In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful
And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.
The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:
وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَاء مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي فَإِنَّهُ سَيَهْدِينِ وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَاقِيَةً فِي عَقِبِهِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ 
‘…and when Abraham told his father and his people: ‘Indeed, I deny what you are worshipping, except the One Who originated me and He will guide me!’ And thus, he left that as an enduring word with his posterity so that they might return [to monotheism], (Qur’an:43/26-28).’
By this Verse, it is clearly understood that the position of Imamate and the Leadership has started from Abraham upon him be peace and it will continue by his linage until the Day of Resurrection.
In the main text, Arabic, it needs a brief explanation that the word ‘Bara‘a’, which, in this text, has been translated ‘avoid’, is drawn from ‘Bara, Yabra’ which its adjective is ‘Barii’. And ‘Innani Bara‘a’ originally had Innai zou Bara‘a’ but here it is abbreviated; and the pronoun of the doer Allah Glory to Him, Himself, and the pronoun of object refers either to ‘Bara‘a’, which Abraham spoke to, or it refers to ‘Guidance’.
لا اِله اِلّا الله
However, if we say its reference is ‘Bara‘a’, it means the Unity, that is: ‘There is no deity except Allah’.
The exact meaning of that is:
اِنّني براءٌ ممّا تعبدون اِلّا الّذي فطرني
‘Indeed, I deny what you are worshipping, except the One Who originated me and He will guide me!’ is ‘There is no deity except Allah’; and the word ‘unity’ is the object to ‘I assigned him’.
The meaning of ‘There is no deity except Allah’.
In this beautiful sentence, is the Arabic text, the pronoun is referred to Allah, which it is a sentence on its own. In other words, it means ‘There is no deity except the existing Allah. And it means the ever existing Allah who guides, so it is obvious that guidance is by Allah and is attributed to Allah. This guidance is transferred to anyone who wants: thus, guidance is specified to Allah and from Him it is given to the creatures – and the Holiness Abraham points to the very guidance everlasting guidance.
The direct statement of Allah Glory to Him,
إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا 
‘… I assign you as a Leader for the people, (Qur’an: 2/124),
to Abraham is that: the duty of an Imam is to direct the whole mankind to Allah, the Honourable and Exalted – as He Himself directed him. Therefore, the Imam’s directing the people is similar to the direction of Allah.
When the reference to the pronoun is ‘Bara‘a’, then its meaning is the Guardianship which Allah assigned in the linage of Abraham so that to guide people to the Unity and the Truth. Therefore, it is clear that this fact remains in the linage of Abraham forever, and all his of spring have this status and position – never ever the Imamate is taken away from them.
These two words: ‘the Unity and Guardianship’ are specified to those of the linage who invite to the Truth, but the other members of the linage are invited to the Truth. Therefore, the phrase ‘are followed’ is about those who are given the position of the Leadership, and the phrase ‘they may follow’ is about the linage that can follow and find the guidance. In that case, each group of the linage has its own way: a group for the Imamate and another group to follow the Imamate.
In this statement:
رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ 
‘…Our Lord! Make us submissive to You, and make our offspring into a nation submissive to You, (Qur’an: 2/128),’
firstly Abraham’s beseeching becomes clear, and secondly, by answering Abraham:
لاَ يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ 
‘…never does My covenant reach the wrongdoers, (Qur’an: 2/124),’
the secret of Allah’s word comes to sight after Abraham’s beseeching, ‘and from my of spring’ who will reach the position of Imamate and they are never wrongdoers or aggressive.
Thirdly, in the translation of some of the narrations concerning this Verse, they have translated ‘the remainder’ as the Imamate, and some of them has speculated about the Holiness Hussein ibn Ali, the master of martyrs upon him be peace and in ‘Majma-ul-Bayan’ they have related from Imam the Holiness Imam Sadq upon him be peace that: ‘the purpose of’ the remainder’ is the Imamate who, on the Day of Resurrection will become manifest.
And if the reference of the pronoun is ‘guidance’, it becomes clear that it is the Divine Guidance, it is the very position of the Guardianship and the Imamate, which by means of that people move towards the ‘Unity’ from disbelief, and to Allah from godliness. Anyhow, either the pronoun refers to ‘avoiding or believing the Unity’, or it is about the ‘Imamate and the guidance’, the blessed Verse is about the linage of the Holiness Abraham.
Of course, this position is specified for the position of the ‘Unity and the Guardianship’, the necessity in here is that the attributes of mankind related to the attributes of Allah – and so is the attributes of power and knowledge.
Thus, the Imam must have such compact knowledge that his nation and followers cannot reach at that state; such knowledge is pure and free from the grudge and attracts the followers to the Imam.
Therefore, it is why the Holiness Abraham upon him be peace turns to his guardian, Azar, and says:
يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي قَدْ جَاءنِي مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِكَ فَاتَّبِعْنِي أَهْدِكَ صِرَاطًا سَوِيًّا 
‘…o my father, I have been given some knowledge which has not come to you, so follow me – I will guide you along a Straight Path, (Qur’an: 19/43).’
As it is seen, in this Verse, He considers the necessity of Azar following him is because of his lack of the knowledge of Abraham; therefore, an ignorant following the learned is quite clear and it needs no explanation.
The necessity of the ignorant following the learned in three: natural, intellectual and spiritual stages
And based on this main rule the Holiness Abraham has carried out his duty and has announced his mission to Azar, therefore, in ‘the knowledge of the rule of jurisprudence’ the greatest learned have proved that the necessity of the ignorant following the learned, before being a religious command it is a spiritual command, and before the spiritual command it is a natural conscientious command. This command appears in three in three stages of the conscientious, spiritual and the religious, and it is because of this logic that following the opinions of the learned is necessary; and it is known that the contentment of the society is due to the ruling of a learned.
As the knowledge is similar to light and live, and it is as the spirit of life, so as much as light and lively is the society the humanity finds more spirit and it becomes vigorous. In other words, as mush strength in a body is it becomes spiritually stronger – as much strong a man is he moves to perfection easily, but if he is weak his soul becomes weaker. With his weakness, a man falls behind reaching the Divine favour and he gets less benefit in life.
This Verse can be benefitted a lot concerning the practice of religious jurisprudence, and following, and also the necessity of following any individual with the knowledge of Divine religion. It is as well the necessity of following the most learned of the time among the nation: though, up till now, I have not come across any most learned among the scholars, or written in their books, to take hold of this Verse.
In the book of ‘Ghayat al-Maram’ from Sheikh Tousi in ‘Amali’ with his chain documents has related: ‘I heard from Imam Ja‘far Sadiq upon him be peace, from his father, from his grandfather Ali ibn al-Hussein upon him be peace, stated: “Once, when Imam Hassan upon him be peace, due to the policy, was peaceful with Mua‘wiyah, he went to see him and as they were sitting in the session, Mua‘wiyah stood up to deliver a speech, he began his speech …”’
It is said, later on Imam Hassan upon him be peace wrote his lecture and then stated:
الحمد لِلهِ المستحمِدِ بِالآلاء و تتابع النّعماء
‘Praise be to Allah who is praised for His blessings and favors … and he went on to the end of his lengthy and extensive sermon that included the most careful points concerning the nobility of the Household of the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants as well as quotation of the purification verse, and some other verses; and a few other historical events.
The consequence of a nation whose government is in the hands of a none-religious ruler is destruction
And he added in his sermon: ‘The Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants said:
ما ولّت امّةٌ امرها رجلاً قطّ و فيهم من هو أعلم مِنه إلّا لم يزل يذهب سفالاً حتّي يرجِعوا اِلي ما تركوا 
“Never should a clan or nation trust its affairs to a person when there is one wiser and most leaned than him among them for gradually the condition of that nation deteriorates; they must stop it and find a most learned one among the nation to govern them.”’
And in Ghayat al-Maram, this quotation has been briefly mentioned by Sheikh ‘Amali’; and he has related from the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants the same saying concerning the necessity of the most learned leadership, (Ghayat al-Maram, page 299, under the title of narrative 27).
And also the late ibn Idris, in the section ‘Mostatrafat Saraeer’, from the narration of Abil Ghasim bin Gholweiah, from the Imam Ja‘far Sadiq upon him be peace has related from the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants saying:
من أم قوماً و فيهم من هو أعلم منه أو أفقه منه، لم يزل أمرهم في سفال إلى يوم القيامة، و من دعي اِلي اِضلالٍ لم يزل في سخطِ الله حتّي يرجِع مِنه، و من مات بِغيرِ اِمامٍ مات ميتةً جاهليّةً 
‘One who takes the rein of a nation and governs them, and in the mean time, there is one the most learned and the most jurisprudence among the people, then the affairs of that nation constantly deteriorates until the Day of Resurrection. And whoever calls the people to corruption and misleads them he will carry on under the wrath of Allah until he repents and stops his bad behavior; and he who dies without [having an] Imam, his death is alike those in the age of the ignorance.’
Anyhow, concerning the necessity of the most learned to govern upon the nation, the scholars have their own reasons, as it was already mentioned, ‘the problem of the leadership is the main vital question.
A Leader is the spirit and the determination of the society, as much as the Leader’s determination is pure and correct and also it is useful and progressive for the society so much the society becomes good and is always ready to make progress.
All the people in a society are the members of a sole body, as a single soul rules a sole body and directs it to correct or corrupt, a Leader too governs the people of a society in the same way; he leads them to the path of perfection and happiness or else, the path of the adversity and loss.
The relations concerning the knowledge and the superiority of Ali, the Commander of the believers upon him be peace, which have been related by the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, are numerous. The particular, and also the public scholars have written great many of books about it, they have given their opinions and commented about the infinite knowledge of that Holiness – they had so logically explained it that it must be taken most seriously in Islam.
Theses narrations explain the subject in details and different angels, but to make it short, we have to pick some of them and then explain in short – we are going to explain only one or two of them.
Therefore, concerning the narrations that shows the abundance and the vast knowledge of the Holiness, ibn Babweiah, referring to his document, relates from the Holiness Imam Baqir upon him be peace from his father, his grandfather upon him be peace that when this verse: ‘…and We have calculated everything in the Glorious Divine Ledger, (Qur’an: 36/12),’ وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ أحْصَيْنَاهُ فِي إِمَامٍ مُبِينٍ
was sent down, Abu Bakr and Omar stood up and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, does ‘the Glorious Divine Ledger’ mean ‘the Torah’?’
The Messenger of Allah answered, ‘No.’
They asked, ‘Is that the Bible?’
He answered, ‘No.’
Some later, Ali, the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, entered the room and the Holiness Messenger stated:
هو هذا، اِنّه اِمام الّذي احصي الله تبارك و تعالي فيهِ عِلم كلِّ شيء 
‘This is the Glorious Divine Ledger, this is the very same Imam that Allah, the Honourable and Exalted has assigned every knowledge in him.’
But, concerning the narrations that express the Messenger of Allah, Glory to Him, opened the gates of a thousand different facts to Ali, and each gate leads to one thousand other gates:
Sayyid Hashim Bahrani says: ‘Abu Hāmid Ghazzali, who is of the nobles of the well-known scholars, in his book ‘Bayan al-Elm Ladonni’ expresses of our Master Ali Abī Tālib as:
قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عليهِ السّلام إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلّي الله عليهِ و آلِه و سلّم أَدْخَلَ لِسَانَهُ فِي فَمِي، فَانْفَتَحَ فِي قَلْبِي أَلْفُ بَابٍ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ وَ فَتَحَ لِي كُلُّ بَابٍ أَلْفَ بَابٍ، وَ قَالَ أَيْضاً لَوْ ثُنِيَتْ لِيَ الْوِسَادَةُ وَ جَلَسْتُ عَلَيْهَا، لَحَكَمْتُ بَيْنَ أَهْلِ التَّوْرَاةِ بِتَوْرَاتِهِمْ وَ أَهْلِ الْإِنْجِيلِ بِإِنْجِيلِهِمْ وَ أَهْلِ الْفُرْقَانِ بِفُرْقَانِهِمْ، وَ هَذِهِ الْمَرْتَبَةُ لَا تُنَالُ بِمُجَرَّدِ التَّعَلُّمِ، بَلْ يَتَمَكَّنُ الْمَرْءُ فِي هَذِهِ الْمَرْتَبَةِ بِقُوَّةِ الْعِلْمِ اللَّدُنِّيِّ 
‘Ali, the Commander of the believers upon him be peace, said: “The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, put his tongue into my mouth and one thousand gates of facts were revealed to me, then each gate opened a thousand other gates.”
And Ali Abī Tālib upon him be peace, has said: ‘If they prepared everything for me to govern and they strengthened me to command, I would command the people of the Torah with their Book, and among the people of the Bible by the Bible, and the people of the Qur’an with the Qur’an.’
Then, Ghazzali says: ‘This is a stage that no one can achieve it by going to school, studying and employing the tutors – this stage can be attained by the inspired knowledge.’
And among the narrations that lead to the statement of the Messenger of Allah: “I am the city of knowledge and wisdom and Ali is its gate”, Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari has related from the book ‘Ghayat al-Maram’ from the book of Manaqib ibn al-Aghzi that the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, hold Ali upon him be peace, on his arm and said:
هذا أمير البررة، و قاتل الكفرة، منصور من نصره، مخذول من خذله، مد بها صوته، فقال: أنا مدينة العِلمِ و عليٌّ بابها، فمن أراد العِلم فليأتِ الباب 
‘This is the commander of the beneficent, and the killer of the disbelievers; he who supports him will be supported, whoever considers him lowly will become abject and lowly.’ Then, the Messenger of Allah raised his voice saying: ‘I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate’, therefore, he who looks for the knowledge he should go to the main gate.’
About the narrations that denote the statement:
سلوني قبل أن تفقِدوني
‘Do ask me before missing me’, ibn Abi al-Hadid has said in the explanation of ‘The Path of Eloquence’ that all people have unanimously said that never has a man among the followers of the Messenger of Allah, nor anyone of the scholars has ever said that this sentence:
سلوني قبل أن تفقِدوني
‘Do ask me before missing me’ is for anyone except Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace.’ 
But the narratives that denote the commands of Ali, the Commander of the believers, are better and the most correct among the others.
It is related in the ‘Ghāyat al-Maram’, from Mowaffagh bin Ahmad, who is known as the most noble among the well-known scholars from Abu Saeed Khedri who said the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, had said:
اِنّ أقضي امّتي عليّ بن أبيطالب
‘The best one who commands in my nation is Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace.’ 
(The Ghāyat al-Maram, page 528, the first narrative, from the section 39)
There are many narratives denoting that Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman referred to the Commander of the believers in the cases of the creeds and knowledge. In the Ghāyat al-Maram’ from the Mosnad of Ahmad Hanbal through his chain documents he relates from Yahia bin Saeed bin Mosayyib who says:
كان عمر يتعوذ بِاللهِ مِن معضلةٍ ليس لها ابو الحسنِ 
‘In every problem of his, Omar beseeched Allah when the Commander of the believers was not present.’ (The Ghāyat al-Maram, page 530, the first narrative, from the section 41)
And also by his chains of documents, he has narrated from Mowaffagh bin Ahmad, from Zaid ibn Ali from his father, from his grandfather, Ali, ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace, who had said: ‘In the period of the Omar’s ruling, they brought a pregnant woman to him to confess for her adultery. She pleaded guilty and Omar ordered his men to take her away and stone her, on the way there, the woman saw Ali, ibn Abī Tālib. The Holiness asked the men, “What has she committed that you are going to punish her?” They said: ‘She has committed adultery, and Omar has ordered that she must be stoned.’
The Commander of the believers took the woman back to Omar and asked him, ‘Is it you who have ordered her to be stoned?’
Omar answered, ‘Yes, because she herself has confessed her crime.’
The Commander of the believers said:
فَقَالَ علي هَذَا سُلْطَانُكَ عَلَيْهَا ، فَمَا سُلْطَانُكَ عَلَى الّذي فِي بَطْنِهَا، فَلَعَلَّكَ انْتَهَرْتَهَا أَوْ أَخَفْتَهَا. فَقَالَ عمر: قَدْ كَانَ ذَاكَ.
قَالَ: أَ وَ مَا سَمِعْتَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ يَقُولُ: لَا حَدَّ عَلَى مُعْتَرِفٍ بَعْدَ بَلَاءٍ، إِنَّهُ مَنْ قَيَّدْتَ أَوْ حَبَسْتَ أَوْ تَهَدَّدْتَ فَلَا إِقْرَارَ لَهُ، فَخَلَّى عُمَرُ سَبِيلَهَا.
ثُمَّ قَالَ عمر: عَجَزَتِ النِّسَاءُ أَنْ يَلِدْ مِثْلَ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ رضي الله عنه، لَوْ لَا عَلِيٌّ لَهَلَكَ عُمَرُ 
‘O Omar! Her confessing proves that you can punish her, but what has made you punish the baby in her womb, and kill that innocent by stoning its mother? Or it is perhaps you have frightened her to tell the truth and she has confessed for the adultery.’
Omar said, ‘Yes, it is true.’
The Holiness said: ‘Have you not heard that the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, said: “Anyone whose confessing and admitting the crime is due to his fear and fright, he must not be punished? If a man is chained and put in jail and threatened to confess a crime, his confession is not valid.”
When Ali upon him be peace, stating the points, he freed the woman; and when Omar heard these words, he said: ‘The women are unable to give birth to a child as Ali ibn Abī Tālib, if Ali were not here Omar would be perished.’
And, in private, through his documents, it is quoted of Muhammad bin Jacob who has narrated from Imam Sadiq that in the period of Abu Bakr’s Caliphate a man had drunk wine and they took him to Abu Bakr.
Abu Bakr asked: ‘Have you drunk wine?’
He said, ‘Yes.’Abu Bakr said: ‘It is illegal to drink alcohol.’
The man answered: ‘I have embraced Islam, and I have strong belief in my religion, but my habitat is somewhere that everybody drinks alcohol, and all of them consider it as lawful. If I knew that drinking alcohol was unlawful I would surely avoid it.’
Abu Bakr turned to Omar and asked: ‘What is your opinion about this man?’
Omar said: ‘The problem is that which its solution is not found by Abu al-Hassan, now call Ali, the law for that is in Ali’s hands.’
The Holiness Imam Sadiq upon him be peace, said: ‘Abu Bakr and Omar stood up, along with those people at the session, and took that man with them to Ali, the Commander of the believers, first Abu Bakr told Ali the story of the man and then the man related the event.’
The Holiness said: ‘Send someone with him to the ‘Supporters and the Immigrants’ to ask them whether any of them has ever recited the verse of wine to him? If anyone has recited it, then, ask him to be a witness to him.’
They carried out his command but neither the ‘Supporters nor the Immigrants’ gave evidence that they had recited him the verse concerning the banning the alcohol.
The Holiness Commander of the believers upon him be peace, let him go after telling him: ‘From now on, we will punish you if you drink alcohol.’ (The Ghāyat al-Maram, page 535, the fifth narrative from the section 42)
And there are narratives relating that the Truth is always with Ali and it accompanies him wherever he goes.
In the book of “The Collective Among the Six Precise” which is written by the Imam of the Two-Shrines, in its third section, Sahih al-Bokhari relates of the virtues of the Commander of the believers, and that the Commander of the believers, Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace, had said:
قال: سمِت رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ يقول: رحِم الله عليّاً اللهمّ ادِرِ الحقّ معه حيث دار 
‘I heard the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants say: “May Allah send His blessing upon Ali; O my Creator, wherever Ali goes accompany the Truth with him.”’ (The Ghāyat al-Maram, page 539, narrative four, from the section 45)
It is strange that many of these narrations have been related by Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman, Aisha and Amru Aas – apart from them, some of the followers of the Messenger of Allah have also related them.
In the book concerning the status of Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace, against the Caliphs and their children and the followers  there are fifty narratives about the superiorities of the Commander of the believers from the Messenger of Allah by the Caliphs and their children and the followers which are all narrated by the Sunnite’s scholars and the narrators of them – and each narration has its own explanations.
One of them is the narrative where Omar speaks to a Bedouin:
ويحك ما تدري من هذا؟ هذا مولاي و مولي كلِّ مؤمِنٍ و من لم يكن مولاه فليس بِمؤمِنٍ 
‘Woe on you! Do you not know who this man is?! This man is my Master as well as the Master of every faithful; and whomever Ali is not his Master he is not a believer!’
Anyhow, the question was this that the Messenger of Allah was trying to introduce Ali ibn Abī Tālib [as his deputy], even lying in the death-bed, he enjoined the gathering to follow the Holiness Ali. He was so worried about it that, while taking his final breath, he asked for a pen and a piece of paper to write down his wish and will about the Imamate.
But alas; and a thousand alas! Omar prevented it; he did not let the desire of the Messenger of Allah be carried out, he said: ‘His disease has dominated him, he is talking in delirium! The Book of Allah is enough for us!’ Thus, the Messenger of Allah passed away with an ocean of sorrows and agonies.
Ibn Sa‘d with the authentic documents of his quotes Saeed ibn Jobeir who says ibn Abbas has narrated:
قال: اشتكي النّبي صلّي الله عليهِ وآلِه يوم الخميس، فجعل، يعني ابن عبّاس، يبكي و يقول: يوم الخميس و ما يوم الخميس!
اِشتدّ بِالنّبي صلّي الله عليهِ وآلِه وجعه فقال: اِءتوني بِدواةٍ وصحيفةٍ أكتب لكم كِتاباً لا تضِلّوا بعده ابداً،
قال: فقال بعض من كان عنده: اِنّ نبِيّ الله ليهجر! قال: فقيل له، الا نأتيك بِما طلبت؟
قال: او بعد ماذا؟ قال: فلم يدع بِهِ. 
‘On Thursday, the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, was grieving of his illness and his condition was serious so he said: ‘Bring me a piece of paper and a pen so that to write you a case to help you not to get astray after me.’
Ibn Abbas says: ‘Some of the people in the session said, “The Messenger of Allah is talking in delirium!”’ Ibn Abbas continues: ‘then, it was asked from the Messenger of Allah: “May we bring what you wanted?” He stated: “What, after the event has happened!” That was all; the Messenger of Allah did not speak any more.’
Omar prevented them to bring an inkpot and a piece of paper for the Messenger of Allah
By means of another document, they narrate from Saeed bin Ja‘far that ibn Abbas said:
يوم الخميس و ما يوم الخميس!
قال: ِاِشتدّ بِرسول الله صلّي الله عليهِ وآلِه وجعه في ذالِك اليوم فقال: اِءتوني بِدواةٍ وصحيفةٍ أكتب لكم كِتاباً لا تضِلّوا بعده ابداً، فتنازعوا و لا ينبغي عِند النّبيّ التّنازع.
فقالوا: ما شأنه، اهجر؟ اِستفهموه! فذهبوا يعيدون عليهِ فقال: دعوني فالّذي أنا فيه خيرٌ مِما تدعونني اِليهِ الحديث 
‘Thursday! Who knows what that Thursday is! The condition of the Messenger of Allah worsened and he asked: “Bring me an inkpot and a piece of paper to write you a letter so that [to live in peace and] not to go astray later on. Although it is not allowed to quarrel in front of the Messenger of Allah, they quarreled and said: “How is his condition? Ask him to know if he is talking in delirium!”’
Once more they went closer to the Messenger and asked him what he wanted, he stated: ‘Leave me on my own; whatever condition I am in now is better than what you are comparing me with.’
And by the means of another document it is narrated of Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari that: ‘Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari said:
لمّا كان في مرضِ رسول الله صلّي الله عليهِ و آلِه الّذي توفّي فيهِ، دعا بِصحيفةٍ لِيكتب فيها لِامّتهِ كِتاباً لا يضِلّون و لا يضّلون،
قال: فكان في البيتِ لغطٌ و كلامٌ و تكلّم عمر بن الخطّابِ قال: فرفضه النّبي
“In his death-bed, the Messenger of Allah asked for s sheet of paper to write something for his nation on it so that to secure them of getting astray.”’
Jabir says: ‘Due to the demand of the Messenger, a row was kicked up in his room; then, Omar ibn Khattab began speaking and the Messenger stopped him.
And in a separate paper, it is narrated of Omar ibn Khattab. Omar ibn Khattab says:
كنّا عِند النّبي و بيننا و بين النِساء حجابٌ، فقال رسول الله صلّي الله عليهِ و آلِه: اِغسلوني بِسبعِ قِرب، وأتوني بِصحيفةٍ ودواةٍ، اكتب لكم كِتاباً لن تضِلّوا بعده ابداً!
فقال النّسوة: اِءـتوا رسول الله صلّي الله عليهِ و آلِه بِحاجتِهِ.
قال عمر: فقلت: اسكتن فاِنّكنّ صواحِبه، اِذا مرِض عصرتنّ اعينكنّ و اِذا صحّ اخذتنّ بِعنقِهِ!
فقال: رسول الله صلّي الله عليهِ: هنّ خيرٌ مِنكم. 
‘We were in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, and there was a screen hung between the ladies and us; the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, stated: “[When I die,] perform my ceremonial ablutions with seven water-skins of water. And now, bring me a page of paper and an inkpot to write a letter for you so that not to get lost after my death.”’
The women said: ‘Do bring the Messenger whatever he has demanded.’
Omar says: ‘Then, I said: “O you the women keep quiet! You are his wives, whenever he is ill you keep crying, and when he feels well you embrace him.’
Then, the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, said: ‘These women know better than you.’
And by means of another document it is narrated that ibn Abbas says:
قال: لمّا حضرترسول الله صلّي الله عليه الوفاة، و في البيتِ رِجالٌ فيهم عمر بن الخطّاب
فقال رسول الله صلّي الله عليه: هلّم اكتب لكم كِتاباً لن تضِلّوا بعده!
فقال عمر: اِنّرسول الله قد غلبه الوجع، و عِندكم القرآن حسبنا كِتاب الله، فاختلف أهل البيتِ واختصموا، فمِتهم من يقول: قرِّبوا يكتب لكمرسول الله صلّي الله عليه، و مِنهم من يقول: ما قال عمر،
فلمّا كثر اللغط و الاختلاف و غمّوارسول الله صلّي الله عليهفقال قوموا عنّي!
فقال عبيد اللهِ بن عبدِ الله فكان ابن عبّاس يقول: الرّزيّة كلّ الرّزيّةِ ما حال بينرسول الله صلّي الله عليه و بين ان يكتب لهم ذالِك الكتاب مِن اِختلافِهِم و لغطِهِم. 
‘When the death approached the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, and a group of the people and Omar were present in his room, the Messenger of Allah stated: “Get closer to me, I am to write you something that after me not to be in wonder.”’
Omar says: ‘The Messenger of Allah was prevailed with pain; it weakened him [so much that he was spontaneously speaking and saying]:”Allah’s Book is enough for us.”
A dispute erupted among the household, they began quarreling, some of them said: ‘Bring for the Messenger of Allah whatever he wants so that to write you whatever he wills; but some of them backed Omar and they said whatever Omar had said.
When the disputes were grave, and they raised their voices, it made the Messenger of Allah upset and in his great sorrow he said: ‘Keep away from me, and leave me!’
Abidullah bin Abdullah bin Abbas says: ‘My father, Abdullah bin Abbas always said: ‘Disaster! The tragic event was only that they caused a stoppage between the Messenger of Allah and his writing, and they did not give him a chance to write what he wanted – by disagreeing and creating noise at the session, they avoided the Holiness fulfilling this importance affair.’ (Tabaghāt ibn Sa‘d, Volume 1, page 244)
 Surah 43, "زخرف", Verse 28.
 Surah 2, "بقرة" Verse 124.
 Surah 2, "بقرة" Verse 127.
 Surah 2, "بقرة" Verse 124.
 Surah 19, "مریم", Verse 43."غاية المرام", old printing, page 298, under the title of the narrative 26. "غاية المرام", page 299, under the title of the narrative 26. "مستطرفات سرائر", page 21.
 "غایة المرام", page 516, narrative 18.
 "غایة المرام",page 617 and page 518, narrative 3.
 "غایة المرام",page 120, narrative 1.
 "غایة المرام",page 524, narrative 7.
 "غایة المرام",page 528, the first narrative, from the section 39.
 "غایة المرام",page 530, the first narrative, from the section 41.
 "غایة المرام",on the page 531, the narrative 7, of the section 41, and on the page of 27 of the book the Late Sharif Asgari: "مقام الامام أمير المؤمنين عند الخلفاء", page 87, Iran publication says: according to that which has been mentioned 'in the case of the woman who had given birth to a child in six months and Omar had commanded to be stoned to death, and the Commander of the believers had avoided it,' they asked the reason and he answered "اللهم لا تبقنى لمعضلة ليس لها ابن أبى طالب", and he has related the same story in "كنز العمال", volume 3, page 53, and the Master Ali Mot'taghi has related its meaning that: اللهم لا تنزل بىشدة الا و ابو الحسن الى جنبى". And he says in the "ذخائر العقبى", page 82 that "اللهم لا تنزلن بىشديدة الا و ابو الحسن الى جنبى", he has also related it from Yahya Aqil that: 'when Omar referred to Ali bin Abi Talib for a hard problem of his, he was saying: "لا ابقانى الله بعدك يا على", and he has related it from Abu Saeed Khedri that he said: I heard that after Omar asking a question from Ali nd receiving the answer, he was saying that: "اعوذ بالله ان أعيش فى يوم لست فيه يا ابا الحسن".
 "غایة المرام",page 535, the fifth narrative from the section 42.
 "غایة المرام",page 539, narrative four, from the section 45.
The writer of the book is Mirza Naj-ad-Din Sharif Askari, one of the great scholars of Samira, and he is a far cousin of me, the humble, the writer of this book. His father is the Late Ayat-ul-lah Mirza Muhammad Tehrani the owner of the book "مستدرك البحار". The cousin of mine, the humble, was one the great scholars of Samira, the student of Ayat-ul-lah Mirza Muhammad Hassan Shirazi, an most known sign and sample of the pious.
The position of the Imam, the Commander of the believers, "Against the Caliphs", page 29.
The "طبقات ابن سعد", volume 2, page 242, Publication: Beirut, 376.
"طبقات ابن سعد", volume 2, page 244.
"طبقات ابن سعد", volume 2, page 244.
"طبقات ابن سعد", volume 1, page 244.