In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lessons 98-101: The statement on five characters of Islam that the Guardianship is the end

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The statement on five characters of Islam that the Guardianship is the end

And also Sheikh by means of his documents from Mojashiee writes in “Aamali”: one from Muhammad bin Ja‘far bin Muhammad quoting his father the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, and another one from the Holiness Imam Reza, Upon Him be Peace, quoting his father Musa, and he from his father Ja‘far bin Muhammad, Upon Him be Peace, and still both from their great grandfather, the Commander of the Believers, Upon Him be Peace; saying that: ‘I heard it from the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stating:

بنى الاسلام على خمس خصال: على الشهادتين، و القرينتين. قيل له: اما الشهادتين فقد عرفنا هما، فما القرينتان؟ قال: الصلوة و الزكوة، لا يقبل احديهما الا بالاخرى، و الصيام و حجّ بيت الله من استطاع سبيلا، و ختم ذلك بالولاية. فانزل الله عز و جل: اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم و اتممت عليكم نعمتى و رضيت لكم الاسلام دينا. [71]

‘Islam is based upon five virtues: upon testifies, (bearing witnesses (that “there is no deity except Allah, and Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger”), and the “GHARINATAIN”. They asked the Holiness: ‘We well understand what ‘bearing witnesses mean’, but what does “GHARINATAIN” mean?’ The Messenger of Allah answered: ‘Prayer and paying the poor taxes; none of them is accepted by its own, they must be side by side. And the third one of the five is ‘fast’, and the fourth is the Hajj Pilgrimage for one who is capable to afford it. These four qualities are closely related to the fifth – that is the “Guardianship”. And concerning this, Allah has sent the verses of “The Completion of the Religion and the Achievement of His blessing”. (Ghāyat-al-Maram, page 95, the thirty-one narrative, and Sheikh’s Aamali, volume two, section 18th, page 131 and 132)

And also by means of his documents from Abuzar Ghaf‘fari, the Sheikh relates it in “Aamali” that Jondub bin Jonada had said that:

رايت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله اخذ بيد على بن أبى طالب عليه السلام فقال له: يا على! انت اخى، و صفيى، و وصيى، و وزيرى، و امينى، مكانك منى فى حياتى و بعد موتى كمكان هارون من موسى الا انه لا نبى معى. من مات و هو يحبك ختم الله عز و جل له بالامن و الايمان، و من مات و هو يبغضك لم يكن له فى الاسلام نصيب.‏ [72]

‘Abuzar says: ‘I saw that the Messenger of Allah was holding Ali on his hand and saying: “O Ali! You are my brother! You are the best chosen person by me! You are my Successor! You are my Minister! You are my trustworthy! Your status and position to me, in this world and the next, is like Aaron to Moses though there is no messenger after me. One who dies while loving you, Allah, the most Exalted bestows him happy ending; but one who dies with the enmity towards you, there is no benefit for him from Islam.” [73]

And also in “Aamali”, with his documents, the Sheikh quotes Amru bin Meimoon Audi saying: ‘There was a discussion going on in the presence of the Holiness Messenger of Allah and he said: “Any nation who relates unfair attributes to Ali, Upon Him be Peace, they are the abiders of the Fire. And I heard this verse from the companions of Muhammad, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, among whom were Huzaifa bin Yaman and Ka‘b bin Ojrat, and either of the said: “Ali, Upon Him be Peace, has been favored such things that no one among mankind has been given to. He is the husband of the first and the crown of the ladies, Fatima, Upon Her be Peace. Who has ever heard a man to marry a woman similar to Fatima? And Ali is the father of Hassan and Hussein the two youths of the paradise. O the company of the people, can you find anyone similar to these youths? And the next good point of Ali is that the Messenger of Allah is his father-in-law; and Ali is his Successor in many conditions. The Messenger closed all the doors leading to the Mosque except the entrance of Ali. And Ali is the conqueror of the Kheibar, and he is the battle flag carrier on the day of Kheibar. While he had sore in the eyes, the Messenger of wetted them with the saliva out of his mouth; Ali’s eyes were cured in spot and he never felt pains in the eyes until the end of his life – he did not suffer in any warm or cold climate.”

And Ali is the main owner of the Day of Ghadir whom the Messenger of Allah called “The Great”, and he announce his obedience incumbent to his nation, and let the nation know the position of his as the Guardian; he made clear his status to the people and said:

ايها الناس! من اولى بكم من انفسكم؟ قالوا: الله و رسوله. قال: فمن كنت مولاه ‏ فهذا على مولاه. [74]

‘Who is better for you than your souls to you?’ They said: ‘Allah and His Messenger.’ He answered: ‘Whosoever I am Master, so is this Ali his Master.’

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The sermon of Imam Hassan Mojtaba, upon him be peace, in the presence of Mua‘ wiya and pointing to Ghadir

And also there is a narrative from Abi Amir Zazan in “Aamali”, concerning the sermon of the Holiness Imam Hassan, Upon Him be Peace, who delivered among the people where Mua‘wiyah was also present. In that sermon, the holiness lectures of his father’s virtue and his activities in establishing the Islam, and whatever the Messenger of Allah had stated about him. He carries on the sermon until he says:

فقد تركت بنو اسرائيل هارون و هم يعلمون انه خليفة موسى فيهم و اتبعوا السامرى، و قد تركت هذه الامة ابى و بايعوا غيره و قد سمعوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله يقول له: انت منى بمنزلة هارون من موسى الا النبوة. و قد راوا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله نصب ابى يوم غدير خم و امرهم ان يبلغ الشاهد منهم الغائب. [75]

‘Although the Children of Israel knew that Aaron was the Successor of Moses among them, they left him and followed the Samaritan. This nation too left my father and swore allegiance with the other person; although they had heard the Messenger of say: “Your position to me is as the position of Aaron to Moses, but the only exception is that there is not a messenger after me. They had seen the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, how he assigned my father as the Guardianship on the Day of Ghadir-e-Khum, and he commanded the people present there to convey the news to those who were absent in that occasion.’[76]

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Abu Hanifa’s rejecting the event of Ghadir; with his confession to the event of the event of Ghadir

And also the Sheikh explains this subject from the Holiness Imam Hassan, Upon Him be Peace, but

in different style in “Aamali”. He explains it from Imam Hassan, Upon Him be Peace, but with the different phrases and different documents from Abd-ur-Rahman bin Kathir, from Ja‘far bin Muhammad quoting his grandfather Ali bin al-Hussein, Upon Him be Peace.

And also Sheikh Muhammad bin Muhammad bin No‘man, known and Shekh Mofid, by means of his series of documents relates in his “Aamali” from Muhammad bin Noufal bin Aaez Sairafi saying: ‘I was sitting with Haitham bin Habib Sairafi when Abu Hanifa No‘man bin Sabit came to us and after a while discussion, we switched on our conversation to Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, and naturally our discussion led us to Ghadir-e-Khum.

Abu Hanifa said: ‘I have told my companions not to discuss on Ghadir-e-Khum in front of these Shiites for they have a lot to talk about Ghadir and they overcome you in ease!’

Right then, Haitham bin Habib Sairafi turned pale in the feature and said: “Why shouldn’t they confess the narrative? O No‘man, is the Ghadir narrative not fixed in your opinion?”

Abu Hanifa said: ‘Yes, the narrative of Ghadir is with me, it has been related to me. ‘Haitham said: “So, why do you not confess it? As you know, Habib bin Abi Sabit related to us by Abu Tofail quoting Zeid bin Arqam that Ali , Upon Him be Peace, announced it at ROHBAH that whoever had heard the narrative from the Messenger of Allah had to related it to the others.”

Abu Hanifa said: ‘Do you not see how mush dispute has been raised on this narrative? Ali was obliged to ask the people one by one to swear allegiance to him!’ Haitham said; “What! Do you say we must reject Ali and deny his words?”

Abu Hanifa said: ‘We do not reject Ali, nor do we deny his words, but you know that there are some people among the nation who always exaggerate!’

Haitham said: “The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, has announced the narrative of Ghadir-e-Khum, and he has delivered a loud sermon concerning it, but now, due to our fright we should be cautious in religious matter so that not to hurt some people’s feelings!” [77]

At that moment a man entered the room asking a question, so he stopped his discussion. This session of us took place in Kufa, and the market of Kufa, Habib bin Nazar bin Hayyan – the chief of Bani Hashim – was with me so both of us went to Haitham and he told Heitham: ‘I have been informed whatever you have spoken about Ali.’[78] Haitham said: ‘There are many opinions on this subject, but you try taking them easy!’

And after that, in the Hajj season we set out for the Hajj Pilgrimage, and Habib was also with us. We went straight to the Holiness Abu Abdullah Ja‘far bin Muhammad, Upon Him be Peace, and we greeted him. Habit went on explaining the event of Kufa took place in the presence of Abu Hanifa concerning his rejecting Ali and denying his sayings. After hearing what he say, the Holiness turned red in the face and got angry.

Habib said: ‘Here! This is Muhammad bin Nofl who was present at that session.’ The Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, stated: “Do stop this kind of discussion! Treat the people kindly though you are disagreeable with them!”

فان لكل امرى‏ء ما اكتسب، و هو يوم القيامة مع من احب، لا تحملوا الناس عليكم و علينا! و ادخلوا فى دهماء الناس: فان لنا اياما و دولة يأتى بها الله اذا شآء.

‘For every man among the people is what he has earned, and on the Day of Resurrection, he is neighbor with what he has earned. Try not imposing the people upon us! You too co-operate with the people. There is occasions and good opportunities for us that Allah will give at the proper time.’ By hearing what the Holiness say, Habit kept silent. The Holiness asked: ‘O Habit, did you take what I say! Try not going against what I say lest you will regret it!’ Habib answered: ‘I will never do anything against your command.’

Abu-al-Abbas ibn Oghda Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Saeed says: ‘I asked Ali bin Hassan about Muhammad bin Nofl and he told me: ‘He is from Kufa.’ I said: ‘Which tribe does he belong to?’ He said: ‘I believe he is the chief of Bani Hashim. And Habib bin Nazar bin Hayyan was also of the chiefs of Bani Hashim. And this narrative which has been taking place between Abu Hanifa and him was at the era of the government of Bani Abbas; at that period of time, there was not any chance for the followers of rightfulness of the Household of Muhammad, Bless be to Him and his Descendants.’[79]

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The citation of the highnesses Fatima, upon her be peace, to the event of Ghadir

Ibn Babweiia, by means of his documents from Mahmood bin Lobaid has written it in his book: “نصوص على الائمة الإثنى عشر عليه السلام”, that: after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Fatima used to go to the graveyard of the martyrs, and also Hamza, and kept on crying. On day I went to the graveyard of Hamza and noticed that Fatima, Upon Him be Peace, was there and weeping. I waited there until she finished weeping, then I went closer and greeted her saying: ‘O you the crown of the ladies! By Allah, you injured my heart by your crying!’ Fatima answered: ‘O Aba Amra! I deserve to cry, because I have lost the Messenger of Allah, the best father in the world,’ then she kept on reciting this poem:

اذا مات يوما ميت قل ذكره     و ذكر ابى قد مات و الله اكبر

When a man dies, his memory fades away; but mine

By Allah, has been increased in my mind!’

I had the honor to ask: ‘O my Master! I would like to ask you a question which always disturbs my mind!’ The Highness Fatima said: ‘Do ask me.’ So, I asked: ‘Did the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, dictated anything clearly before his demise concerning Ali?’ The Highness said: ‘It is very strange! Did you forget the event of the Day of Ghadir-e-Khum?’ I said: ‘Oh yes! There was a clear sermon which the Messenger delivered on that Day, but I want to know if the Messenger has said to you anything in private.’ She said:

  اشهد الله تعالى لقد سمعته يقول: على فيكم خير من اخلفه فيكم، و هو الامام و الخليفة بعدى، و سبطاه و تسعة من صلب الحسين ائمة ابرار. لئن اتبعتموهم وجدتموهم هادين مهديين، و لئن خالفتموهم ليكون الاختلاف فيكم الى يوم القيامة.

‘I call Allah as a witness that I heard him stating: ‘Among you Ali is the best man I am leaving, after me, he is the Imam and Caliph for you; and both his sons, Hassan and Hussein as well nine of their offspring are the best Leaders. If you obey them, you’ll find them the best guide. However, if you oppose them, this opposition will remain until the Day of Resurrection!’

I said: يا سيدتى فما باله قعد عن حقه؟‏ ‘O the great Lady of us! So why did he overlooked his right?’

She said:

قالت: يا ابا عمرة: لقد قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله: مثل الامام مثل الكعبة اذ تؤتى و لا تاتى- او قالت: مثل على- ثم قالت: اما و الله لو تركوا الحق على اهله و اتبعوا عترة نبيهم لما اختلف فى الله تعالى اثنان، و لورثها سلف عن سلف، و خلف عن خلف حتى يقوم قائمنا التاسع من صلب ولدى الحسين، و لكن قدموا ما اخره الله، و اخروا ما قدمه الله، حتى اذا الحدوا المبعوث، و اودعوه الجدث المجدوث اختاروا بشهوتهم و عملوا برايهم، تبا لهم الم يسمعوا الله يقول: و ربك يخلق ما يشآء و يختار ما كان لهم الخيرة[80] . بل سمعوا و لكنهم كما قال الله: فانها لا تعمى الأبصار و لكن تعمى القلوب التى فى الصدور. هيهات بسطوا فى الدنيا آمالهم و نسوا آجالهم، فتعسا لهم و اضل اعمالهم. اعوذبك من الجور بعد الكور. [81] & [82]

‘O Aba Amrat! The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, said: ‘The similitude of the Imam is the similitude of Ka‘ba. That is, people must go towards it but not it goes towards the people.’ Or so is the similitude of Ali to the similitude of Ka‘ba.’ Then, the Highness Fatima said: ‘By Allah, if they trusted the right to the rightful ones, and if they followed their Messenger, then there would not be even two disagreeable people on the earth. Then, the Imamate would be predecessor – the previous one would inherit it from the previous one, and the future from the future one. It would run in the same way until our Existing One who is nine among the offspring of Hussein would advent. However, they put forward whatever Allah postponed it; and that which Allah put forward they postponed it. As soon as they laid the Messenger in the grave and they hid him within the grave, they demanded the Imamate by their own desires; they behaved according to their will. Let them be perished, down with them!’

Did they not hear the statement of Allah who stated: ‘O Messenger, Your Creator creates everything He will, but they have no power or author to do that? Yes, they heard but they are according to Allah’s statement in the noble verse: ‘their eyes are not blind but their hearts are blind; alas! How far they are from the fact and how ignorant they are!’ They have laid the tablecloth of their desires in this world and totally forgot their perishing! Thus, let death befall on them, let their sowing be ruined. I take refuge in Allah for their aggression in this whirling world!’

The great and respectable narrator, Sayyid Hashim Bahrani, after relating the narrative of the both Sunnite and Shiite in Ghāyat-al-Maram, says: ‘We are satisfied just with this amount of the narrative of the Ghadir-e-Khum, because it is impossible to narrate all the narratives on this subject. Concerning the merit of the event of Ghadir-e-Khum, the learned Sheikh Muhammad bin Ali bin Shahr Aashub in his book says:

‘All the Muslim scholars unanimously agree on the basis of this event, the only difference is in the style of their translation. The event of Ghadir-e-Khum has so widely spread about that not any narrative is known as clearly as it is acknowledged. It has become most important and the world-wide historical event. No one can ignore it unless he is an absolute prejudice and opponent.

How can we find a book among the events and narratives to be presented more than a thousand times in the Sunnite and Shiite books – either by the ancient or the recent ones?

The event of Ghadir-e-Khum has been related by: Muhammad bin Ishaq, Ahmad Balazori, Molim bin Hajjaj, Abu Noaim Isfahani, Abu-al-Hassan dar-Ghotbi, Abu Bakr bin Mardoweiia, Ibn Shahin Marwazi, Abu Bakr Baghlani, Abul Maani Jowaini, Abu Ishaq Tha‘labi, Abu Saeed Khargushi, Abu-al-Mozaffar Samaani, Abu Bakr bin Shaiba, Ali bin Ja‘d, Sho‘ba, A‘mash, Ibn Ayyash, Ibn Salah, Sha‘bi, Zohri, Iqlisi, Jeaabi, Ibn Bay‘yi, Ibn Majeh, Ibn Abd Rabbeh, Alkani, Sharik Ghazi, and Abu Ya‘li Mosali. And apart from these, Ahmad bin Hanbal has related it in twenty different ways; and then, ibn Battah has also related it in twenty-three ways. Ali bin Hilal Mohallabi has written the book of “Al-Ghadir”, Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Saeed has authored the book of the “Narrators of Ghadir-e-Khum”, and he has mentioned seventy different ways in it. And ibn Jarir Tabari has written a book as the “Guardian” which is the very Ghadir-e-Khum and has stated that there are seventy different styles of written subjects about it. Masood Shajari has written a book about the numerous ways concerning this event, and Razi has put in the alphabetical order the name of all those who have written about the Ghadir-e-Khum, in his book. Abu al-Abbas ibn Oghdah has written a book in this subject and he has mentioned: ‘I heard Abu Ali At‘tar Hamedani saying that: “This narrative has been related to me in two hundred and fifty different ways.”’

And then, from Shahr Aashub, whose grandfather  had related the event of Abu-al-Moaali Jowaini in Baghdad, and his witnessing the 28th volume of the book of Ghadir with the book-binder; he had said the volume 29th was on the way to arrive – his noticing it had surprised him. [83]

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The occurrence of Ghadir is evident and the necessity of the history

Anyhow, by what has been related so far, it becomes clear that the event of Ghadir-e-Khum is of the most authentic and the most needed history in Islam. Rejecting it is similar to covering the bright sun in the middle of the day. It is so obvious that the living Sunnite scientists in Egypt have accepted it; the only thing is that they believe it is inconsistent to the western democracy, so they do not approve it putting into practice. They consider it being democracy and they hold up the law of choosing Imam by voting.

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The enmity of the westernized Sunnite about the event of Ghadir

Ahmad Amin Misri has gone too far in condemning and abusing the Shiite in his books “فجر الاسلام”, “ضحى الاسلام” and “ظهر الاسلام”; and nor has he avoided criticizing the scholars of the Shiite and their books. Whoever comes across this book understands his grudge and enmity towards the Shiite – however, he has approved and confessed the rightfulness of the event of All-Ghadir.

It has been mentioned in the book of “The Islam New Political Thoughts” that: Ahmad Amin is trying to bring about a complex discussion concerning this special subject of the Shiite (Chastity, Mah‘di‘ism, Concealment and restitution of the Imam) against the religion of the Sunnite. Concerning these four questions, there is a modern and liberal thought in most Amin’s consideration. He objects the theories of the Shiite Imamate, it is not that he does not believe the event of the Ghadir-e-Khum (for according to what he says, the majority of the Sunnite scholars believe it), but he thinks it is contrary to the new democracy. [84]

Sheikh Muhammad Abdah has written in the “Commentary of al-Minar” that Muhammad Rashid Reza says: ‘In fact, Ahmad has extracted the narrative of “من كنت مولاه فعلى مولاه” and put it in his “مسند” from the narrative of Baraa and Boraida, Tirmizi, Nasaee and Zeia in the “مختارة” from the narrative of Zeid bin Arqam and ibn Majeh who have taken out from Baraa. Some of the narrators have considered it to be of the good narratives; and Zahabi has considered it to be of the rightist narratives. And has also considered the documents of the narratives of those who have added this part: اللهم وال من والاه، و عاد من عاداه، و انصر من نصره، و اخذل من خذله in their writings.

It is related that the Messenger addressed the people by explaining the principals of the religion; and he enjoined them to look after his household, as:

And it has been related that the Messenger addressed the people teaching them the basic of the Islam and advising them to look after his Household, as:

انى قد تركت فيكم الثقلين: كتاب الله و عترتى اهل بيتى، فانظروا كيف تخلفونى فيهما، فانهما لم يفترقا حتى يردا على الحوض.

الله مولاى، و انا ولى كل مؤمن، ثم اخذ بيد على و قال: من كنت مولاه‏ فعلى مولاه، اللهم وال من والاه، و عاد من عاداه، و انصر من نصره، و اخذل من خذله. [85]

‘I have indeed left with you two precious things: the Book of Allah and my family, the Household, be watchful not to oppose them, they will not separate from each other until they come to me by the Kow‘thar [river in Paradise].

Allah is my Protector and I am the Guardian of all the Muslims, then he held Ali on his hand and said: ‘Whomsoever I am a Master so is Ali his Master; O Allah, be Friend to him who is friend with Ali, and be opponent to one who is against Ali; and assist one who assists Ali and abject him who humiliates Ali!’

Then, after a brief discussion, he says: ‘Now we accept the narrative concerning “The Guardianship on the Day of Ghadir” and we get guidance through that. We believe in the Guardianship of Ali and also whoever has his guardianship; on the other hand, we hate the enemies of the Household. We take his Guardianship as the Guardianship of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and we believe that never will separate the Household of the Messenger with the Book of Allah, the Honorable and Exalted; that is, the Household and the Book of Allah are two commemorations of the Messenger. Apart from the event of Ghadir, we prove this case by means of other authentic sources. Therefore, if the onions of the Household are a certain affair we do believe and follow them, but if there is a disputation about it we leave it with Allah and His Messenger.[86]

After all, as they lack the sense of obeying the innocent Imam chosen by Allah, they still respect and follow that “Saqifa Bani Saeeda” and the caliphate of the usurper caliphs; and turning over the case of the Ghadir-e-Khum and also the other narratives to their affections so that to fine a way to escape following the right.

Muhammad Farid Wajdi, who has put in his “Encyclopedia”, of every subjects and commands, the events and the histories, creeds and religions and too many names and titles, and he has discussed enough on everything; he has even discussed on cucumbers in two full pages. He has collected ten pages of different kinds of cucumbers – long and corrugated variety of cucumbers; however he has not said a single word about Ghadir, the story of the Messenger of Allah, Johfa, the sermon of the Messenger or the Guardianship! He has not discussed of the Ghadir, nor has said a word about the Khum; he has not explained what the Guardianship or the Ghadir are, the only thing he has said is the word Johfa: ‘Johfa is a position between Mecca and Medina.

He discusses on the subject of Caliphate in twenty-five pages;[87] he discusses the situations in details: the situation after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, the congregation of the Helpers in “Saqifa Bani Saeeda” and Omar, Abu Bakr and Abu Obaida Jarrah’s gathering in Saqifa and finally he has discussed the swearing allegiance with Abu Bakr. However, he has mentioned a sentence about the narrative of Ghadir, or other narratives about the caliphate, governing or the successor-ship of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. As if there had not been such a thing in Islam at all. And he has thirty-seven[88] lengthy discussion about the Guardianship, and has discussion about the Sufism and their creeds, but he says not a single word about the event of the Guardianship and the verse of “Event” in the Qur’an. As if the Messenger was not a Messenger on this case; nor was Ali bin Abī Tālib a member of this nation!

Then, as you see, now and then he has discussions about the choice of Caliph and democracy, and by means of the verses of the Qur’an and the traditions of the Messenger he tries to match the Islam with the western democracy! Perhaps by doing so, it was in his mind that was helping Islam and the Qur’an in this way; to mend the defect and separate the Guardianship from the Islam and the Qur’an.

While he admits the mistakes of Omar, Abu Bakr and Othman, and he strictly opposes Othman; he considers him to be responsible for not accepting to resign from the government and instead he praises Ali in this occasion. In such circumstances, he still cling to the opinions of his ancestors and dos not his religion to accept the true Islam, Shiite. Therefore, this blissful verse:

إِنَّا  وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا عَلَى أُمَّةٍ وَإِنَّا عَلَى آثَارِهِمْ مُقْتَدُونَ. [89]

‘…We have found our forefathers with such a community, and we are indeed following their tracks, (Qur’an: 43/23).’   

clearly represents their situation and blindly following their ancestors.

On the subject of fraction which he discusses as the “Fraction of Islam’s Event”, he admits the opposition of Omar with the Messenger of Allah when he avoided them to bring an ink-pot and some paper for the Messenger to write his will in his death-bed. And he opposes Jaish Osama, and he also opposes Omar’s saying that:

من قال: ان محمدا مات قتلته بسيفى.[90]

‘Whoever says that Muhammad ha died, I’ll kill him with my sword.’

And he admits the case of Saqifa and Abu Bakr command for the Imamate, as well Omar’s paying homage, and his saying that:

الا ان بيعة ابى بكر كانت فلتة وقى الله شرها، فمن اعاد الى مثلها فاقتلوه، فايما رجل بايع رجلا من غير مشورة من المسلمين فانهما جديران ان يقتلا. [91]

‘Be aware that swearing allegiance with Abu Bakr was baseless and through senselessness, it was perfunctory, therefore, may Allah secure us from the consequence of it. So, anyone who wants to pay allegiance like that with someone do kill him! Anyone, who swears allegiance with someone but without consulting the Muslims, then both of them deserve to be killed. 

And he confesses the Highnesses Fatima’s fighting for Fadak; and also Abu Bakr’s fighting with those avoiding paying the ZAKAT. He goes on counting the  faults and sins of Othman one by one, then he says: ‘All these have happened for the benefit of the Muslims, and the Caliphate must be assigned by the election of the people.’[92]

Then, he says:[93] و بالجمله كان على مع الحق و الحق مع على ‘On the whole, Ali is the Right and Right is with Ali.’

So what! Was this scholar not familiar with the books, narratives, traditions and the history? Has he not seen the narratives of Ghadir in great many books which we have explained just few numbers of them here? Does the unilateral judgment according to democracy and liberty let him to ignore the successive narrative and cast it into the oblivion?

That which is more certain is that these kinds of Muslims go after null and void, they turn away from the right. Such scholars must be blamed for changing the right history and then giving the society the distorted history instead!

These abject people who, through intrigue, try to prove that Abu Bakr’s Caliphate was the government of democracy, and in that way trying to strength the basis of their religion, then what is their opinion about the Caliphate of Omar which was based on the personal despotic opinion of Abu Bakr? And above all, what is their answer to the Caliphate of Othman which was based on the personal despotic opinion of Omar! Was the choice of Omar or Othman by the consultation of all Muslims?

Now by our explanation in details, it has becomes clear why they have kept the event of Ghadir secret! The event of Ghadir cuts their final narrow thought to hesitate! And as Abu Hanifa said: لا تقروا بها فيخصموكم ‘Do not admit it because Ali’s followers defeat you by that [narrative]; so the only way is to hide the Ghadir Event altogether! Like Bukhari and Moslim, who have not mentioned it in their theological books ‘SAHIH’! That is why the ‘SEHAH’ of those two are most authentic to the Sunnite than the other book; they strengthen the basis of their religion – they go with the opinions of the usurp Caliphs of that period.

Bukhari and Moslim have not written the narratives about Mahdi, the Existing One in Muhammad’s Household either, they have totally ignored him! However, their other four ‘SEHAH’: Nasaee, Ahmad Hanbal, Yarmazi and ibn Majeh, by means of their authentic documents, have explained the narratives of Ghadir and of that Mahdi, from the Household of Muhammad. Nevertheless, the critics of the way of life and history, even the impartial Westerns have clearly explained it that according to the logical theory, the right is with Ali bin Abī Tālib, but they have deprived him from his right!

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The humility of the strangers in front of the personality of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace

The Christian George Saj‘aan Jordaq says: ‘Either you know this man or you do not know him he is there in the history and in front of the fact! Because the history stands as a witness that he is the everlasting virtue, he is the master of the martyrs; he is the voice of the human justice and is the outstanding personality;’ he goes on saying:

ماذا عليك يا دنيا لو حشدت قواك فاعطيت فى كل زمان عليا بعقله و قلبه و لسانه و ذى فقاره.‏

‘O world! What difference would it make to you if you gathered your strength and brought forth a personality as Ali, Upon Him be Peace, in each period – a man with such wisdom, heart, tongue, the same sword!’   

Fu‘aad Jordaq, the Christian, says: ‘Whenever I am burdened with difficulties in life, and then I want to free myself, I take refuge into the threshold of Ali, Upon Him be Peace. It is because he is the shelter for any mournful man; he is as thunderbolt towards the aggressive, but a merciful assistant to the lost and broken persons.

Shibli Shumaiiel, the famous materialist of Egypt, says: ‘Ali, Upon Him be Peace, is the greatest man in the world; he is the only person that there has been not a man similar to him in the past, now and in the future.’

The enemies to the Guardianship tried to do with the main purity. They tried to kill the relaters of the narratives wherever they came across in the world. It was a crime to mention the name of Ali; they tried to lead the people to the ignorant era, to keep them away from the main Islam and ignorant to the fact – training them to follow the Messenger without Ali bin Abī Tālib, and recite the Qur’an without understanding the meaning of that. They went too far so that once they arrested a man called ‘Ali’ and they took him to Hajjaj bin Yusuf and he asked the man for his name, he explained: ‘My parents declared me disobedient and cursed me by giving me such a name.’

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The book of “Al-imamate and As-Seiasat, and Yanabi-al-Mawadda” was banned

As we saw it, ibn Hajar Heithami, the writer of “Sawaeeq Mohragha” objects ibn Ghotaiba Dinwari, the author of the book “Al-Imamate and Politics” that why he, with such higher position and the highest degree of knowledge has written such things in his book to be the means of disputation between the common people! The scholars are not always obliged to write the facts, because their writings become a good pretext for the common people; therefore, they must write such a thing that not to be apprehension.[94]

Yes, the question is that they could not challenge in the dignity of ibn Ghotaiba, nor could they complain him for his book of “Al-Imamate and Politics”. Otherwise, they would ignore his dignity and greatness in the history, or they would easily reject the book to be of his own! “Al-Imamate and Politics” is a book from the Sunnite, and it is old and of the most authentic and right book among the books of the Sunnite. Its author is Abi Muhammad Abdullahbin Moslim Dinwari, deceased in the year 270 Hijri.

Muhammad Farid Wajdi, after explaining some of the event of Saghifa, continues: ‘It is a small part of what Al‘lāma Dinwari has explained in details in his book “Al-Imamate and Politics”.[95]

And after explaining Abu Bakr’s sermon in Saghifa Bani Saeda, he continues in the footnotes, ‘We have related this sermon from the book of “Al-Imamate and Politics” of Muhammad Abdullah bin Moslim Dinwari, deceased in the year 270 Hijri; and then, in the main text says: ‘And the book which we have related the sermon out of is the oldest and most authentic book of them, and it includes the Islamic Caliphate.’ [96]

And as they couldn’t deny the subjects of the book, they banned it and branded it as the forbidden book. This book, as well as “Yanabi al-Mawadda”, Ghonduzi Hanafi, were published and distributed in these territories a hundred years ago: it was banned in the Othman Country (now as Turkey) and Iraq. However, as the time passed by, they published it in great numbers and were distributed everywhere and in many bookshops and libraries; it was out of control to stop it.

There are many cases and events recorded in the book of “Al-Imamate and Politics”, such as: the refusal of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, to swear allegiance, Zobair, Miqdad, Salman and some others taking refuge in the house of Fatima, Upon Her be Peace, by force, taking the Commander of the believers to the mosque, and then, the highness Fatima going after him, and Fatima’s taking refuge by the grave of the Messenger and also some subjects from the Immigrants and the Helpers.

The opponents of the Guardianship oppressed themselves by their so much oppression towards the position of the main Guardian; it is surprising that how much they tried to hide the fact and on top the Guardianship. In the end, they were deprived in their destiny and became like the blind bat in the middle of the dark night! They should know that the sun cannot be covered by a tiny bat!

The fans and the lovers of the Guardianship, though have been suffering, have always tried to say their words, write and compose poems and praise their Imam, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace – though some of them lost their lives, such as, Roshaid Hajari and Meitham Tammar who recited their elegy at the moment they were being hanged. The poets composed poetries, the orators lectured and delivered sermons, every generation felt to be responsible to the next generation; let’s praise Allah as it belongs to Him only. Thank Allah that nowadays, the name of Ali is known all over the world, it is known and seen not only in Islamic society but in the circle of the non-Muslim. They consider Ali to be the sample of highness, and great personality; and they respect him. And his followers are proud wherever they are. On the other hand, his opponent are humiliated and very often they try to cover the fact by burying the fact. However, they should know that it is out of control, this kind of covering the fact only humiliate then in the society.

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The elegy of Komait, the poet of the Household, on the event of Ghadir

Komait, the poet, has taken a great step in his “Hashemi‘iat” in supporting the history of the Household. As his birth was in 60 and demise in 126, he was the contemporary of the Holiness Imam Zain-al-Aabedin and the Holiness Imam Bāqir, Upon Them be Peace; that is, he lived under the severe government of Bani Omayyad. By tolerating hard punishment and being in prison he ran a painful life but did not give up praising the Household and composing poems for them. In his poems that he has composed for Ghadir-e-Khum, he has mentioned the necessity of the Guardianship and following them. Now, we are to bring some of his poems:

1. وَ يَوْمَ الدَّوْحِ دَوْحِ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ           أبَانَ لَهُ الْوَلَايَهَ لَوْ اطِيعَا

2. وَ لَكِنَّ الرِّجَالَ تَبَايَعُوهَا                فَلَمْ أرَ مِثْلَهَا خَطَراً مَبِيعَا

3. فَلَمْ ابْلِغْ بِهَا لَعْنَاً وَ لكِنْ                 أسَاءَ بِذَاكَ أوَّلُهُمْ صِنيعَا

4. فَصَارَ بِذَلِكَ أقْرَبُهُمْ لِعَدْل             إلَى جَوْرٍ وَ أحْفَظُهُمْ مُضِيعَا

5. أضَاعُوا أمْرَ قَائِدِهِمْ فَضَلُّوا           وَ أقْومِهِمْ لَدَى الْحِدْثَانِ رِيعَا

6. تَنَاسَوْا حَقَّهُ وَ بَغَوْا عَلَيْهِ               بِلَاتِرَهٍ وَ كَانَ لَهُمْ قَرِيعَا

7. فَقُلْ لِبَنِى امَيَّهَ حَيْثُ حَلُّوا             و إنْ خِفْتَ الْمُهَنَّدَ وَ الْقَطِيعَا

8. ألَا افَّ لِدَهْرٍ كُنْتُ فِيهِ                هِدَاناً طَائِعاً لَكُمُ مُطِيعَا

9. أجَاعَ اللهُ مَنْ أشْبَعْتُمُوُه                وَ أشْبَعَ مَنْ بِجَوْرِكُمُ اجِيعَا

10. وَ يَلْعَنُ فَدَّ امَّتِهِ جَهَاراً                 إذَا سَاسَ الْبِرَيَّهَ وَ الْخَلِيعَا

11. بِمَرْضِىِّ السِّياسَةِ هَاشِمِىٌّ            يَكُونُ حَياً لُامَّتِهِ رَبِيعَا

12. وَ لَيْثاً فِى الْمَشَاهِدِ غَيْرَ نُكْسٍ         لِتَقْوِيمِ الْبَرِيَّهِ مُسْتَطِيعَا

13. يُقِيمُ امُورَهَا وَ يَذُبُّ عَنْهَا             وَ يَتْرُكُ جَدْبَهَا أبَداً مَرِيعَا  

1- And on the Day when they made a shady place with the trees, the trees of Ghadir-e-Khum; then, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, revealed the Guardianship of Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, to the people – if it had been accepted, it would have been followed.

2- However, some men in the folk, took it as the means of dealing; I have never seen a great affair like the case of the Guardianship to be dealt in that way!

3- However I do not curse or turn away from such dealings but they did an ugly affair in the beginning.

4- In this action, the nearest of them to the justice were drawn towards the oppression, and the closest guards of them became the most aggressive ones.

5- They ignored the command of their Leader Ali, were spoiled and lost the tracks; the command was his who was the strongest in the affairs of the world, and his decision was the firmest.

6- They deliberately forgot his right, oppressed him, they did so without any reasonable excuse; though he was the master, custodian and supervisor to them.

7- So say it to Bani Omayyad that wherever they may be – if you are frightened of his sword and so are you frightened of being cut into pieces –:

8- Fie on this world with my living in it and then being your follower; then to feel reluctant to fight you!

9- May Allah bring starving to one whom you have fed his belly! And may He satisfy one whom you have oppressed and made him hungry.

10-11- And is that man who has taken the control of the nation in hand and even if his ruling is satisfying for his people but they always curse him similar to the ruling of that man of Hashimi who is like the spring rain so worthy and beneficial for his nation!

12- That brave Hashemi man, who is as fierce as a lion in the battlefields, and without giving thought to loss fights to support the oppressed people of the world.

13- And he always sees to the affairs of the nation, and defends them; and tries to change the barren land of the nation into fertilized and fruitful land.’

Abu-al-Fotuh Razi says: ‘Komait has related to me “I dreamed the Holiness Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, who told me: “Do read that your poem of Aineiia to me!” I started reading it until I reached this part:

وَ يَوْمَ الدَّوْحِ دَوْحِ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ           أبَانَ لَهُ الْوَلَايَهَ لَوْ اطِيعَا

And on the Day when they made a shady place with the trees, the trees of Ghadir-e-Khum; then, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, revealed the Guardianship of Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, to the people – if it had been accepted, it would have been followed.

The Holiness stated: ‘You are right!’ Then, the Holiness himself read this verse:

وَ لَمْ أرَ مِثْلَ ذَاكَ الْيَوْمِ يَوْماً             وَ لَمْ أرَ مِثْلَهُ حَقّاً اضِيعَا [97]

‘I have never seen a day like that day; and never have I seen a right to be taken away like that right!’

And Bayazi Aamoli has said it in the book of “الصّراط المستقيم‏”, the straight path, that: ‘Komeit’s son had dreamed the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and the Holiness had told him: “Do read that your poem of Aineiia to me!” I started reading it until I reached this part:

وَ يَوْمَ الدَّوْحِ دَوْحِ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ

‘And on the Day when they made a shady place with the trees, the trees of Ghadir-e-Khum,’ the Holiness Messenger of Allah burst into tears and said: “Right said your father, Allah have mercy on him, إى، وَ اللهِ، لَمْ أرَ مِثْلَهُ حَقّاً اضِيعَا well-done! I have never seen a right like that to be spoiled and taken away!” [98]

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About the Hashemeiiat Elegies of Komait

It is said the first poem, concerning the “Hashemit”, that Komeit has composedis this poem:

1. طَربْتُ وَ مَا شَوْقاً إلَى الْبِيضِ أطْرَبُ      وَلَا لعِباً مِنِّى؛ وَ ذُو الشَّيْبِ يَلْعَبُ؟

2. وَ لَمْ يُلْهِنِى دَارٌ وَلَا رَسْمُ مَنْزلٍ             وَ لَمْ يَتَطَرَّبْنِى بَنَانٌ مُخَضَّبُ

3. وَلَا السَّانِحَاتِ الْبَارِحَاتِ عَشِيَّةً             أمَرَّ سَلِيمُ الْقَرْنِ أمْ مَرَّ أعْضَبُ

4. وَ لَكِنْ إلَى أهْلِ الْفَضَائِلِ وَ التُّقَى           وَ خَيْرِ بَنِى الْحَوَّاءِ وَ الْخَيْرُ يُطْلَبُ

5. إلَى النَّفَر الْبيِضِ الَّذِينَ بِحُبِّهِمْ              إلَى اللهِ فِيمَا نَابَنِى أتَقَرَّبُ

6. بَنِى هَاشِمٍ رَهْطِ النَّبىِّ فَإنَّنِى                 بِهِمْ وَ لَهُمْ أرْضَى مِرَاراً وَ اغْضَبُ

7. خَفَضْتُ لَهُمْ مِنِّى جَنَاحِى مَوَدَّةً             إلَى كَنَفٍ عِطْفَاهُ أهْلٌ وَ مَرْحَبُ

8. وَ كُنْتُ لَهُمْ مِنْ هَؤْلَاءِ وَ هَؤُلآءِ            مُحِبّاً عَلَى أنِّى اذَمُّ وَ اغْضَبُ

9. وَ ارْمَى وَ أرْمِى بِالْعَدَاوَةِ أهْلَها             وَ إنِّى لَاوذَى فِيهِمُ وَ اؤَنَّبُ [99]

و قا ل

10. فَمَالِىَ إلَّا آلُ أحْمَدَ شِيعَةٌ                     وَ مَالِىَ إلَّا مَذْهَبُ الْحَقَّ مَذْهَبُ

11. بِأىَّ كِتَابٍ أمْ بِأيَّةِ سُنَّةٍ                       تَرَى حُبَّهُمْ عَاراً عَلَىَّ وَ تَحْسِبُ

12. وجَدْنَا لَكُمْ فِى آلِ حم آيَةً                    تَأَوَّلَهَا مِنَّا تَقِىٌّ وَ مُعْرِبُ

13. عَلَى أىَّ جُرْمٍ أمْ بِايَّهِ سِيَرةٍ                اعَنَّفُ فِى تَقْرِيظِهِمْ وَ اكَذَّبُ

و قا ل

14. ألَمْ تَرَنى مِنْ حُبِّ آل مُحَمَّدٍ                أَرُوحُ وَ أَغْدُو خَائِفاً أتَرَقَّبُ

15. فَطَائِفَهٌ قَدْ أكْفَرَتْنِى بِحُبَّهِمْ                  وَ طايفةٌ قَالَتْ مُسِى‏ءُ وَ مُذْنِبُ

و قا ل

16. فَإنْ هِىْ لَمْ تَصْلَحْ لِحَىًّ سِوَاهُمُ             فَإنَّ ذَوِى الْقُرْبَى أحَقُّ وَ أوْجَبُ

17. يَقُولُونَ لَم يُورَثْ وَلَوْلَا تُرَانُهُ              لَقَدْ شَرِكَتْ فِيهَا بَكِيلٌ وَ أرْجَبُ [100]

‘I was delighted and became cheerful, but my delight was not because of the fair women with the charming figures, nor was it through a kind of game, for a frail man with grey hair is not involved in games!

2- Never a luxury home lured my passions, nor the ruined homes therein the beloved of mine dwelt before; nor did the dyed nails of the bride enticed me.

3- And I am not of those whose hidden thoughts move about; right and let, up and down at night – I keep quiet, I stay silent whether a sound-horn animal passes by me or an animal with the broken horn.

4- However, my passion and desire is towards the virtues, and the men of piety and purification – those who are the genuine sons of Eve, and are everlasting beloved!

5- Toward the bright faced beings, those who when I am afflicted refer to and ask for their assistant.

6- Those are the Bani Hashim, the relative of the Messenger, and time and again I was honored by them and was satisfied – I have become furious for the sake of them.

7- For their friendship, I stretched my wings for them; I stretched my wings so wide that I covered the both ends under my wings.

8- And I was the loving friend of them, and was always condemned by the enemy folk and scorned by the ungrateful people.

9- I was constantly targeted by the enemies, I also shot at those who were enemies to them; I was always oppressed for my protecting them, and was blamed for my deep concern towards them.

And he says:

10- Therefore, I follow and obey no one but the Household of Ahmad, never have I any religion except Ahmad’s.

11- By means of which verse or tradition do you disgrace my following them; and you brand me of the shameful!

12- We have come across a verse in the chapter of “حم” which is commented to be “The pious and the most learned ones”.

13- For which crime or character must I be condemned for praising them; and to be branded as a liar!?

And he says:

14- Do you not see me how I am hiding here and there all through the daytime in fright of being capture!

15- Some people accused me of heresy for being the lovers of the Household of Muhammad; and some said I was of the disbelievers!

And he says:

16- So, if the Guardianship belongs to no tribes except the Quraish, then the close relatives of the Messenger are in priority and they deserve it.

17- They say: ‘The Guardianship cannot be inherited;’ so, if it cannot be inherited, it was so wide and lengthy that it could reach the tribe of Bakil and Arhab, so why did you specified it for you?


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[71] “غاية المرام‏”, page 95, narrative thirty-one. And “أمالى شيخ‏”, volume 2, part eighteen, pages 131 and 132.
[72] “ غاية المرام‏”, page 95, narrative thirty-two. And “أمالى شيخ‏”, volume 2, the Friday session 4th of Muharram 457, pages 158 and 159.
[73] (Ghāyat-al-Maram, page 95, the thirty-second narrative, and the Aamali of ibn Shekh, volume 2, the session of Friday 4th of Muharram, year 457, page 159).
[74] “غاية المرام‏”, page 95, and 96 narrative thirty-four. And “أمالى شيخ‏”, volume 2, pages 170 and 171.
[75] “غاية المرام‏”, page 96, narrative thirty-five . And “أمالى شيخ‏”, volume 2, pages 172 and 173.
[76] “غاية المرام‏”, page 96, narrative thirty-six.
[77] “: غاية المرام‏”, page 96, narrative thirty-eight.
[78] When the title of “مَولى‏” is added to someone’s name, it means page, servant or Master, like that we may say: Ghanbar if the “مَولى‏” of Ali, that means Ghanbar as as slave to Ali. Or we might say: Ali is the “مَولى” of Ghanbar, and it means Ali is his Master. However, if this word is used for for a tribe, like مَولى Bani Asad, مَولى Azd, مَولى Thaghif then, one of the two meanings is obtained:

one is: confederation, and the second one is the immigrated one to that tribe . Anyohow, “حبيب بن نَزَار بن‏حيّان‏”, who was the “مَولى” of Bani Hashim was immigrated there, and had made a confederation with them – he was either a مَولى or made a confederation with them, or jusy had joined the Tribe of Bani Hashim. And by saying so, it becomes clear that on the Day of Aashora, شَوْذَب‏ was alongside of عابس  بن شبيب شاكرى‏, and he was called شَوذب مَولى شاكر, but not servant of عابس  
شَوذب made confederation with anyone enter that tribe, therefore, he he travelled to Karbala together with عابس . Perhaps his position was even higher that عابس, because it has been said about him: وَ كزانَ مُتَقَدَّماً فى الشِّيعَة.
[79] “أمالى‏” of Sheikh Mofid, printed in the year 1403 of the Lunar Hijri, the third session , pages from 26 to 28.
[80] Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 68.
[81] “غاية المرام‏”, pages 96 and 97, narrative thirty-nine.

[82] In the book of “نهاية”, ibn Athir has done the word ‘حَور’ with a redundant ‘حَ’, and he says:

 ‘نَعُوذ بِاللهِ مِنَ الحَورِ بَعْدَ الكَوْرِ أى من النقصان بعد الزيادة. و قيل: من فساد امورنا بعد اصلاحها. و قيل: من الرجوع عن الجماعة بعد أن كنّا منهم. و أصله من نقض العمامة بعد لفِّها.

However, as he brought it with the ‘J’ sound we too are doing so.
[83] "غایة المرام", page 103.
[84] “The Modern Politics Thought of Islam” written by Doctor Hamid Enayat, Transted by Abu Talib Saremi, page 39.

[85] “تفسير المنار”, volume 6, pages 464 and 465.

[86] The Commentary of al-Minar “تفسير المنار”, volume 6, page 467.

[87] The Encyclopedia of Wajdi, volume 3, pages 743 to 768.

[88] The Encyclopedia of Wajdi, volume 10, pages 811 to 848.

[89] Surah 43, "زخرف", Verse 23: “We found our forefathers upon a creed, and so do we follow them”.

[90] "Whoever should say Muhammad is dead, I shall kill him with this sword of mine".

[91] "Know that swearing allegiance with Abu Bakr was with no stability or giving the second thought, may Allah secure us from its consequences! So mat Allah destroy whomsoever wants to pay the same homage with someone else! Anyone who pays allegiance but without consulting with his Muslim brothers, both deserve to be ruined".

[92] The Encyclopedia of Wajdi, volume 7, pages 218 onward.

[93] The same book, page 222.

[94] In the book of “تطهير اللسان‏”, which is printed at the margin of “صواعق محرقه‏”, on the page 94 that which we explained some of it subject in our ‘Know the Imams’ series.

[95] The Encyclopedia of Wajdi, volume 3, page 745.

[96] The Encyclopedia of Wajdi, volume 3, page 749.

[97] “تفسير ابو الفتوح‏”, Mozaf’fari’s punlication, volume 2, page 193.

[98] Al-Ghadir, volume 2, a brief from page 180 up to the page 183.

[99] “اغانى‏” Sasi’s publication, volume 15, pages 119 and 120, while explaining it to Farzdagh the poet.

[100] He ha added this line in “شرح شواهد مغنى‏”, Siyu:ti, first volume, page 34.

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