In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lessons 91-93: The cases of Omar’s open objection to the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The cases of Omar’s open objection to the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants

Fifth: Ibn Abi-al-Hadid says: ‘once ibn Abbas said: ‘I accompanied Omar on ones of his journey to Sham. One day, when he was riding his camel alone, and there were only two of us, he told me: ‘O ibn Abbas I have something to complain you concerning you cousin, (Ali bin Abī Tālib), I wanted him to be with us on this journey but he rejected it. I always see him in the state of sorrowfulness; do you know the cause for his grief?’

I answered: ‘O Emir, you should know what the cause is!’

He said: ‘So far as I know is that he is upset for losing the Caliphate.’

I answered: ‘It is quite right. He gathers that the Messenger of Allah had assigned and trusted him the affair of the Caliphate.’

He said: ‘O ibn Abbas! ‘If the Messenger of Allah wants to trust the Caliphate to Ali but Allah does not want it, then what happens? The Messenger of Allah decided something of his own and then Allah decided the other way. Therefore, Allah’s decision proved to be true but the Messenger’s decision failed. Is it, you think, what always the Messenger of Allah decides will happen!’

And they have also related this narrative in different way, Omar had said that:

‘While the Messenger of Allah was seriously ill and was lying in the death-bed, he wanted to assign Ali for the affair of the Caliphate, but for the probable sedition and the people’s uprising against him, I prevented it. Then, when the Messenger of Allah understood my prevention, he changed his mind and Allah did what He had decided! ’ [44]

Abd-ul-Fattah abd-ul-Maghsood says: ‘Omar said to ibn Abbas: ‘The Quraish did not like the Messenger-hood and Caliphate to be only in a certain family, therefore, they decided, chose what they wanted and succeeded.’

To his expression, ibn Abbas answered: ‘that which you said ‘Quraish did not like it’ those who deserve to be perished, Allah considers their disliking as their hatred from the commands of Allah, and He states:          

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَرِهُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالَهُمْ [45]

‘…that is because they hated whatever Allah has revealed, so (He) has [also] made their actions be frustrated, (Qur’an: 47/9).

However, that which you said ‘It is the Quraish who choose’, Allah sates:


وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ [46]

‘…and (O Messenger), your [Creator and Nurturer] Lord creates whatever He desires, and the decision remains only with Him – while the others have no choice, (Qur’an: 28/68).’

Omar had nothing to answer ibn Abbas but only to get angry. [47]

Here, we see that Omar has made a mistake between Allah’s genetic and the Divine Decisions, and he has lost point – ibn Abbas’ knockdown-answer stopped him saying anything more.

Omar’s answer is similar to Obaid-ul-lah’s remark to the Highnesses Zeinab, Upon Her be Peace, in the assembly of the State Court of Kufa: الحمد لله الذى قتلكم و اكذب احدوثتكم

‘Praise belongs to Allah Who has wiped you out and revealed your new innovations; and unveiled your lying!’

The Highnesses Zeinab, Upon Her be Peace, answered: ‘Allah takes away the soul of any creature, it is nothing to do with you and Yazid’s killing the people mercilessly! And Allah’s action does not prevent your ugly affairs; it does not stop your choice. Yazid also relates to Allah his killing the family of the Messenger in Sham; he thinks his government to be related to Allah.’

How often we see in the history of ibn Abbas that the caliphs of ibn Abbas have made such mistakes and then related them to Allah; and they assume that their temporary caliphates are from Allah given to them. And they think it is by Allah’s will that the Imams, upon them be peace, have not received the positions of the caliphates.

During the five centuries caliphates of the off spring of Abbas, great many flatterer poets have composed poems and elegies for the benefit of their government and justice. On the other hand, they have composed against the rightfulness of the immaculate Household, and they humiliated them in their gathering and the parties of the princes of Abbasis – in this way, they have disgraced the history!

Abu Shamt: bin Abi al-Jonob says: ‘I had composed a poem about the defect of the Rafza, (The Shiite Imams), and read it in the assembly of Motawakkil. In return, he gave me the government-ships of Bahrain and Yamama, and he hosted the flags of those two regions by my name. He gave me four gifts, so did his son, he gave me even more. Motawakkil ordered his men to give me three thousand gold dirhams; they di it, they poured the gold coins on top of me at a ceremony as ‘THE BRAVO’. Then, he commanded his two sons to gather the strewn gold coins from the floor and give them to me. They both too took the coins and handed them over to me.

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The elegies of Marwan bin Abi-al-Jonub in minimizing the Household, upon them be peace

And poem goes as:

1 ملك الخليفة جعفر                  للدين و الدنيا سلامه

2 لكم تراث محمد                     و بعد لكم تنفى الظلامه

3 يرجو التراث بنو البنا             ت و ما لهم فيها قلامه

4 و الصهر ليس بوارث             و البنت لا ترث الامامه

5 ما للذين تنحلوا                      ميراثكم الا الندامه

6 اخذ الوراثة اهلها                   فعلام لومكم علامه

7 لو كان حقكم لما                    قامت على الناس القيامة

8 ليس التراث لغيركم                لا و الاله و لا كرامه

9 اصبحت بين محبكم                و المبغضين لكم علامه  [48]

1-‘The kingdom and the sovereignty of the Caliph Ja‘far Abbasi Motawakkil brings about the soundness of religion and the nation.

2-O the Caliphs of the children of Abbas! The heritage of Muhammad in the states, the Imamate and the Guardianship upon the nation is now for you! And by your justice oppressions have been removed and the right has found its way to reach the rightful one.

3-The sons of the Messenger’s daughter (the Shiite’s Imams who are the children of Highnesses Fatima, Upon Her be Peace,) are liable and they hope to get through this heritage ; however they have not the tiniest benefit from this state and government.

4-(Now, this heritage is specified for the Bani Abbas, that is, the children of Abbas, on the side of the Messenger’s uncle), because the Messenger’s son-in-law, (Ali bin Abī Tālib) has no share in it. So is the Messenger’s daughter, Fatima Zahra, she does not receive any heritage that she is liable to.

5-Therefore, those who claim receiving this heritage of you, and they this think they are apt to it, will benefit nothing out it except sighing and saying alas!

6-(The right went to the rightful) and the main owner got through this heritage and they won; therefore, what is this claim and reproaching for?! (It is not but you are not titled to it).

7-If this right remains stable (against your unjustly dealing with the people, and on the other hand, the people rising against you), then they will have no resurrection to be questioned what they did against you (because no one has committed and sin or done anything wrong; everyone’s book is crystal clear).

8-This heritage is not for anyone but you! By Allah, it is not; nor is there any honor and grace for them, and it is not a privilege for them to get through this position.

9-O Motawakkil, you are now running your life among your friends and fans! There is a sign for those enemies of you and they are known by that!

Abu Shamt says: ‘I received ten thousand dirhams for another poem that I composed similar to this one. ’ [49]

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Omar’s opinion concerning the Imamate is as the opinion of Makiawel

With this wrong logic, Omar paved the road of sophistry for the following Caliphs; because if getting the divine genesis position and receiving the state of government-ship is the proof for rightfulness, in that case there would not be any aggression, treachery and oppression. Everyone, by any means, who goes through power, is by will of Allah and a proof for his rightfulness.

However, Omar well knew that that he was making mistakes and was moving on the path of sophistry. If the constant events and accidents which take place by aggression and tyranny and are against the command of Allah and His Messenger are good proof for the rightfulness, so why Omar himself objected the Messenger of Allah in the case of Hadibeiia?

And why did he doubt in the prophet-hood of the Holiness? It was time he said: The Messenger of Allah desired a command, but Allah decided it other way round and in this case to surround to the command of Allah. The Messenger of Allah decided to fulfill the Minor Hajj and circumambulate the House of Allah, but Allah’s will was to prevent the idolaters, shaving the heir, sacrificing the camels in the middle of the desert, and also returning to Medina without fulfilling the Hajj rites.

We have nothing to do with this action of Omar, he will see the consequence to it. However, that which we should know is that this logic is against the Islam, it is aligned with the logic of the Qur’an, and it is against the manner of the Messenger of Allah; and it is aligned with the opinion and the verdict of the divine religions.

According to his opinion, dragging Ali barefoot to the mosque to swear allegiance, and emulating the Holinesses Siddigha were all by the will of Allah; if Allah did not desire it, it would not happen. In his opinion, usurping the Guardian-ship had no meaning; in that case, usurpation would loose its real meaning. If anyone, in any way, and by any means goes through a position it is by the will of Allah and he is right.

The crimes of that event in the Saqifa Bani Saeeda, and leading the people to pay allegiance, while the corpse of the Messenger of Allah was still unburied lying on the ground, and the following events of Saqifa during the twenty-five ears of governing of the three Caliphs, and then Mua‘wiyah, and murdering the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, in the altar of the mosque, the innocence of Imam Hassan, and the heart-rending event of Karbala, and the heart-rending events of Zeinab in front of the people of Kufa and Sham, and … all and all were by the will of Allah; if Allah did not want to, they would not happen. It seems that the right was with the supervisors, but those rightful innocent had to be faced the enemies’ swords, wandering in the deserts on the unsaddled camels under the burning sun!

Here, it becomes quite clear that it was the very logic of Omar that the prophet-hood and the Messenger-hood in Islam were changed into the kingdom, KASRAWIISM and the Caesar ruler-ship; and it imposed the off spring of Omayyad as well the Bani al-Abbas upon the Muslims for six centuries. And he pushed in the corner the pure and Holy prophet-hood and the Guardian-ship of the Messenger of Allah, which was the right of the Household and the Imams, in short, he ruined and brought the Islam in standstill! They presented the tyrannical government of Kasra and Caesar as the trough Islam!

What is the difference between the opinions of Omar and today’s worldly tyranny? These too say: ‘Whoever has the power in his control, he has all the generosity, lordship, the fact, genuineness – which are no more than the means of external circumstances – has everything with him!

The opinion of Omar about the Imamate is similar the opinion of Makyawil, in other word, Makyawil’s opinion is the very opinion of Omar. Makyawil also says: ‘Nobility, genuineness and the fact are with a man to achieve power. Whoever has power in his hand, he is prized and victorious in life! However, he who lacks the power, he falls far behind the caravan and is not in the circle of the victorious ones.’

The only difference is in commenting it; Omar interprets the present power and position as the will of Allah, that is, he translates it as the will of Allah has affect of everything, but Makyawil’s opinion is that it depends on the nobility, genuineness and the fact that brings power to a man.

Now, compare this logic with the judgement of the Master of the pious, the Commander of the believers, Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, saying:

و الله لو اعطيت الاقاليم السبعة بما تحت افلاكها على ان اعصى الله فى نملة اسلبها جلب شعيرة ما فعلت، و ان دنياكم عندى لاهون من ورقة فى فم جرادة تقضمها! ما لعلى و لنعيم يفنى و لذة لا تبقى؟! [50]

‘By Allah, even if I am given all the dominions of the seven [stars] with all that exists under the skies in order that I may disobey Allah to the extent of snatching one grain of barley from an ant I would not do it. For me your world is lighter than the leaf in the mouth of a locust that is chewing it.

What has Ali to do with bounties that will pass away and the pleasures that will not last?’

Anyhow, Omar logic is similar to the logic of Abu Sofyan who considered the worldly life and his government it more than his hereafter; and he rejected the prophet-hood to be connected to the right Divine Government. In other word, he said: ‘Whatever Muhammad says about this world and its governing only belongs to this world; it is only governorship and kingdom, there exists nothing of the unseen world. It is nonsense connecting this world to the Hereafter and condemning the affairs and commands of this world.’

Abu Sofyan could not imagine what the bravery, self-sacrifice and jihad meant in the way of fact and Allah but without the material benefits. He could not imagine the soldiers of Islam had no material things in their minds, they do not want to receive a position to govern the nation – their struggle is for Allah and their hope is in Allah.

Great many of the hypocrites, either those who embraced Islam when the Mecca was conquered, or those who faced the magnitude of Islam and had nothing to do but accept it, were in these categories.

There were great many of the hypocrites who were of the companions of the Messenger of Allah; they had apparently embraced Islam and believed in the Oneness of Allah and the Prophet-hood of the Holiness. However, they had not believed inwardly yet, they considered the Islam to be as a worldly and national government.

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Abu Sofian’s suggestion to Othman concerning the Guardianship

When Othman took the Caliphate, Abu Sofyan went to him saying:

يا بنى امية تلقفوها تلقف الكرة! و الذى يحلف به ابو سفيان: ما زلت ارجوها لكم، و لتصيرن الى صبيانكم وراثة!

و قال لعثمان: ادرها كالكرة! و اجعل اوتادها بنى امية! فانما هو الملك، و لا- ادرى ما من جنة و لا نار! و اتى قبر حمزة سيد الشهداء عليه السلام فركله برجله، ثم قال: يا حمزة! ان الامر الذى كنت تقاتلنا عليه بالامس قد ملكناه اليوم و كنا احق به من تيم و عدِى. [51]

‘O Bani Omayyad! Now that this governorship has reached you, seize it as a ball in the play, and protect it for your own! I swear by One whom I always swears with, I often thought of this governorship to be of yours! Therefore, after you, it must go to your off spring as the heritage.’


And he said to Othman: ‘Hand this governorship round like a ball in the game, and assign it s base upon Bani Omayyad because there is indeed nothing to worry about except the government of this world.’ And I really do not know; it is neither in heaven nor in hell!

Then, he went to the grave of Hamze, the Master of the martyrs, he kicked the grave once and said: ‘O Hamze, that governorship and the state that you were fighting us to receive, now is in our possession; we are still more liable to it than Taim and Addi, (Abu Bakr and Omar)!’

Anyhow, by what we have explained so far as the production it becomes clear that there was too much difference among the Muslims at the time of the Messenger of Allah; they were different in belief. And during his course of prophet-hood, the Messenger of Allah faced with them and tried to deal with them according to their way of beliefs; though it was hard to tolerate them but the Holiness did it with pleasure.

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The third introduction:

The chastity of the prophets are not inconsistent with their choice

 all the messengers, apostles and the prophets, and also all the immaculate Imams, Peace be upon them all, and all the innocent and pure that Allah has sent have duty to carry out the commands of Allah. They have to carry out their duties with the intention to struggle in the way of Allah: giving priority to the satisfaction of Allah, being patient and tolerating the oppressions for the sake of pleasing the Honorable and Exalted Allah, and do it with good intention, strong determination and stability. They have to put their power and intellect in action and move forward with determination.

Allah’s determination is that such pure and chosen people to be the Leaders of the people and to propagate His religion, then, through the affection of the beloved, to move onward with their own will unto to reach the destination. Thus, how can one imagine that they carry out their tasks without having authority, or doing things without the will of Allah? This is wrong; it means changing the will of Allah and is absolutely impossible.

Allah has decided for them to choose and carry out the pure actions, and by their own choices to avoid committing sins and to guard against the unlawful. So, if the determination of Allah is a cause to take away the power of choice from them, then it is contrary to the will of Allah, and it is impossible.

So, like the other people, the messengers and prophets have been given authorities; they can pick out and do whatever they want to. A group does some special things, and another group abandons them. And in this way, they always put their power and talent in action, and then, try to increase their ability and talent up to the highest degree in the way of Allah. They do it gradually until they reach the state of perfection and to become the real perfect man. This position and state is because of the way they have chosen – it is a state that they have reached by their own will and activity.  

The Holiness Abraham was honored the position of the Imamate after going through tens of trials and sufferings: he smashed the idols into pieces in the Temple of Babylon and was cast into the fire, opposing Nimrod and disputing with him and his people, being exiled from the Land of Babylon to Philistine and fulfilling his prophetic missions in that land. And, above all, after years of trials and tolerating his barren wife, Sara, some later finding a child, building the House of Ka‘ba along his courageous son, Ishmael, sending away Ishmael along with his mother, Hajar, to the endless barren land, applying to sacrifice his brave son, settling Ishmael in the slaughtering point of the Holiness Beloved, and after twenty years of hard life and successfully tolerating them, he was appointed at the state of Imamate at his old age. As Allah has stated:

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا [52]

‘…and when his [Creator and Nurturer] Lord tested Abraham with [His] Words [of Command,] and he fulfilled them; stated He: "I have appointed you as an Imam, (the spiritual leader), for the people, (Qur’an: 2/124).’

The Holiness Moses was titled received the position of the lofty messenger-hood after years of trials and trying to invite the tribe of the Sabean, challenging with the Coptic, encountering the Egyptian Pharaoh, fleeing to the Land of Philistine, wandering in the desert for forty years along with the Sabean, forty nights being at the state of whispered-prayer, going to the Mount of Tu:r thirsty and hungry and after bearing that Great and Splendid Sign of Allah he was honored the perfection position and became of the great messengers and the owner of the Book and religion.

For forty years, the Greatest Messenger, Muhammad bin Abdullah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was all alone in the Land of Mecca. His situation was so that he had to leave Mecca, the House of Allah, to have the whispered-prayer with Allah – although he was the citizen of Mecca, he had to go to the Mount of an-Noor and the Cave of Hara‘a to seclude. The same Cave which is on the top of the mountain and climbing there is too difficult and dangerous. He would stay in that Cave for several days – a week, and sometimes for two weeks.

Of course, their natures were quite different from the common people, they had certain priorities, as it is among the ordinary people, they differ in characteristic, attributes and the other things as desires and the way of their behaviors – let alone they are different in shapes, colors and the physical formations. However, these differences do not separate them in the chastity and the duty. All of them must attain perfection by obeying the commands of Allah, accepting the Unity of Him and their struggling in the way of Allah.

الناس معادن كمعادن الذهب و الفضة. [53]

‘The people are as the mines of gold and silver.’

Due to the amount and the quality of the desires, attributes, brightness, the differences in the ranks and talents, people are like the gold and silver mines.

It is similar a copper mine, an iron mine, a gold mine a silver mine and the brilliant mine which all differ from one another. It is the same with the different types of the people with different attributes. But the point is that: as every mine has to be exploited and sent to the furnace; and while in the fire, to tolerate the heat until to be melted, then the pure part to be separated from the impure. The pearls and the brilliants too must be given to the expert turners to polish them up and create the desirable shapes out of them. And so is with the other businesses; people must struggle all through their lives and surrender to Allah, they must give up the self-centered feelings of them so that to attain the meeting of Allah.

Every man among the people has to perfect his gifted talent and put it in action – he must not sit idle and compare himself with the aimless and hopeless people. The messengers are bound to purify the essence of their nature. And the Imams are bound to carry out the commands of Allah sincerely so that to attain the pure position of the Guardianship; and saints are bound to keep their nature bright and pass over the vales of the illumination. People too are bound to prove their essence of the natures what they may be, they must keep them pure and sincere, separate the impureness from the pure. To keep away from their carnal desires so that to attain the satisfaction of the Beloved and the Holiness Deity. No one is bound to be in the state of another one. On the Day of Resurrection, the SHIMR will not be questioned: ‘Why were you not like the Master of the martyrs? Why did you not become an Imam?’ He will be asked: ‘Why did you behead the Holiness mercilessly with your own option?’

They are not going to ask Salman Farsi: ‘Why are you not similar to the Commander of the believers?’ They will ask him: ‘Did you use all your talent and spend all your power for the sake of Allah?’

Abuzar will not be questioned: ‘Why are you not similar to
Salman Farsi?’ They will ask him: ‘Have you been a perfect Abuzar or not?’

Therefore, the messengers’ chastity and purity are what Allah has bestowed them, they are not their natural chastity and purity – they are repugnant to those. The optional chastity and purity are considered to be the effect of the noble spirit, the obedient and the praiseworthy of the second nature.

The narratives that represent Allah created them two thousand years, or seven thousand years and or even seventy thousand years before creating the world and Adam, does not mean the duration of time, it is but the priority of the abstract to the material being.

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In comparison, the attributes of the messengers are like the common people

By this statement we understand that: the messengers too like the common people have their own desires, attributes, option and the other spiritual and the material affairs – they are literally human beings. They own cravings, chastity and modesty; they possess attributes, reverences and fears. They can be joyful and sad, they may cry or laugh. As they have bodies, so they get hungry and they eat; they become thirsty and drink water – they have the passions to marry so do they.

They feel pain and grief; they experience the separation, joy and happiness. However, they use all these attributes for the satisfaction of the Beloved Deity; they do it for meeting the features of the Greatest: و ابتغاء لوجهه الكريم.

The Messenger of Allah, our respectable Prophet, the seal of the messengers and the prophets, was not away from these attributes, and similar to the other messengers and prophets he possessed the human attributes. He was keen in propagating the laws and commands of Allah, and so was serious in circulating the Qur’an. He made himself tired in guiding the people and leading them the straight path. He always got upset for the stubbornness of the disbelievers; and he insisted on conveying the signs of Allah to the people. He got angry seeing the aggressions of some people against the others; sometimes, he was so angry that he changed red in the face and he could not be in command of his nerve. Sometimes he was so bashful and felt ashamed that people called him ‘the modest, the embarrassed’. There are some verses in the Qur’an concerning his struggle in propagating the laws and commands of Allah:       

طه ﴿1 مَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لِتَشْقَى ﴿2 [54]

 ‘(O Messenger)! We did not send down this Qur’an to you to make you feel distress! (Qur’an: 20/1-2).’

   لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيم [55]

‘…indeed there has come to you a Messenger from among yourselves who takes your suffering seriously, he is anxious about you, a Merciful Compas­sionate towards all the believers, (Qur’an: 9/128).’

فَلَعَلَّكَ بَاخِعٌ نَفْسَكَ عَلَى آثَارِهِمْ إِنْ لَمْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَسَفًا [56]

‘…O Our Messenger, you maybe, if they do not believe in this tiding, you are liable to destroy yourself in grief for their sake, (Qur’an: 18/6).’

And concerning the modesty and shamefulness of the Holiness has been related:

انَّ ذَلِكُمْ كَانَ يُؤذِى النَّبِىَّ فَيَسْتَحْيِى مِنْكُم [57]

‘…and when you have dined at the house of the Messenger, soon stand up and leave the place, do not linger about in a conversation, (Qur’an: 33/53).’

This behavior of yours disturbs the Messenger, but he feels ashamed of you to ask you to leave. 

He did not reject listening to the statements of the people who said in his presence, he was so attentive at what they said that they would call him: ‘Muhammad is all ears, whatever is said to him he accepts it.’ He listened to the different opinions without rejecting or disputing over them. It is stated that:      

وَ مِنْهُمْ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ النَّبِىَّ وَ يَقُولُونَ هُوَ أُذُنٌ قُلْ أُذُنُ خَيْرٍ لَكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَ يُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِين [58]

‘…and some of them (the hypocrites who are always doubtful) hurt the Messenger by saying: ‘He’s all ears!’ Say, ‘It is good for you that he is all ears!’ He believes in Allah and trusts what the believers say, and it is a grace for any of you who believe, (Qur’an: 9/61).’

Concerning marrying Zeinab, who was his cousin being separated from Zaid bin Haritha, his adopted son, and that was an ugly affair doing among the Arabs – it was like marrying the wife of his own son – the Messenger was commanded to do it just to do away with the old custom of the Arabs He married her so that to be known the first man doing that. He was really afraid doing it until a verse was revealed:

وَ تخْشَى النَّاسَ وَ اللَهُ أحَقُّ أنْ تَخْشَاه [59]

‘…and are you afraid of the people! But Allah deserves it to be afraid of, (Qur’an: 33/37).’

Concerning the treatises of Allah and their stability is stated that:

وَ لَوْ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيْنَا بَعْضَ الْأَقَاوِيلِ ﴿44 لَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُ بِالْيَمِين ﴿45 ثُمَّ لَقَطَعْنَا مِنْهُ الْوَتِينَ ﴿46 فَمَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ عَنْهُ حَاجِزِين ﴿47 [60]

‘… If he had faked some statements in Our name, *We would have surely seized him by the right hand; *then cut off his aorta. *Then none of you could have prevented it! (Qur’an: 69/44-47).’

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The anxiety of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, of publicly announcing the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers

Now that the subject has become clear, it is time we said that the Messenger of Allah was really afraid concerning the announcement of the Guardianship of the Mater of the pious, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, to public. The condition of the companions and the enemies was quite clear, and was clear what would happen by hearing what the Messenger announce!

The Messenger of Allah was not afraid that they might kill him, or throw him down of the mountain, or poison him to death; he was afraid loosing his life for the sake of Allah and fulfilling His commands – he was ready to sacrifice himself in the way of Allah.

The Messenger’s panic was that people might rebel against him; his opponents, who were mostly well-to-do and strong among the people might impose their power over the public and by taking them on their side they would deny the prophet-hood and the Islam and become disbelievers. And he was afraid that they would carry out their evil acts just in his presence and would represent the prophet-hood as a material government and the superficial rules and laws. And they would say to the common people: ‘Now there! Look, he is passing away! He has transferred his chieftainship and the Imamate his son-in-law and dear cousin! He has no son, and for the lack of a son, the son-in-law can inherit it. Now he has trusted the Government, the Sovereignty to his son-in-law!’

Thus, if they did so, and in the same public assembly disagreed with him, assaulted him and rebelled against him what would happen? All of a sudden, his twenty-three-years of struggling for the Islam would collapse, and he would be shameful against his covenant that he would carry his duties up to the end. The Messenger looking for an occasion and right time, and he always was trying to furnish the road for it. Although Gabriel had already come to him with the message of Guardianship for his cousin to announce it to the people, he had not assigned the right time to proclaim it to the public. The Messenger was determined and was preparing himself to announce it on the Farewell Pilgrimage which the main purpose was proclaiming the Guardianship.

He wrote a letter to the Commander of the believers, whom the Messenger had sent to Yemen, to collect the taxes for revenue and then return to but to Mecca where they could meet. They became partners in the rites and the sacrifices, and they both shared a hundred camels to sacrifice them – this honor on the Hajj Pilgrimage is for the Master and Commander of the believers. This way of Hajj was too much for some people to bear it, especially on the case of the Enjoyment and the Minor Hajj. They opposed it and made the Messenger tired, upset and angry with them.

On the whole, the Messenger of Allah had fives sermons in Mecca and Arafat but in none of them he could announce the message of Gabriel and fulfill his responsibility by introducing Ali bin Abī Tālib as his Successor and the Guardian upon the people; he lectures only how to respect and obey the Household.

This is also a positive action, it prepares the way how to announce and introduce the Successor; he even in his last sermon at Mina advised people how to look after the Book of Allah along with the immaculate Household. He said that they will be together until they would reach the Kow‘thar [river in Paradise] – they would secure the happiness and prosperity of mankind.           

The Messenger of Allah, along with his companions and caravans, left Mecca for Medina on Wednesday, the 14th of Dhul-Hijja, the day after, three days to Ghadir, Gabriel descended enlightening:

 يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّكَ وَ إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَ اللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنْ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِى الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِين [61]

‘…O Messenger, announce what has been revealed to you by your [Creator and Nurturer] Lord; for if you do not do so you have not conveyed His message. Allah protects you from people: surely Allah does not guide the disbelieving people, (Qur’an: 5/67).’

This verse, with such threatening, was revealed saying that the tolerance has come to an end and there is no time to delay it, time is flying and it is being wasted. Know that Allah Himself has guaranteed to safe and support Islam against the disbelievers, and He is going to block their ways to reach their desires and intentions.

The Guardianship is so important that it is considered as the messenger-hood; and if you delay in announcing it then you have not fulfilled your duty!

Ali must be introduced to the nation publically, in one gathering that all tribes are present in. He is going to be the protector of the religion after you. He is the one who was appointed as the Caliph and the inheritor to you since the first assembly of the clans, and according to the very assembly he was right and deserved it. He is the one who has been with you all the time: every hour, everyday, and every month; and he has followed you wherever you have been: in the battle, in your sorrow and depression, and he has been benefitting of the illumination of your face! He is the endless knowledge; by he has received your everlasting knowledge and has issued it through thousands of canals to the world! He is the one who lay in your bed on the night you were emigrating from Mecca to Medina; that night, he exposed his life to danger until the morning while Gabriel and Michael were sitting on his bedside – and Allah honored those two angels being with you.

The honorable Messenger went up to Johfa, the road that separates Medina from Sham and Iraq: the furthest point that the caravans of the pilgrims come together, and there, he must separate them. He went up to the Ghadir-e-Khum and stayed there, he commanded all the pilgrims to come together – it was the place to assign the Commander of the believers.

It is related in some narratives and the commentaries that the Verse ‘بلغ’ was revealed just here; the Messenger dismounted and commanded all the people to come together.

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The elegy of Kompany, the miraculous sign of Allah,  on the case of Ghadir

The Late, Miraculous Sign of Allah, Hajj Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Isfahani, May Allah be pleased with, has composed a peace of five-some poem in this respect and now we are going to mention it here:

Zephyr, as the glad-tidings, reaches to my Monarch

As the nicely playing nightingales reach the garden of tulips    

Come on zephyr, I smell the aroma of Friend with you,

The news of being with Friend can be felt everywhere.

Blessed is the moment that I will sit with Him!

Endless praises to zephyr filling up the atmosphere

Do bestow it all to the threshold of Ali al-Mortaza,

The Master of the workshop of the judgement

Ocean of knowledge, the orbit of modesty and approval centre;

As Ka‘ba is my ideal to circumambulate it.

He became the founder and innovating of the basis

He pictured the meanings and explained the justification,

He was the fact of the being and the perfect wisdom

Being the succeeding right and the Caliph for the Messenger;

From the beginning, the Caliphate was for my Monarch.

Ghadir is just a tiny bit of his endless virtues

The light of the sun is too little in front of his illuminating star.

The eternity pleasure but a little of his eternity table-cloth, but I wish he would invite me to the illuminating feast of his.

Then I would be proud among the most proud!

The beasts have nothing to do with the osprey

Do not ally the senseless with the man of wisdom!

Let the business of the cobbler to the old cobbler

If you are pious remove the pictures from your mind!

For the territory of the heart is for the Secret-Keeper. 

His Guardianship, upon the nation, which was in Ghadir

It really was from the beginning recorded in the old Book.

The Master of the nation put it in the tablet of the hearts

Then the completion of the religion came to sight.

The author we given to my Owner and Master!

By bid of the Right he became the Minister of the wise,

Became the pioneer taking Seal of the messengers’ place;

The guide of the path got through the banner of guidance

He was honored it for his obedience and he deserved it.

Hell is through the anger of that greatest of mine!

In the assembly that the candle is a witness to it

Saw that the wine cobbler was the first lover!

He was nominated as the Guardian and appointed for all

He is the Successor and the master of the intellects;

The durable rein of my religion was always in his hand.

His opponent who promised his slavery with him

He did not drink the water of life from the spring of Ghadir.

He whose nature is fierceness like pigs, the wild dogs,

The snakes, the scorpion – with the nature of fierceness,

Will do the same as they did with my king-hunter Emir ’. [62]

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The difficulties and the subsequent of tolerating the Guardianship

It must be made clear that this assignment to the position of the Imamate and the Caliphate is not a dignity among the manifest dignities of the Holiness that they celebrate and enjoy it. It is for tolerating the responsibilities and promising doing them, and being able to fulfill them in the best way possible. How hard and tiring it is! Many events pop up afterwards that they must solved peacefully and with great patient. For example, sitting silent and not touching the sword; according to what the Messenger of Allah said, ‘they take away the right and there is no one to help!’

In fact, the position of the Guardianship needs bearing all the oncoming difficulties, hardships and the events which will last until the Day of Resurrection. They will occur to the Guardian and the Guardianship.

 The announcement of tolerating it and being perseverance against the events that block the way of the Guardianship comes one after another every day and any time, Satan and cardinal desires always influence the ignorant and they are alert when to hunt their preys.

Therefore, how hard intolerable was the Day of Ghadir for the Commander of the believers! How great and glorious Day it was!

Let it be not assumed that the joyfulness of the Day of Ghadir was for this worldly life, but it is the opposite side of the coin.   

Similar to the Day of Messenger’s Mission in the Cave of Haraa, was the first day of descending to the world of abundance, undertaking the task of encountering the people like Abu Jahl, Abi Lahab and Abu Sofyian; and the first day of tolerating the tragic events and the difficulties of propagating the commands of Allah, and having the authority smashing the idols of the ignorant. Dealing with, and tolerating the world of opinions and thoughts of the ignorant that they were constantly making and them imposing them upon the Messenger of Allah.

Therefore, after receiving the message, the Messenger shuddered with fear, and when he returned home, his severe fever made him collapse, he wrapped him up with blanket and whatever in the reach of hand and lay down in the corner of the room. Soon after Gabriel came down to him with the verses: قُمْ فَأنْذِزْ وَ رَبَّكَ فَكَبِّر, then يَا أيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ, and قُمِ اللَّيْلَ إلَّا قَليلًا, and also يَا أيُّها الْمُزَّمَّل and recited them for him.

The Messenger was aware that how serious problems he would encounter by announcing the Guardianship of Ali bin Abī Tālib: beating attack, backbiting, capturing his children and murdering them, he viewed them crystal clear. He willingly accepts all of them for the sake and satisfaction of the Honorable and Exalted Created. Owing to the verse بَلِّغْ مَا انْزِلَ إلَيْكَ مِنْ رَبِّك he willingly accepts them. And Ali too accepts them all with pleasure; he embraces them with open arms and responds to the invitation of the Right – he becomes happy to carry out his divine mission.

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The calamities and seditions that befell the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants

By means of his chained documents, Hafiz Abu Naeem Isfahani has related Aba Barza quoting the Messenger of Allah stating: 

إنَّ اللَهَ تَعَالَى عَهِدَ إلَىَّ عَهْداً فِى عَلِىِّ، فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَبِّ بَيّنْهُ لى!

فَقَالَ: اسْمَعْ! فَقُلْتُ: سَمِعْتُ!

فَقَالَ: إنَّ عَلِيَّا رَايَةُ الْهُدَى؛ وَ إمَامُ أوْليآئى، وَ نُوُر مَنْ أطَاعَنِى؛ وَ هَوَ الْكَلِمَةُ الَّتِى ألْزَمْتُهَا الْمُتَّقِينَ؛ مَنْ أحَبَّهُ أحَبَّنى؛ وَ مَنْ أبْغَضَهُ أبْغَضَنى؛ فَبَشِّرْهُ بِذَلِكَ! فَجآءَ عَلِىٌّ فَبَشَّرْتُهُ.

فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ! أنَا عَبْدُ اللَهِ؛ وَ فِى قَبْضَتِهِ فَإنْ يَعذَّبْنى فَبِذَنْبى؛ وَ إنْ يُتِمَّ لِىَ الذىَّ بَشَّرْتَنى بِهِ، فَاللَهُ أوْلَى بِى!

قَالَ: قُلْتُ: اللَّهُمَّ اجْلُ قَلْبَهُ! وَ اجْعَلْ رَبيعَهُ الْإيَمانَ!

فَقَالَ اللهُ: قَدْ فَعَلْتُ بِهِ ذَلِكَ! ثُمَّ إنَّه رَفَعَ إلَىَّ أنَّهَ سَيَخُصُّهُ مِنَ الْبَلآءِ بِشَىْ‏ءٍ لَمْ يَخُصَّ بِهِ أحَداً مِنْ أصْحَابى.

فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَبَّ أخِى وَ صَاحِبِى!

فَقَالَ: إنَّ هَذَا شَىْ‏ءٌ قَدْ سَبَقَ؛ إنَّهُ مُبْتَلىَّ وَ مُبْتَلىَّ بِه.[63]

‘Allah, the Honorable and Exalted, has made a covenant with me concerning Ali bin Abī Tālib. So I said: ‘O My Creator! Do explain it to me!’ Stated Allah: “Listen;” I said: ‘I listened.’

Stated Allah: “Indeed, Ali is the rightful emblem and banner of the guidance, he is the Imam and the Leader of my saints, he is the light for those who obey Me. And he is My word, Nature and My Diffusion that I assigned him to be always by the pious. Whoever loves him he really loves Me, but he who hates him, then he really hates Me! So, O Messenger, you announce this subject to Ali!”

Ali came to me, and I conveyed this revelation of Allah to him. Ali answered: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I am the slave of Allah and I am in His control; if He punishes me it is due to me sins, and if He deals with me according to what you said to me, then he deserves to be my Master!’

I said: ‘O my Creator! Do enlighten Ali’s heart! Make his spring blossom fruitful belief!’

Stated Allah: “I now bestowed these to Ali,” then, Allah made me understand that He would save him against the trials and give him such an especial position that He had not given to anyone before – He would test him and involve him to face the difficulties and hardships.

I said: ‘O My Creator! Anyhow he is my brother and a close companion.’

Stated He: “These difficulties and hardships are something that have passed through My decree, he will surely be tested, and so are the others; they will be tested because of him.”

By means of his documents, Ibrahim bin Muhammad bin Moayyid Hammoyee has related of Ali bin Abī Tālib saying that: ‘The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and I were walking a certain road in Medina until we reached a garden. I said: ‘O Messenger, how beautiful this garden is!’

The Messenger of Allah stated: “Yes, it is, isn’t it? But there is a garden much more beautiful than this one for you in paradise!” Then, we walked along until we reached another garden and I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, how beautiful is this one!’

The Messenger of Allah agreed with me and stated: “Yes, how beautiful it is! However, there is a garden much more beautiful than this one for you in paradise!”

Then, we continued walking until we reached the third garden and I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, how beautiful is this garden!’

The Messenger of Allah agreed with me and stated: “Yes, how beautiful it is! However, there is a garden much more beautiful than this one for you in paradise!”

We passed that too, and the next up to the seventh garden; each of them we passed by, I said: ‘O Messenger, how beautiful this garden is!’

The Messenger of Allah stated: “Yes, it is, isn’t it? But there is a garden much more beautiful than this one for you in paradise!”

فَلَمَّا خَلَالَهُ الطَّرِيقُ اعْتنقَنِى وَ أجْهَشَ بَاكِياً! فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَهِ! مَا يُبْكِيكَ؟

قَالَ: ضَغَائِنُ فِى صُدُورِ أقْوَامٍ لَا يُبْدُونَهَا لَكَ إلَّا بَعْدِى!

فَقُلْتُ: فِى سَلَامَهٍ مِنْ دِينى؟! قَالَ: فِى سَلَامَهٍ مِنْ دينِك. [64]

And when we reached a abandoned road where no one was insight, the Messenger of Allah took me in his arms and burst into tears and then crying aloud. I asked: ‘What is the reason for your crying?’ He said: “It is the grudges that some groups and tribes have against you; they do not reveal it until after my demise they will!” I had the honor to ask: ‘Then, after those seditions and ill plans, will me faith and Islam be secured?’ He stated: “Yes, the Islam will be safe and secured.”

And also Mowaf‘fagh bin Ahmad has related it from Abu Saeed Khodri that: the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, well knew and already reported whatever would happen by the enemies of Ali:

فَبَكَى عَلٍىٌّ وَ قَالَ: أسْأَلُكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَهِ بِحَقِّ قَرابَتى وَ بِحَقِّ صُحْبَتِى أنْ تَدْعُوَ اللَهَ أنْ يَقْبِضَنِى إلَيْهِ! فَقَالَ: يَا عَلِىُّ! أنَا أدْعُو اللَهَ لَكَ لِأجَلٍ مُؤَجَّلٍ! فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَهِ! عَلَى مَا اقَاتِلُ الْقَوْمَ؟! قَالَ: عَلَى الْأحْدَاثِ فِى الدِّين. [65]

Ali bin Abī Tālib cried and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I take you for an oath, for my relation to you, for sake of me, asks your Allah to let you take me along with you!’ The Messenger of Allah stated: “O Ali! But I ask Allah to take you to His presence after your demise.” Ali said: ‘what for I am going to fight these tribes?’ He stated: “You are going to fight them for their innovating in the religion, and for the events that will happen!”

And also, by the means of his documents from Abi Leila who has quoted his father, Mowaf‘fagh bin Ahmad Kharazmi has said that: ‘On the Day of Kheibar, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, put the banner in Ali’s hand and Allah saved Kheibar by the powerful hands of Ali; and on the Day of Ghadir-e-Khum, made the whole nation know that Ali was the Master of all believers: men and women. And the Messenger told him: “You are from me and I am of you, and you are fighting for the interpretation of the Qur’an, as I fought for the revelation of it!” And he told him: “Your relation to me as the relation of Aaron to Moses, but the only exception is that there is no any prophet after me.” Still more, he said: “I am in peace with someone who is in peace with you, but I am at war with whom who is at war with you. You are the strongest fortress of the belief! And, after me, you are the Master of all believing men and women. And it is you that Allah has revealed this verse for:  

وَ أذَانٌ مِنَ اللَهِ وَ رَسُولِهِ إلَى النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْحَجَّ الأكْبَر [66]

‘…and [this is] a proclamation from Allah and His Messenger to people on the day of the greater Hajj Pilgrimage, (Qur’an: 9/3).’

“And it is you that acting upon my laws and traditions! And it is you that are defending my nation and religion! You and I are the first ones that, for us, the earth will open for coming together after death, then you will enter paradise along with me; Hassan, Hussein and Fatima too will be with us. Allah has inspired me to announce your virtues to all, and I did announce your virtues to the people. Whatever Allah had commanded me to do I did exactly the same.”

   ثُمَّ قَالَ: اتَّقِ الضَّغَائِنَ التَّى كَانَتْ فِى صُدُورِ قَوْمِ لَا تُظْهِرُهَا إلَّا بَعْدَ مَوْتى؛ اولَئِكَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَهُ وَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّاعِنُون وَ بَكىَ.

ثُمَّ قَالَ: أخْبَرَنى جَبَرائيلُ انَّهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَكَ بَعْدِى، وَ أنَّ ذَلِكَ الظُّلْمَ لا يَزُولُ بِالْكُلّيَّهِ عَنْ عِتْرَتنَا حَتَّى إذَا قَامَ قَائِمُهُمْ، وَ عَلَتْ كَلِمَتُهُمْ، وَ اجْتَمَعَتِ الامَّةُ عَلَى مَوَدَّتِهِمْ، وَ الشَّانِى لَهُمْ قَليلًا، وَ الْكَارِهُ لَهُمْ ذَليلًا، وَ الْمَادِحُ لَهُمْ كَثِيرا.

Then he stated: “O Ali! After my demise, beware of the hatred and grudges of the people against you. Allah has cursed them.” Then, after revealing these, the Messenger of Allah burst into tears, and then added: “O Ali! Gabriel has reported me that this folk will hurt you after me; they will not stop this injury against my household until the Existing of us will advent to public. Then, our saying will prove and will be accepted by all; the nation in Islam will unanimously accept it, and the opponents will decrease but the praises will increase towards it.

It will occur when the towns and cities completely change, and the slaves of Allah get weaker and weaker; then, while in their quite hopelessness, the advent will take place. At that time, the Existing of the Household of Muhammad will advent with his followers. Because of them, Allah will reveal the Right; they will do away with the wrong by their swords; people will without fear but desirously follow him! A glad tiding to you for the advent of such a promise of Allah, and Allah breaks not His promise, and this is sure to happen; Allah is Wise Aware and the victory of Allah is near.”

اللَّهُمَّ إنَّهُمْ أهْلِى فَأذْهِبْ عَنْهُمُ الرِّجْسَ وَ طَهِّرْهُمْ تَطْهِيراً؛ اللَّهُمَّ اكْلاهُمْ وَ ارْعَهُمْ، وَ كُنْ لَهُمْ وَ انْصُرْهُمْ وَ أعِزَّهُمْ وَ لَا تُذِلَهُمْ، وَ اخْلُفْنِى فيهِمْ إنَّكَ عَلَى مَا تَشَاءُ قَدِير. [67]

Then, the Messenger of Allah praises for his Household: “O my Creator! They are my household; do take away any impurity from them! Keep them pure and clean! O my Creator! Save them under your protection! Do cast mercy upon them and always be on their sides! Do help them, give them dignity and honor! Do not cause them to be abject; and be always their Guard and Guardian because You do whatever You will!”

And Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, said:


كُلُّ حِقْدٍ حَقَدَتْهُ قُرَيْشٌ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَهِ (صلی الله عليه و آله و سلّم) أظْهَرَتْهُ فِىَّ، وَ سَتُظْهِرُهُ فِى وُلْدِى مِنْ بَعْدِى؛ مَالِى و لِقُرَيْشٍ؟ إنَّمَا وَتَرْتُهُمْ بِأمْرِ اللَهِ وَ أمْرِ رَسُولهِ، أفَهَذَا جَزَآءُ مَنْ أطَاعَ اللَهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ إنْ كَانُوا مُسْلِمين؟! [68]

Whatever hatred and grudges the Quraish has against the Messenger of Allah, they did it against me; and they will do it against my children after me. So what is my business with Quraish? With the command of Allah and His Messenger I encountered them. So, let it be known to them, if they are Muslims, is it the right recompense for one who carries out the commands of them!

وَ مَا نَقَمُوا مِنْهُمْ إلَّا أنْ يُؤمِنُوا بِاللَهِ الْعَزيزِ الْحَميد [69]

‘…they took revenge on them merely because they believed in Allah, the Praiseworthy All-mighty, (Qur’an: 85/8).’

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمُتَمَسَّكِينَ بِوِلَايَهِ عَلِىَّ بْنِ أبِيَطالِبٍ أمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنين (عليه السلام)

O Allah! Assign us to be of the resorting to the Guardianship of Ali bin Abī Tālib, the Commander of the believers.

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[44] "شرح نهج البلاغه", (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha), volume 12 of the twenty-volumes, pages 78 and 79.

[45] Surah 47, "محمد", Verse 9.
Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 68.
[47] "امام علی",
author Abd-ul-Fattah Abd-ul-Maghsoud.

[48] "الکامل فی التاریخ", volume 7, page 101, from the second publication, and "تاريخ طبرى‏ ", (The History of Tabari), Sa'aadat publication, 1358 of Hijri, volume 7, page 397.

And in "اعيان الشيعة", volume 15, page 291, from the second publication of the translation of Ga'far bin Hussein, who has related this case from Ghazi Abu-al-Makarim Muhammad bin Abd-ul-Malik bin Ahmad bin Habbat-ul-lah bin Jaradah Halabi, in the explanation of the elegy of Mei'mei'iah, Abi Faras known as Shafeia, who has related from Marwan bin Abi Hafasa that he had said: "I composed an elegy for Motawak'kil wherein I counted out the defects and ugliness of Fezyan.  In return for that elegy, Motawak'kil assigned me for the government of Bahrain and Yamama, and he gave me four other honors to me in that gathering." Then, the writer of " اعيان‏" has brought some elegies  from Ja'far bin Hussein against Marwan bin Abi Hafasa which begins as: قُلْ لِلَّذِى بفُجوِرِه فى شِعْرِه ظَهَرَت علامَة. And in " الغدير", volume 4, pages 175 and 176, the elegies of Marwan bin Abi Hafasa, and elegies of Ja'far bin Hussein, he has brought them to reject in them the poets of Ghadir in the fourth century from " اعيان الشيعة ".

[49] "الکامل فی التاریخ", volume 7, page 101.
[50] "نهج البلاغه",
(Nahj-ul-Balagha), sermon 222.
The book of "الفردوس الاعلى‏", (The Superior Paradise), the completion of Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Kashif-ul-Ghata, and the marginal annotation  of Sayyid Muhammad Ali Ghazi Tabatabaee, pages 20 and 21.

[52] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 124.


It is related in the “Ehya‘ al-Olum”, volume 1, page 6, that the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stated:

النّاس معادِنٌ كمعادِنِ الذّهبِ والفِضّةِ، فخِيارهم فِي الإسلامِ إذافقِهوا

He has also brought the very statement from the Messenger of Allah in "جامع السعادات", the publication of Najaf, volume 1, page 24, but without mentioning " إذافقِهوا".

[54] Surah 20, "طه", Verses 1 & 2.
[55] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 128.
[56] Surah 18, "کهف", Verse 6.
[57] Surah 33, "احزاب", Verse 53.
[58] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 61.
[59] Surah 33, "احزاب", Verse 37.
Surah 69, "الحاقّة", Verses 45-47.
[61] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 67.
"The Poetic Works of the Miraculous Sign of Allah, Kompany", from the page 28 to 30.
"حلیة الاولیاء", volume 1, pages 66 and 67: " ينابيع الموده", section 45, from the publication of Istanbul, year 1301, page 134, and " فرائد السّمطين", section 30, volume 1, page 151.
"فرائدالسّمطین", section 30, volume 1, pages 152 and 153, and " مناقب خوارزمى‏", (The Manaqib of Kharazmi), Najaf Publication, page 26; and "ينابيع الموده‏", section 45, page 134.

[65] "مناقب خوارزمی", page 109, and "ينابيع الموده‏", section 45, page 134.

[66] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 3.

[67]  ,"مناقب خوارزمی"section 5, pages 23 to 25, and "ينابيع الموده‏", section 45, pages 134 and 135.

[68]  ,"ینابیع المودّة"section 45, page 135.

[69] Surah 86, "بروج", Verse 8: They took revenge on them merely because they believed in Allah, the  Praiseworthy All-mighty.

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