىَّ مُحَمّداً            وَ وَقَاهُ كَيْدَ مَعَاشِرٍ وَ مَكِيدَا

4. سَبَقَ الْأنَامَ إلَى الْفَضَائِلِ كُلِّهَا            سَبْقَ الْجَوَادِ إلَى الرِّهَانِ بَلِيدَا

1- May I be made sacrificed to that donator who, once, when bowing down to pray, gave away his ring and became prosperous and victorious.

2- I mean the very pious who was pious prior to all the pious, and never ever worshipped any stone or idols!

3- I mean the same one who assisted Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, and he saved him against the deceit and seditions of the people and the parties.

4- He anticipated all people in pieties; like a swift jockey who outreaches the other loose riders in a competition.   

And also Hemiary says:

1. مَنْ أنْزَلَ الرَّحْمَنُ فِيهِمْ   هَلْ  أتَى           لَمَّا تَحُدُّوا لِلنُّذُورِ وَفَاءَا

2. مَنْ خَمْسَة جِبْرِيلُ سَادِسُهُم وَ قَدْ           مَدَّ النَّبِىُّ عَلَى الْجَمِيعِ عَبَاءَا

3. مَنْ   ذَا بِخَاتَمِهِ   تَصَدَّقَ   رَاكِعاً           فَأثَابَهُ ذُو الْعَرْشِ مِنْهُ وَلاءَا

1- Who are those for whom Allah sent the verse of ‘HAL ATA’, who to fulfill their vows, paid out their shares in time?

2- Who are those five that Gabriel is the sixth of them, and the Messenger spread his mantle over them?

3- Who is he who gave away his ring while bowing down to pray? And for that reason Allah, the Owner of Lofty Firmament, gave him His Own Guardianship!

And Sayyid Razi [14] says:

1. وَ مَنْ سَمِحَتْ بِخَاتَمِهِ يَمِينٌ             تَضِنُّ بِكُلِّ عَالِيَة الْكِعَابِ

2. أهَذَا الْبَدْرُ يُكْسَفُ بِالدَّيَاجِى             وَ هَذَا الشَّمْسُ تُطْمَسُ بِالضُّبَابِ

1- And he is the same one that his generous hands gave away the ring – the very hands that have preference over every noble and the pious one.

2- Shall ever such a full moon been veiled behind the darkness? And shall ever such shining sun that brightens the whole world been wade away and loses it light?

And the poet of the Household, “Debal Khozaee” says: [15]

1. نَطَقَ الْقُرْآنُ بِفَضْلِ  آل مُحَمِّدٍ             وَ وَلَايَة لِعَلِيِّهِ لَمْ تُجْحدِ

2. بِوَلَايَة الْمُخْتارِ  مِنْ  خَيْرِ الَّذِى             بَعْدَ النَّبِىِّ الصَّادِقِ الْمُتَوَدِّدِ

3. إذْ جَاءَهُ الْمِسْكِينُ حَالَ صَلَوتِهِ             فَامْتَدَّ طَوْعاً بِالذِّرَاعِ وَ بِالْيَدِ

4. فَتَنَاوَلَ  الْمِسْكِينُ  مِنْهُ  خَاتَماً             هَبَطَ الْكَرِيمُ الْأجْوَدِىُّ الْأجْوَد

5. فَاخْتَصَّهُ   الرَّحْمَنُ  فِى  تَنْزِيلِهِ             مَنْ حَازَ مِثْلَ فِخَارِهِ فَلْيُعْدَدِ

6. إنَّ   الْإلَهَ   وَلِيُّكُمْ    وَ رَسُولَه             وَ الْمُؤمِنينَ فَمَنْ يَشَأْ فَلْيَجْحَدِ

7. يَكُنِ الْإلَهُ خَصِيمَهُ  فِيها  غَداً             وَ اللَهُ لَيْسَ بِمُخْلِفٍ فِى الْمَوْعِدِ

1- The Generous Qur’an said about the virtuous of the Household of Muhammad; and the Guardianship of Ali it assigned is not deniable.

2- To that selected and chosen Guardianship that after the great trustworthy one was the best of men.

3- At that moment when he was praying an abject man came to him and he willingly drew out his hand towards him.

4- Right then, the poor man took the ring away from his finger and in the mean time, Gabriel, the most honourable of the honourable, came down.

5- And Allah, the most Compassionate, in His Qur’an and Revelation, specified the title of the Guardianship to him. Let anyone, apart from him, raise his voice if he has got such a rank; let him say who they are and how many are they?

6- In fact, your Guardian is Allah, and the Messenger of Allah and the believers, so let him deny who wants to deny.

7- Off course, in that case, Allah will stand as he opponent on the Day of Resurrection, and Allah does not break His promise. 

And Sahib bin Abbad [16] says:

1. ألَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أنَّ الْوَصِىَّ هُوَ الَّذِى             آتَى الزَّكَوة وَ كَانَ فِى الْمِحْرَابِ

2. ألَمْ تَعْلَمُوا أنَّ الْوَصِىَّ هُوَ الَّذِى             حُكْمُ الْغَدِيرِ لَهُ عَلَى الْاصْحَابِ

Do you not know that the Successor of the Messenger of Allah is he who donated charity in the altar of worshipping?

Do you not know that the Successor of the Messenger of Allah is he that for his sake the command of Ghadir was carried out to all the companions?

And some of men of letters say:

1. لَيْسَ كَالْمُصْطَفَى وَ لَا كَعَلِىٍّ          سَيِّدُ الْأوْصِيَاءِ مَنْ يَدَّعِيهِ

2. مَنْ يُوَالِى غَيْرَ الْإمَامِ عَلِىٍّ             رَغْبَة مِنْهُ فَالتُّرَابُ بِفيهِ

3. هَذِهِ إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ                   أتَتْ بِالْوَلَايَة مِنَ اللَهِ فِيهِ

4. فَإذَا مَا اقْتَضَى بِهِ اللَّفْظُ مَعْنىَ        الْجَمْعِ كَانَتْ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ لِبَنِيهِ [17]

1- No man is similar to MOSRAFA, and nor is one alike MORTAZA ALI; he is the Master of all the Successors, and who is to claim it except he himself?

2- Whoever takes a Guardian for him apart from the Imam Ali and keeps away from him, so let dust cover his face!

3- This Guardianship is the very Guardianship that the statement of: ‘إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ الله’has been sent down by Allah for his sake.

4- So if the plural form of ‘الَّذِين is not necessary for the single noun ‘Ali’, then it is used for his children.

These are some of the subjects that we brought here for you from ‘MANAQIB’, and Sayyid Hashim Bahrani says: Ibn Shahr Aashub, in the book of “FAZAEEL” has said clearly about the imminent Guardianship of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace,إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا’ that:

اجْتَمَعَتِ الْامَّة أنَّ هَذِهِ الْآيَة نَزَلَتْ فِى أميرَ الْمُؤْمِنينَ عَليْه السّلام.‏ [18]

All the Islamic nations have unanimous opinions that this verse is about the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.

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[1] Al‘lāma Ayatullah Sayyid Sharaf ad-Din Aamoli relates it in his book “Al-Morajeat”, dating 15355, page 28, concerning the reasoning the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, by referring to the foregoing noble verse:

 اجمع المفسِّرون كما اعترف بِهِ القوشجي، و هو مِن اءمةِ الاشاعرةِ، في مبحث الاِمامة مِن شرح التجريد علي ان هذهِ الاية اِنّما نزلت في عليّ حين تصدق راكِعا في الصلوة. واخرج النّسايي في صحيحة نزولها في علي عن عبدالله بن سلام. و اخرج نزولها فيه ايضا صاحِب "الجمع بين الصحاح السّتةِ" في تفسير سورةِ الماءدة. واخرج الثعلبي في تفسيرِه الكبيرِ نزولها في آمير المومنين كما سنوضحه عند ايرادها

[2] In " ینابیع المودّة ", Sheikh Soleiman Ghandouzi Hanafi has said that: 'Wahidi has related that the verse "إنَّما وَلِيُّكُم اللَهِ " has been sent down for the position of the Commander of the believers, (printed in Istanbul, in 1301, page 212, and from the seventh publication of Najaf , page 251, section 56). As well as Yahia bin Jabir Blazari in "أنساب الاشراف‏", volume 2, which is in the translation of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, page 150, narrative 151, from Hammad bin Salema, who has quoted Kalbi, and he ibn Abbas. And similarly Ali bin Hassan bin Habbat-ul-lahshafiee, known as ibn Asakar in the History of Damascus , in volume 2, of the translation of the Commander of the believers, from the printed volume, pages 409-410.

It is by two documents from Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, and Salema. And so has Hakim Haskani related it in "شواهد التنزيل‏", from the page 161 to 169, by means of fourteen documents under the title numbered 216-230 from ibn Abbas and Anas bin Malik, Muhammad bin Hanafeiia, Ata' bin Saeeb, Abd-ul-Malik bin Jarih Makki, and the Holiness Imam Abi Ja'far Muhammad baqir, upon him be peace. And still more, Mula Ali Mottaqi Hindi in "كنز العمّال‏", volume 15, page 95, from the second printing, under the number 269; and also Ali bin Muhammad Waseti Jollabi Shafiee, known as ibn Moghazeli in his "مناقب‏", from page 311 to 314by means of five different documents of hisfrom the Sunnite, 354-358 from ibn Abbas, and the Holiness Commander of the believers and the Holiness Imam Baqir, upon them be peace. And it has been related in " غاية المرام", page 105, narrative 11, from Mowaffagh bin Ahmad Kharazmi, and he has brought, in the last part, the Messenger's 'Proclaiming His Greatness' and the legesy of Hissan bin Sabit. Also Majlisi has related it in "بحار ", printed by Kompany, volume 9, page 34 from "كشف اليقين‏", from Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari by means of his chain documents from Saeed bin Jabir from ibn Abbas, and in the page 35 from the commentary of Ayyashi, from Abu Hamzeh Thomali, quoting the Holiness Imam Baqir, upon him be peace.

[3] In the same way, Sheikh Tousi in "تفسير تبيان‏", volume 1, page 564 has related it from Kalbi, who had embraced Islam through Abdullah bin Salam and his friends and then the Jews had cut their connections with him. They kept Ali's side and then the Sheikh said that: Abu Bakr Razi has said in the Book of "احكام القرآن‏" that Ali Mahaka al-Maghrebi Tabari, Rammani, Mojahid and Sodai have related it in their books it was only the position of Ali that he gave away his ring to the questioner at the prayer time, and this verse was only revealed for his status.

And in "مجمع البيان" Seida's printing, volume 2, pages 210 and 211, has related it from Abu-al-Ghasim Haskani . Also in "غاية المرام‏", page 205 narrative 11, has quoted Mowaffagh bin Ahmad Kharazmi saying the same. Still more, in "تفسير الميزان ", volume 6, page 23, has related it from Hafiz Abu Naeem Isfahani.

[4]  Jalal-ad-Din Siy:ti has related this narrative in this way in " الدر المنثور ", volume 2, pages 293 and 204; he has extracted it from ibn Mardoweiiah quoting Kalbi and from Abu Salih ibn Abbas; and it has been followed that: the Messenger of Allah said to the same beggar: In what state did he give you [the ring]? He answered: 'He gave it to me while bowing down to pray – that man was Ali bin Abī Tāli:

فَكَبَّر رسولُ اللَهِ صَلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم و هو يقول: وَ مَنْ يَتَوَلَّ اللَهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ ءامَنُوا فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَهِ هُمُ الغَالِبُون

This narrative has also been related by means of eight different documents in " الدر المنثور " from Khatib, ibn Abbas, from Abd-ur-Razzaq, Abd bin Hamid, ibn Jorair abu al-Sheikh, and ibn Mardoweiia from ibn Abbas. Also from Tabrani in " معجم أوسط", and ibn Mardoweiia from Ammar Yasir, and from abu ash-Sheikh and ibn Mardoweiia from Ali, quoting abu Hatam and abu ash-Sheikh, and ibn Asakar from Salema bin Kahil, and from ibn Jarir quoting Mojahid, he too quoting Tabrani, and ibn Mardoweiia quoting abu Naeem, he too is quoting abu Rafi, ibn Mardoweeia quoting ibn Abbas.
[5] Majlisi has related this narrative in his Commentary "بحار الانوار ", Kompany's printing, volume 9, page 36, has extracted it from "مناقب" and" كشف اليقين‏". At the top of the starting page, he says that: When ibn Abbas was sitting by the Zam-zam Well in Mecca and was re-preaching the people the statements of the messenger of Allah, Abuzar got closer to him, after introducing himself to the gathering, he took the lead to lecture.
Now, we are relating the whole narrative from "غاية المرام‏"; so has Fakhr Razi done in his Commentary: "تفسير فخر" (The Commentary of Fakhr), volume 3, page 618, from the 8-volumes-series, printed in "دار الطِّباعة العامرة" 'Dar-at-Taba'at al-Aamira.

[6] Majlisi has related this narrative from "أمالى‏" of Sadough in his " بحار الانوار", printed by Kompany, volume 9, page 33, and the rest includes: It has been related from Omar bin al-Khattab that: By Allah, I have given away forty rings in the middle of my prayer when bowing down to pray; I did so to receive what Ali bin Abī Tālib had received, however I did not succeed! Also Sayyid Hashim Bahrani has related it in "غاية المرام ", page 107 under the narrative six by the Sunnite, and he has continued it to end of the narrative. Sheikh Tousi has also argued it and confirmed it in " تفسير تبيان‏", volume 1, page 548: to the question of the Messenger of Allah to the beggar and and chant of Allah is the greatest of the Holiness. Also Bahrani in "تفسير برهان‏ ", volume 1, page 293, and Al‘lāma, the late miraculous sign of Allah, Taba‘tabaee, may he receive Allah's paradise in "تفسير الميزان ", volume 6, page 14 has related it.

[7] This calculation is based on the Chief Numerical Alphabet that starts from the first number, 1, and ends at the number '1000', apart from ibn Shahr Aashub, who has brought this formula, we too calculated it and was right and both sentences matched with the numbers.
[8] This narrative has been related by Muhammad bin Ya‘qūb Kolaini in "غاية المرام ", page 107, under section 2.
[9] This line is by (كُميت‏) in the Commentary of Abu-al-Fotoh "أبو الفتوح‏", printed by Mozaffari, volume 2, page 176.
[10] Ibn Share-Ashoob, "مناقب", the section of "النُّصوص على امامته عليه السّلام‏" , volume 1, first section, pages 514-517.
[11] Khozaima bin Sabit Ansari Dhu-Shahadatain was one of the greatest companions of the Messenger of Allah, and like Mighdad, Jabir Ansari and Abu-al-Heitham under the guardianship of the Commander of the believers, he was ready at the Battle of Jamal and Siffin. As it is recorded in the ' رجال كَشّى‏ ' " رجال كَشّى‏", Bumbay's printing, page 35: in the Battle of Siffin, after Ammar Yasir was martyred, he went into his tent, gave him the funeral ablusion, and then turn to the Battle Field and started fighting until he was martyred. It has also been related by his grand son, Muhammad bin Ammar bin Khozaima that: he said: My grandfather was generally armed in the Battle Field of Jamal and Siffin, and when Ammar was killed, he unsheathed his sword and said: 'I have heard from the Messenger of Allah that an aggressive tribe has killed him, and then he fought and fought until he was martyred.
[12] Hisan bin Sabit Ansary was a well-known poet of the Household of the Messenger and concerning him, the Holiness Messenger of Allah said: " لَا تَزَالُ مَؤيَّداً بِرُوحِ القُدُسِ مَا دُمْتَ نَاصِرَنَا", you are confirmed with the Holy Spirit so far as you are supporting us! Hisan composed the famous Elegy of Ghadir-e-Khum, he has also many other elegies; but he was a timid man , and Jazari has an interesting story about him in the battle Khandagh. Anyhow, he cut off his relationship with the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, and joined to Othman. Then, it was revealed what the secret was about the supplication of the Messenger for him! Thus, he was condemned by his poem saying: "وَ كُنْ لِلَّذِى عَادَى عَليًّا مُعَادِيَا" 'O Allah! Be opponent to those who are the enemy of Ali!' (A brief explanation from "قاموس الرّجال‏", volume 3, pages 117-120.
[14] Razi is the same Noble Sayyid Razi, who is the lineage of Abu-al-Hassan Muhammad bin Musa bin Muhammad bin Musa bin Ibrahim bin al-Imam Musa bin Ja'far, upon his be peace, and he is brother of Sayyid Mortaza; Sayyid Razi is of the greatest of the literatures and the compiler of "Nahj-ul-Balagha", and he died at the age of 47 in 407 after Immegration, (Al-Konai and Alghab, printed by Saida, volume 2, page 244). 
[15] It has been said in the ' رجال كَشّى‏'"Men Murdering", Bumbay's printing, pages 313-314 that: De'bal was at the time of the Holiness Imam Reza, upon him be peace, and he composed some elegies concerning the virtues and priorities , rights and the respects of them, then, he went to the Holiness Imam Reza and said: 'I have decided not to read this to anyone but first for you. So when he read the poem to the Holiness, he gave him six hundred Dinars wrapped up in a peace of fur; he also gave a nice garment of his to him, the story of the garment too lengthy, refer to the main book of the " رجال كَشّى‏ ".
Sahib died in 385 of Hijri and they took his corpse from Rey to Isfahan; and one of those who composed lamentations over his death was Sayyid Razi, the compiler of Nahj-ul-Balagha, and the beginning of the composition is:

أَكَذَا  المَنُونُ   يَقْطُرُ   الْأبْطَالَا             أكَذَا الزَّمَانُ تُضَعْضِعُ الْاجْبَالَا

أَكَذَا تُصَابُ الْأُسْدُ وَ هِىَ مُذِلَّة             تَحْمِى الشُبُولَ وَ تَمْنَعُ الْأغْيالَا

And he ends it as:

 وَ أقِمْ عَلَى بأْس فَقَدْ ذَهَب الَّذى          كَانَ الْأَنامُ عَلَى مُدَاهُ عَيَالا

Is the death like this that it overthrows the world’s bravest men on the ground?

Is the time as it is; to shake the mountains?

Do the most courageous men face such losses? Those courageous men who, like the lions, protected their cubs against the woods feasts?

Now, it is time you were ready to face the entanglement and hardship because those who were nourishing at His tablecloth have all passed away.

[17] " مناقب", ibn Shahr Aashub, volume 1, pages 517-519.
[18] "غاية المرام‏", pages 106 and 107.

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