In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Volume1, On the Chasity of the Prophets and the Imams upon them be peace

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lesson One: On the Chastity of the Prophets and the Imams upon them be peace


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

On the chastity of the prophets and the Imams upon them be peace And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.

The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:

كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لِمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ. [1]

 '… People were a single nation, so Allah sent forth the messengers to give them good news and warn [them]. And He sent [His] Book with the truth that it might guide people about what they had been arguing. However, those who were given (the Books) disputed about it out of envy towards one another until after the apparent proofs had been brought to them.

Therefore, by His mercy, Allah guided those who believed to the truth of what they disagreed about; for Allah guides whomever He wills to the Straight Path, (Qur'an: 2/213).'

The Basic Dispute Between the Shiite and Sunnite

The only dispute between Shiite and Sunnite is the question of the Guardianship. The Shiite’s belief is that an Imam must be chaste and chosen by Allah, while the Sunnite say, 'The Imams need not be chaste and the people can choose their own Imam and follow him.'

The whole disputes, which always remain between these two factions, are minors and related to this. The very main difference on Imamate has naturally affected the minor ones. It seems that if this main dispute is solved and the two factions unanimously accept one religion only, the rest minor misunderstandings can be ignored and the people will get united.

Nowadays, by Allah’s will and the assistance of the immaculate souls of the Guardians of Allah, we are thoroughly investigating this problem. We are to unveil the question of Imamate by the means of Allah's Book and the manifest text of the Messenger, Bless be to him and his Descendants. It is but:

بِحولهِ وقوتهِ و لا حول ولا قوة اِلاّ بِا للّهِ العليِّ العظيمِ   

With the power and the strength of Him, for there is no power and no strength except for the High Magnificent Allah.

Now, to present a vivid explanation to the foregoing verse, (2/213); We are to mention some examples as the introduction.

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Imams are as the Hearts in Human's Bodies

There are too many organic mechanisms in every man's body that each one functions according to its assigned duty: the eyes are for seeing, the ears for hearing, the noses are for breathing and smelling, the tongue is for tasting and the feet and the hands are for holding things and walking. Each one of these muscles is active but by getting its energy from the heart.

The heart sends the blood to every single organ in the body and gives frequent fresh life to them; the fresh blood sending by heart keeps them lively. Then, when for an instance, the heart stops its functioning and serving them these lively organs change into dead substances and lose their values. The eyes do not see, the ears cannot hear; hands do not move and the feet become dead and numb.

Thus, the value of the heart and its main task is to supervise those organic mechanisms under its control; no one can say I need not a heart, because it [is idle, and] does not do anything useful for me: it neither sees nor hears; neither speaks nor writes anything, and nor ….

We have eyes and see [everything] with them, and we have ears and listen by them. We have tongues and speak by means of them and we have hands to write [and to do other things] with.

Their declaration is wrong, because all eyes, ears, tongue feet and hands are useless without the powerful [generating] hearts. In an instant, the eye encounters with thousands of perils and outward disasters, so does the ear and the other organs. It is because the heart never neglects to carry out its duty and all the time it is sending blood to different organs and safeguards them against the enemies: such as the alien bacteria.

Therefore, the eyes and the ears, under the direct supervision of the heart, are always alert and alive, heart is as the regulator and the main enliven mechanism for other organs.

On the other hand, it is the brain that is the thoughts centre and the regulator of all these organs. Eyes can only see by the reflection of light, an image of a certain thing reflects in the lens of the eye but nothing beneficial can it do with it unless the brain receives that image, analyzes it and makes it crystal clear for the eyes.

So, there is nothing wrong with the eyes of those who are drunkard, unconscious and mad, their eyes are quite perfect – they catch the images and reflect them back properly but as the brain is touched it cannot carry out its duty to make out the images. When the senses deliver these images to the brain it cannot make out what they are and how should they be acted upon.

That is why, now and then, it is seen that a drunk takes his mother or sister for his wife and is bent to rape them. He walks naked on the road without sensing this road to be the same one he would always walk along, thus, his bewildering causes him to walk undressed.

A drunk mumbles nonsense, brawls from drunkenness, he acts rudely at the presence of the gentle folks; he does not care eating filthy food and cannot resist not obsessing the others. While his vision, hearing, tasting and other organs look to be sound and doing their functions, they do not. It is because the control mechanism of the brain has been touched, and instead of analyzing things and helping them it leads them to the wrong way and ruins the entire system of proper functioning.

So, the task of the brain mechanism is to observe the whole organs around, analyze and serve them, in the case of a drunkard and a mad person it is another story, as he has lost his ripe sense he does not have safe and sound organs to function for him in order.

Apart from the humans, animals too have brains and hearts; without those two organic mechanisms not a single animal, even the tiny cell, can do its job properly and be active during the course of life.

The cases of the lifeless (materials) are the same and what brings them under a unique class and unites them is: the nature and spirits of them; that is why they have similar properties and their affections are the same.

Most surprisingly, they have applied this natural technique in machineries, by setting up the regulating tools and gadgets they can control and adjust the wheels and engines.

When we wind up the clock, at first, the force of the spring is very strong and it wants to run the tiny wheels in haste, but later on, when the spring loosens and lose the string, the gears unwind slowly. Thus, they put an apparatus, called pendulum, in the clocks to adjust the motion. That is, whether the pressure of the spring is forceful or it is weak, in any case, the clock runs regularly and shows the right time.

If there are not the assessing gauges in the steam-engines running the big factories, all the machines will be damaged and ruined. It is because when the steam-pots are boiling, they produce great amount of steam and if the whole steam runs straight into the pistons then the turning wheels run faster than their due measure and break down the main machines – while the steam-pressure is lower it stops the speed of the machine.  That is why the excessive steam is saved lest there is shortage of steam one day. To do this operate properly, they make a gadget as the regulator fixed between the steam-pot and the pistons so that to carry the steams in due amount to the pistons. When the steam is beyond their need it automatically runs into the reservoir which stops it running into the engines; when the steam is below the needed amount then it is obtained from the reservoir and run to the engines. In this way, the engines are always regular and work at the same speed.

In the human society, the similar system is for the exchange of energy, regulating the affairs, settling the disputes among the people, avoiding the oppression against the rights of the people; and leading the people of the society to the ideal perfection, as well as benefitting the blessings of Allah in the right way – otherwise the society breaks down and nothing can be benefitted from the tremendous riches of life. 

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The Necessity of the Imam in the Society

The regulator of the humanity and the society is the Imam possessing the firm faculties, the right thoughts, and the potential plan to supervise all affairs and the nations and restore equality and discipline among them.

Now, if the Imam is liable to sins as the common people in the society are and is afflicted by thousands of errors and mistakes, or similar to those capricious to be after his passions then can he bring amity and peace among the people – solve their problems, end up the disputes among them, return the people's rights to them and to encourage the people to have good life? To teach every individual according to his merit – giving them the right knowledge and facts; to explain to every one of them the straight path to Allah and mention theirs errors separately? God forbid it, never!

Thus, the leader, the chief and the Imam of the society must be innocent and free from any sins and errors, having deep [Divine] knowledge, sympathetic heart and bright mind to receive the veiled aids and the holy confirmations, and above all, to be acquainted with the situations and the behavior of every individual.

Some of us believe in the chastity of the prophets while some others take it less serious and grant little chastity for them; contrary to them, some totally reject the prophets to be chaste and they never believe them to be free from sins – immaculate. However, the Shiite believe that the basic term for a prophet is his innocence and chastity; and that is why they believe that the Imams, upon them be peace, are chaste, free from mistakes – innocent.

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The Chastity of the Prophets in Three Stages

To prove this subject, we pick up from the Qur'an [some verses on] chastity of the prophets, then we discuss about the prophets, upon them be peace.

Our claim, concerning the chastity of the prophets, is in three subjects: the first one is the sending of revelations, that is, when the revelation is descending to the prophet's heart he must be in such state that committing no offenses and to receive the revelation as it is sent down to him. He shouldn't add up to it or take away some of it, and his heart should hold the revelation tact and sound as it is – not to alter it with his by his judgment.

The second subject is about how to deliver a revelation to people, that is, a messenger should deliver a revelation to people as he has received. He should not make mistakes in carrying his duty properly; he should not forget the revelation, neither increase nor decrease it lest deliver it deformed.

The third one is the question of sins and offences. That is, he should not commit anything against the devotion; the derogatory to respect and the Master's disgracing is – either in words or action. These three subjects can be put in one brief sentence: this is a command from Allah to an innocent being to save him from the sins and crimes.

However, out of these three subjects, the errors, such as the random errors that a man commits in his sense or the genesis errors including: benefit, loss, moral soundness and corruption are out of Shiite and the Sunnite discussions.

But concerning those three stages of chastity, there are some verses in the Qur'an denoting them, such as His statement:

كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لِمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ. [2]

'… People were a single nation, so Allah sent forth the messengers to give them good news and warn [them]. And He sent [His] Book with the truth that it might guide people about what they had been arguing. However, those who were given (the Books) disputed about it out of envy towards one another until after the apparent proofs had been brought to them.

Therefore, by His mercy, Allah guided those who believed to the truth of what they disagreed about; for Allah guides whomever He wills to the Straight Path,(Qur'an: 2 / 213).'

This verse denotes that the aim of sending the prophets and descending the revelations and the Book is that inviting people to the Right, and in any cases – when verbally disputing or acting against one another's belief – to guide them to the right path.

This is the aim of creation of the prophets, and Allah never makes mistakes nor does He fall in error as this verse says:

لَّا يَضِلُّ رَبِّي وَلَا يَنسَى [3]

'… He never errs, nor forgets, (Qur'an: 20 / 52).'

And also He achieves His goal and there is no obstacle in His way; as this verse says:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَالِغُ أَمْرِهِ قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدْرًا [4]

'… Allah accomplishes His purpose, for indeed, Allah has granted everything in due proportion, (Qur'an: 65 / 3).'

And this generous verse says:                                          

وَاللّهُ غَالِبٌ عَلَى أَمْرِهِ [5]

'… and Allah is powerful in His affairs, (Qur'an: 12/21).'

Thus, it is necessary for the safety of the revelations when revealing, and when being propagated, to keep the prophets immune from any sins and errors. According to these verses, if a prophet is negligent at the time of receiving the revelation then the purpose of his prophet-hood is not fulfilled – it is because the main purpose is inviting people to the right not simply pronouncing it:

وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ

‘… and He sent [His] Book with the truth that it might guide people about what they had been arguing about, (Qur'an: 2/213).'

However, in the case of a prophet's 's mistake, or when the revelation was being sent an error erupted, or although the aim of the prophet was to invite people to the truth but, at the time of propagating, he has gone through oblivion, then according to this: …'he neither errs nor forgets' it is right. Or even if his purpose was to invite people to the truth and he would never make mistakes in it but some external causes have made him not to carry the command of Allah. This too, according to: … 'Allah over dominates His command', or … 'and Allah embraces His command', is impossible.

In proportion to these brief explanations, surely Allah protects his prophets against making mistakes and causing errors at the time of receiving and propagating the revelations. He purifies and secures their hearts in such a way that when revelations down into their hearts nothing but the truth has dominated them; and there remain no worries or darkness in their hearts to lure them to deface facts and truth.

Thus, this is the main meaning of chastity at the time of receiving and propagating the revelations.

But at the third stage about their immunity and chastity, with another introduction, the accuracy of the above verse is understood. That is if a prophet makes a mistake and commits a sin, in this way he signs his inefficiency; because a wise thinks twice before doing once, and he does whatever he thinks is praiseworthy. Thus, if he commits a sin, while he speaks opposite of that, this contradiction is considered to be following in succession, because his saying contradicts with his action. He, with his speech, avoids people doing a thing but, with his act, he leaves them on their own.

It is clear that the contradictory propaganda cannot be the right one because each of them invalids the other; and Allah, Glory to Him, has sent the prophets to broadcast the truth, not to speak in contradiction. He protects them against any sins because chastity is for them and it is the main objective to broadcast the revelations.

With this brief explanation, it becomes clear that the above verse is about the chastity, a stage how to receive and broadcast the revelations and also the condition of sins and offences.

The Imams, who are also the protectors of the religion and the explainers of the commands [of Allah] and the supervisors for the nations' laws are as the hearts and thoughts of the prophets; and in this field they are not different from the prophets. The only exception is Prophet Bless be to him and his Descendants is the bearer of the religion and the Book and the Imams are safeguards and the propagators of them – all causes and proofs concerning the prophets hold true about them.

In the book of Kafee, [6] in the book of Al-Hojjat by the last Kolaini, by Ali Bin Abraham, from his father, Hasan Bin Abraham Bin Jacob are narrated: 'Some of the companions which among them were Hamran Bin A'een and Muhammad Bin Ne'man and Hisahm Bin Salim and Tayyar as well as the strong young man called Hisham Bin Hakam [7] were at the presence of Imam Ja'far Sadigh.

Imam stated to Hisham Bin Hakam, 'O Hisham, are you not going to report us about that dispute and conversation which took place between you and Omar Bin Abid?' 

Hisham said, 'O the son of the Messenger of Allah, your status is so higher that I cannot say a word at your presence, and to tell you about my dispute; I feel ashamed in front of you and my tongue is unable to utter a word!'

The Highness said, 'Whenever we ask you to do something you should carry out it at first.'

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The Dispute of Hisham bin Hakam with Amroo ibn Obaid

In that state, Hisham opened his mouth to speak, and he said, 'The story of Amroo ibn Obaid and his presence at the Basra Mosque and his conversation with the people was a good lesson and, in the mean time, very unpleasant to me; I left [my home] and came to Basra to meet and discuss with him.

It was Friday when I entered the Basra Mosque and saw a circle of the people gathering in one place and among them, Amroo ibn Obaid was lecturing.

Amroo ibn Obaid had wound a black mantle, as belt, round his waist and another mantle as his clothe and was busy speaking. I asked the people to give me a way to reach me to him, they let me pass and I walked ahead from among the people, and then knelt down just close to Amroo ibn Obaid. Soon after, I said, 'O you the sage, I am a stranger, do you let me ask a question?'

He said, 'Yes.'

I asked, 'Do you have eyes?'

He said, 'O son, what is this question then? You see that I have eyes, so what do you ask about?'

I said, 'My question is just this, now do you answer it?'

He said, 'O son, do ask, even if your question is nonsense!'

I said, 'do answer my question.'

He said, ask it.'

I said, 'Do you have eyes?'

He said, 'Yes'.

I asked, 'What do you do with your eyes?'

He said, 'I see the colours and the people with them.'

And I asked, 'Do you have the nose?'

He said, 'Yes'.

I asked, 'What do you do with your nose?'

He said, 'I odour the smells with my nose.'

I asked, 'Do you have a mouth?'

He said, 'Yes.'

I asked, 'What do you do with your mouth?'

He said, 'I taste foods with my mouth.'

I asked him, 'Do you have ears?'

He said, 'Yes, I do.'

I asked, 'What do you do with your ears?

He said, 'I hear the sounds with my ears.'

I asked, 'Do you have the power of perception and the thoughtful brain?'

He said, 'Yes, I do.'

I asked, 'What do you do with it?'

He said, 'I distinguish with it whatever comes to my sense.'

I asked, 'Are theses senses not needless of your power of perception?'

He said, 'No, they are not.' 

I said, 'Then how does it come, they are in the need of the brain while each of them is safe and sound!'

He said, 'O my son, when these muscles doubt about what they see, smell, taste or hear they refer it to the brain and it is the brain that distinguishes what it is; and while accepting the right one it rejects the wrong and unwanted ones.'

Hisham continued, 'Then I told him, "Thus, it must be Allah, Allah has created the heart and the brain to distinguish the doubts the senses make."'

He said, 'Yes, they do.'

I said, 'Then, a man needs a brain or his senses make mistakes.'

He said, 'Yes.'

Then, I said, 'O Aba Marwan, [8] (Amroo ibn Obaid), Allah, the blessed and Exalted, has not left the senses there on their own but has set up a leader (brain) to control them and to fortify whatever comes to them so that to separate good from bad – to accept the right ones and reject the unneeded objects. Now, according to this, how Allah lets his creatures on their own wandering in doubts and being astray but not assigning a leader for them to guide them – for a man like you, to assign an Imam to remove the doubts that your senses make?'

Hisham said, '[By hearing my words], Amroo ibn Obaid kept silent and spoke no more, then he turned to me and asked, "Are you Hisham, the son of Hakam?"'

I answered, 'No.'

He asked, 'Are you of his companions?'

I said, 'No.'

He asked, 'Then, who are you? And where are you from?'

I said, 'I am from Kofa,' thus, he said, 'In that case, you are certainly Hisham.'

Then, he stood up and embraced me and soon after moved away and seated me in his place. He spoke no more and kept silent in front of me until I left that meeting. Hisham says, 'The Highness Imam Sadigh, got delighted of the way of my discussion, so he smiled and said, "O Hisham, who made you speak in such a way?"'

I said, 'I learned this kind of conversation from you, the Highness and then, I always adjust my sayings on the base I need.'

The Highness said, 'By Allah, this kind of conversation is written in the Pamphlets of Abraham and Moses.' [9]

Since the Imam is as the brain and heart for the entire being his system of senses are affected by the happiness or sorrows of every single creature.

Siyooti, in the Khasāis Al-kobrā says:

و اخرج الحاكم و البيهقى و ابو نعيم عن الزهرى قال: لَمَّا كَانَ صَباحُ يَومٍ قُتلَ عَلىّ بن ابيطالبٍ، لَم يُرفَع حَجَرٌ فِى بَيت المَقدَسِ إلّا وُجدَ تَحتَهُ دَمٌ.و اخرج ابو نعيم من طريق الزهرى عن سعيد بن المسيّب قال: صَبيحَةٌ يَومٍ قُتِلَ عَلىّ بنُ ابيطالبٍ، لَم تُرفَع حَصَاة مِن الأرضِ إلّا وَ تَحتَها دَم عَبيط [10]

Al-Hākim, and Beihaghi and Abu Naeem of Zohri said, 'In that morning when [Ali] the Commander of the believers, Upon him be peace, was murdered, every pebble and stone was taken from anywhere on the land you would see fresh blood running under it.'

And Abu Naeem turned up on the way to Saeed bin Mosayyib and said, ‘That morning at dawn, when Ali ibn Abi Talib was murdered, no pebble was taken from the ground but there was thick blood under.’ 

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The mourning of all creatures in the martyrdom of the Master of martyrs.

Sheikh Sadoogh, May Allah be pleased with him, has narrated in the 'Ilal Ash-shara'e book and Amali from the same source, from Jebella Macciah that he said, 'I heard MeithamTammar say, "By Allah, this nation will murder the son of their Messenger on the tenth of Moharram; and then, the enemies of Allah will call that day the blessing day. This is an affair which has passed through the knowledge of Allah and it is of the unveiled enjoinment; and due to the promise that [Ali] the Commander of the believers, Upon him be peace, has taken with me I have learned it.' The Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, told me that all the creatures would cry for the son of Messenger – even the beasts in the desert, and the fish in the sea and the birds in high sky.

The sun, the moon, the stars, the sky and the earth, as well as the believers from the men to the jinn, and all the angels in the heavens and paradise: the treasurers of the paradise, and Malik, the guard of hell, and the guarding angels and the holder of the firmament and the sky, all of them will cry for him – at that moment, blood and ashes will rain.

Then, Meitham said: 'Curses of Allah is needed upon the murderers of Hussein, upon him be peace, as it is with those unbelievers who have chosen along with Allah another god, as well as the Jews, Christians and the Magi.'

Jibella says: 'I said, "O Meitham! How do people call the day when Hussein was murdered the blessing day?"

At that moment, Meitham wept and said: 'According to a false narration, which they have invented, they believe that the Day of Ashura is a day in which Allah accepted the repentance of Adam – however, Allah accepted the repentance of Adam in the month of Dil-Hajja.                                                                         

They believe that Allah accepted David's repentance, while his repentance was not accepted in the month of Dil-Hajja. And they believe that Allah saved Jonah in the stomach of the whale, whereas He brought him out from its stomach in Dil-Gha'da. And they believe that Noah's Arch reached the coast on that day, while the Arch settled at the coast on the eighteenth of Dil-Hajja. They also believe that Allah divided the sea on that day for the Children of Israel [to cross], while this happened in the month of Rabi'-Awwal.'

Then Meitham said: 'O Jibella, know that, there is much more priorities for Hussein ibn Ali, the Master of the martyrs, and his companions on the Day of Resurrection. O Jibella, when you notice the sun changes into red, as the fresh blood, then, you should know that they have slain your Master, Hussein.'

Jibella says: 'One day I left home and when I caught sight at the walls, the walls which had changed into red sheets – they were as red as Blood!' It was then I screamed, wept and cried: By Allah, now they have slain our Master, Hussein Ibn Al!' [11]

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[1] Surah 2, "البقرة", Verse 213.

[2] Surah 2, "البقرة", Verse 213.

[3] Surah 20, "طه", Verse 52.

[4] Surah 65, "الطلاق", Verse 3.

[5] Surah 12, "یوسف", Verse 21.

[6] "اصول کافی", First Volume, page 169.

[7]  Hisham bin Hakam was born in Kofa, broght up in Wasit and did business in Baghdad. The Holiness Imam Sadiq, Imam Kazim and the Holiness Imam Reza, peace be upon them, have praised and given him honor and reputation. He was a narrator and owned the origin of the original Shiite, and he was of the respectable narrators and expert among the orators. He had great reputation in discussion in his younghood. (Rijal Mirza Muhammad Ali Ardabili) has also brought this narrative in "بحارالانوار ", volume 7, page 3, from "اكمال الدين‏" (Kamal-ad-Din) and "علل الشرايع‏" and "امالى‏" of Sadouq.

[8] " ابا مروان‏ " (Aba Marwan), is the nickname for Amru bin Abid.

[9] Sadough has also related this narrative in Aamali, page 351, by Sa'd bin Abdullah quoting Ibrahim bin Hashim he too quoting Ismaeel bin Morad, from Yunes bin Abd-ur-Rahman quoting yunes bin Ya‘qūb who had said: 'There were a few people in the presence of the Holiness and Hamran bin A'yon, Mo'men at-Taq, Hisham bin Salim and at-Tayyar were also among them. And there were some other people that Hisham bin al-Hakam was with them; and then, he goes explaining the whole narrative.

[10] Khasaees al-Kobra, volume 2, page 124, according to the narrative of "The Shiite in Islam", Sebt part two, page 124.

[11] The book of "امالى‏" from Sadough, page 77, "علل الشرايع‏", page 228 and "بحار الانوار", volume 10, page 224, all are relating the narrative from Sadough.

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"The Foundation for Translation and Publication of the Islamic knowledge & sciences"