In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful
And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.
The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً 
'…O you who believe, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Then if you have any dispute over anything, refer to Allah and the Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day – for that is better and becoming in the end,(Qur’an: 4/59).’
In this blessed verse that Allah has stated to the faithful, and He has absolutely made it incumbent on them to obey Allah, His Messenger and the ‘Ones in Charge’, now, we must investigate to know who the ‘Ones in Charge’ that is, the owner of the commands and those in high position, are for this purpose, we have to comment on this verse.
In this verse, the obedience of Allah, His Messenger and ‘those in authority’ is incumbent. What is the purpose of obeying them, and why should they be obeyed?
Is the obedience of Allah not as the obedience of the Messenger of Allah? Does Allah command and prohibit us in different way than the Messenger of Allah does and he must be listened to? It is obvious that the obedience of the Messenger of Allah is the obedience of Allah and the method of introducing the commands of Allah is what the Messenger of Allah does. Thus, why two different kinds of obedience are incumbent on us: one, the obedience of Allah and the other the obedience of the Messenger of Allah?
To obey Allah means that following the commands that are sent down to the heart of the Messenger of Allah for the believers. The Glorious Qur’an is the direct statement and the revelation of Allah for all people. Therefore, obeying Allah means obeying the statement of Allah which the Glorious Qur’an; however, the obedience of the Messenger of Allah is divided in two parts.
The first: obeying whatever legislation of the commands, which their interpretations are not in the Book, Allah has revealed to His Messenger. Because it is quite clear that in Allah’s Book the commands are the main legislations, for example, about the prayer, fast, Hajj and jihad, and the due welfare tax and marriages, and the rules of business and other prayers are all in brief, but the quality of prayer, fast, Hajj and other prayers must be learnt by the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Do pray as you see how I pray’; that is, Allah made prayer incumbent on you but notice how I am praying. Do pray like me in the point of view of the conditions, preliminaries, actions and the statements are necessary in the prayer. These subjects are not explained in details in the Qur’an, it is only stated fulfilling a certain command – their details must be learnt by the Messenger of Allah.
The soul of the Messenger of Allah, as a strong magnifying-glass, takes those brief statements from the Revelation Book and magnifies and elucidates them and then, explains the terms of each prayer or command clearly to us. The verses of the Qur’an have been revealed to the Messenger of Allah to the point and they have reflected in his heart in the same way; then, that Holy Being has elucidated and interpreted those verses in details. Subsequently, he reflects them outward, as stated:
وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ 
‘…and We sent down to you the Book as the Reminder so that you may explain to people what was sent down to them, (Qur’an:16/44)’
– to explain the commands, and also state the aims of the verses.
In other words, it can be said that the details of the commands and the problems are also separate revelations which are not in the Book – brought down for the Messenger by the Gabriel; and it is clear that the statements of the Messenger of Allah are as the legislations. 
The second: the obedience of the Messenger of Allah in the personal opinions and the self affairs concerning the Muslims coming together is of those commands that bring order to the society for the public. It is not of the legislation such as: government-ship and the explanation of the affairs of the Muslims, assigning guardians and the governors for the towns, and sending armies for the Jihad, and assigning the judges, and the Imams for looking after the people’s affairs and problems. Allah, the Highest has stated:
إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللّهُ 
‘…Surely We have sent this ‘based-on-Truth’ Book to you so that you judge among mankind by means of what Allah has shown you, (Qur’an:4/105)
– of course, this Command, in the personal affair, is as a decree. The Messenger of Allah was free to decide on the oncoming important affairs, such as: occupying the armies, assigning the commanders for divisions, and sending them to the faraway lands, and making compacts with the aliens. Then, all the Muslims have to take him commands and obey him without any condition – although, concerning the important affairs Allah has commanded the Holiness to consult with the believers:
‘… and consult with them on the matter, however in the continuation He has stated: ‘…then, when you make a firm decision, rely on Allah, (Qur’an:3/195).’
The Messenger of Allah consults with the believers on the important affairs but, in the end, he does whatever he thinks better, and all the Muslims have to obey him.
By what is mentioned so far, it becomes clear that although the obedience of the Messenger of Allah is alike the obedience of Allah, for Allah has enjoined the obedience of His Messenger as:
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ 
‘…and We did not send any messenger(s) but to be obeyed with the permission of Allah, (Qur’an:4/64),’
However, obeying Allah is something and obeying His Messenger is something else. It is incumbent on people to obey Allah according to the commands of the Qur’an, and obeying the Messenger about the explanations of the Qur’an concerning that Holiness, and about the benevolent of the Muslims and carrying out the commands of the Messenger. It is why Allah has commanded to obey him; He has separated the obedience of Allah and the obedience of His Messenger. It is not that some commentators have said: ‘Allah’s repetitive statements are as emphatic; if it had no emphases the ‘emphatic’ would easily be understood but in the point of conjunction the obedience of Allah and the obedience of the Messenger of Allah denote the obedience of two positions as one.
However, ‘those in authority’ have absolutely no authority to change the legislations, and alike the Messenger of Allah, they are not in the authority to comment or add to the brief commands in the Qur’an, but among the Muslims, they are the explanatory of the commands and the propagators of the verses according to the legislations of the Messenger of Allah. They also have decisions on the affairs of the Muslims, and they have direct opinions and interfere in the disputes rise between the people and they solve their problems. Almost all people should follow them, and their obedience is similar to the obedience of the Messenger of Allah; that is why a single imperative word is used for both, as: ‘…obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authorities among you, (Qur’an:4/59).’ Thus, contrary to obeying the Messenger of Allah in this part as well as commenting on the details of legislations and commands, their obedience is only here; the good reason for this is that, after this phrasal verse, the Qur’an immediately says:
فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ
‘…then if you have any dispute over anything, refer to Allah and the Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day, (Qur’an:4/59).’
When a quarrel or a dispute erupts between the Muslims, they must refer to Allah’s Book or the rules and traditions of the Messenger of Allah and by that means to settle their argument. Here, it is clear that if ‘those in authority’ had the authority to interfere the legislation, the quarrelsome ones had to be sent to them; but it is not mentioned in the Book, and they are not sent to them.
To make it clear, we should say that those to whom this verse refers are the believers, because in the beginning of the verse it says: ‘O you who believe!” Here, their quarrel is with those other than ‘those in authority’– because after believing their obedience is incumbent on the common, then, fighting with them is pointless and referring to Allah and His Messenger has no meaning. And this quarrelling is nothing to do with the personal opinion but it is the command of Allah, because the following verses reproaches the people who are content with the commands of the devils and have chosen it as their reference but ignoring the commands of Allah and His Messenger. Here, the fighting is the personal disputes erupt between the Muslims and in these kinds of problems they should refer to Allah’s Book and the rules and traditions of the Messenger of Allah; because Allah’s Book and the rules and traditions of the Messenger are two decisive arguments for settling the differences of those who believe in them – and the words of ‘those in authority’ are also evident in those two. It is because the blessed verse approves them without any conditions. If they translate and state the Book and the rules and traditions they must be followed because there is not legislation in their doing so Therefore, we understand that there is no error in their statements.
In short, except the preset legislations, ‘those in authority’ are those who should be followed without any conditions, and their obedience is as the obedience of the Messenger of Allah. Their commands and prohibitions are as the commands and prohibitions of the Messenger and the commands and prohibitions of the Messenger do not contradict Allah’s commands and prohibitions otherwise there would be differences between their commands and prohibitions. This is not all the case, but the main point is that the Messenger of Allah is immaculate; similarly, the commands and prohibitions of ‘those in authority’ are not different from the commands and prohibitions of the Messenger, in that case, there would contradict each other. The case does not come to an end except we know the chastity of ‘those in authority’ and obey them for their chastity without any condition. On the other hand, as we know that none of the different sections of the Muslims has claimed its Imam be chaste, but except the Shiite who claims about the twelve Imams, therefore, the meaning of the verse is certainly the Immaculate Imams, peace be upon the all.
This point denotes the blessed verse and there are endless narratives about it, including the verse of purification.
In the “Borhan Commentary” and the “Ghayat al-Maram” by Muhammad bin Ya’ghub, Kolaini by his chain documents from Abu Basir relates:
سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ فَقَالَ نَزَلَتْ فِي عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ وَ الْحَسَنِ وَ الْحُسَيْنِ ع فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ النَّاسَ يَقُولُونَ فَمَا لَهُ لَمْ يُسَمِّ عَلِيّاً وَ أَهْلَ بَيْتِهِ ع فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قَالَ فَقَالَ قُولُوا لَهُمْ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص نَزَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَ لَمْ يُسَمِّ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ ثَلَاثاً وَ لَا أَرْبَعاً حَتَّى كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص هُوَ الَّذِي فَسَّرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ وَ نَزَلَتْ عَلَيْهِ الزَّكَاةُ وَ لَمْ يُسَمِّ لَهُمْ مِنْ كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ دِرْهَماً دِرْهَمٌ حَتَّى كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص هُوَ الَّذِي فَسَّرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ وَ نَزَلَ الْحَجُّ فَلَمْ يَقُلْ لَهُمْ طُوفُوا أُسْبُوعاً حَتَّى كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص هُوَ الَّذِي فَسَّرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُمْ وَ نَزَلَتْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ وَ نَزَلَتْ فِي عَلِيٍّ وَ الْحَسَنِ وَ الْحُسَيْنِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص فِي عَلِيٍّ مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِيٌّ مَوْلَا
وَ قَالَ ص أُوصِيكُمْ بِكِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي فَإِنِّي سَأَلْتُ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَنْ لَا يُفَرِّقَ بَيْنَهُمَا حَتَّى يُورِدَهُمَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ فَأَعْطَانِي ذَلِكَ وَ قَالَ لَا تُعَلِّمُوهُمْ فَهُمْ أَعْلَمُ مِنْكُمْ وَ قَالَ إِنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِنْ بَابِ هُدًى وَ لَنْ يُدْخِلُوكُمْ فِي بَابِ ضَلَالَةٍ فَلَوْ سَكَتَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص فَلَمْ يُبَيِّنْ مَنْ أَهْلُ بَيْتِهِ لَادَّعَاهَا آلُ فُلَانٍ وَ آلُ فُلَانٍ وَ لَكِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَنْزَلَهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ تَصْدِيقاً لِنَبِيِّهِ ص إِنَّما يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ يُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيراً فَكَانَ عَلِيٌّ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ وَ فَاطِمَةُ ع فَأَدْخَلَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص تَحْتَ الْكِسَاءِ فِي بَيْتِ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ ثُمَّ قَالَ اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّ لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ أَهْلًا وَ ثَقَلًا وَ هَؤُلَاءِ أَهْلُ بَيْتِي وَ ثَقَلِي فَقَالَتْ أُمُّ سَلَمَةَ أَ لَسْتُ مِنْ أَهْلِكَ فَقَالَ إِنَّكِ إِلَى خَيْرٍ وَ لَكِنَّ هَؤُلَاءِ أَهْلِي وَ ثِقْلِي 
‘I asked the Holiness Imam upon him be peace, about the interpretation of the verse ‘… obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you’ and he said:
“This verse is sent down about Ali ibn Abī Tālib and Hassan and Hussein.” Then, I asked: “The people say why the name of Ali and the Household are not mentioned in the verse.” The Holiness said: “Tell them, ‘What! When the verse for the prayer was sent down Allah did not state whether each prayer included three or four turns of prostrations, until the Messenger of Allah interpreted the verse for the people and assigned the numbers of turn of prostrations in each unite. And when the verse of ‘the welfare due pay’ was sent down it was not mentioned in the Book of Allah that it must be paid one dirham out of forty until the Messenger of Allah translated the verse and assigned the amount of payment. As well, when the verse about ‘the Hajj Pilgrimage’ was sent down, Allah did not mention that they must circumambulate the House seven circumambulations until the Messenger of Allah interpreted the verse of Hajj and assigned seven turns of circumambulations. And the verse
أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ
‘… obeys Allah, and obeys the Messenger and those in authority among you’ was sent down for Ali, Hassan and Hussein; and for introducing the ‘those in authority’ the Messenger said: “O people let it be known! Whomsoever I am Master so is Ali his Master.” And he stated: “O people, I enjoined you to the Book of Allah and my Household, and I have asked Allah, the Honourable and Exalted, that not to separate them until He brings them to me by the Kow‘thar [river in Paradise]; I am certain that Allah has responded to my implore.” He continued: “You needn’t teach my Household for they are wiser than you are. My Household will never lead you astray and they will not direct you to the off track.”
If the Messenger of Allah kept silent and did not introduce his Household immediately after Ali, Hassan and Hussein, later on, such and such would claim that the meaning of the ‘Household’ was found among their tribes. Therefore, Allah, the Honourable and Exalted, in His Book, for the confirmation of His Messenger sent down a verse as:
إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا 
‘…in fact, Allah wants to put away any impurity from you, the Household, and to purify you, (Qur’an: 33/33).’
And once when Ali, Hassan, Hussein and Fatima were at the presence of the Messenger at Umm Salama’s house, the Messenger of Allah sheltered them all under his loose garment and then prayed Allah stating: “O Allah, there is for every messenger a Household and the house stuff and these are my Household and the house stuff.” Then, Umm Salama asked: “O Messenger am I not of your Household?” The Messenger of Allah replied her: “Surely your way is towards benevolent and blessing, but my Household and the house stuff belong to this people.” He goes on the lengthy narrative and explains the other virtues of the Household.’
And in the commentary of “Borhan” and “Ghayat al-Maram” from ibn Shahr Aashub, the commentary of “Mojahid” has related that:
انها نزلت في امير المؤمنين عليهِ السّلام حين خلّفه رسول اللّهِ صلّ اللَّهُ عليهِ وآلِهِ و سلّم با لمديتةِ فقال: يا رسول اللّهِ اتخلِّفني علي النِّساء والصبين؟ فقال: يا امير المؤمنين هما ترضي ان تكون مِنّي بِمنزِلةِ هارون مِن موسي حين قال له: «اخلفني مِن قومي واصلح» فقال اللَّهُ: «و اولي الامرِ مِنكم». قال: عليّ بن ابيطالبٍ ولّاه اللَّهُ امر الامةِ بعد محمّد و حين خلّفه رسول اللّهِ با لمدينةِ. فامر اللَّهُ العِباد بِطاعتِهِ و تركِ خِلافِهِ. 
In the “commentary of Mojahid” it is said that: ‘The verse of ‘those in authority’ has been sent down for the status of the Commander of the believers upon him be peace, when the Messenger of Allah had assigned Ali ibn Abī Tālib in his place in Medina. The, the Commander of the believers asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah, have you nominated me to supervise the women and the children?’ The Messenger of Allah said: ‘O the Commander of the believers, are you not pleased that your relation with me be like Aaron to Moses? That is when Moses said to his brother, Aaron: “You be the deputy of mine among these people and have control upon them;” then Allah sent down the verse of “The more proper in command among you.”
Mojahid says: ‘After Muhammad Bless be to him and his Descendants, Allah gave over the governorship of the nation to Ali ibn Abī Tālib, and also when the Messenger of Allah assigned him in his place in Medina, Allah commanded His obedient worshippers to obey him and avoid rejected him.’
And in the “Commentary of Borhan” and in the “Ghayat al-Maram” from ibn Aashub from Abanat al-Falaki narrates that:
اِنّها نزلت حين شكي ابو بريده مِن علي عليهِ السّلام 
“It was sent down when Abu Buraida doubted Ali upon him be peace.” (The commentary of Burhan, volume 1, page 238)
Abanat al-Falaki says that, ‘When Abu Buraida complained of Ali upon him be peace at the presence of the Messenger of Allah, this verse:
اطيعو اللَّه واطيعوا الرّسول و اولي الامرِ مِنكم
‘…Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you was revealed,’ and the same way it is narrated by Mojahid.’
And in the commentary of “Burhan”, from Sadooq, may Allah be pleased with him, by his document has been narrated, Imam Muhammad Baqir upon him be peace stated that: “The sense of ‘those in authority’ in the verse:
في قولِ اللَّهَ عزّ و جلّ: «يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُم» قال: الأمّه مِن ولدِ عليّ و فاطِمه صلوات اللَّهِ عليهِما الي أن تقوم السّاعة. 
‘…Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you, are the Imams from the off spring of Ali and Fatima upon them be peace until the time for the Resurrection approaches.’ (The commentary of Burhan, page 236)
And in the commentary of “Al-Mizan” from “Aqabat al-Anwar”, from the book “Yanabi al-Mawaddah”, from Manaqib ibn Shahr Aashub, from Solaim ibn Ghais Hilali, relates from the Commander of the believers who said:
قال : و اما ادني ما يكون بِهِ عبد ضالاً فأن لا يعرفه حجّة اللَّهِ تبارك و تعالي و شاهِده علي عِبادِه، الّذي امر اللَّه عباده بِطاعتِهِ و فرض ولايته . قال سليمٌ، قلت يا امير المؤمنين صفهم لي، قال: الِذي قرـهم اللَّه بنفسِهِ و نبيِّهِ فقال: «يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُم» فقلت له: جعلني اللَّه فِداك أوضِح لي: فقال" الّذين قال رسول اللّهِ صلّ اللَّهُ عليهِ وآلِهِ و سلّم في مواضِع و في آخِرِ خطبتهِيوم قبضه اللَّه اِليهِ عزّ و جلّ: إنّي تركتم فيكم آمرينِلن تضِلِّوا بعدي إن تمسّكتم بهما: كتب اللَّه عزّ و جلّ و عِترتي أهل بيتي: فإنّ اللطيف الخير قد عهِد إليّ آنّهما لن يفترِقا حتّي يرِدا عليّ الحوض كهاتينِ ـ و جمع بين مسبّحتيهِ ـ ولا أقول كهاتين ـ و جمع بين مسبّحتيهِ والوسطي ـ فتمسّكوا بِهِماو لا تقدِّموهم فتضِلّوا. 
‘The tiniest thing that the worshipper of Allah gets astray by is that he does not recognise the evidence of Allah, the Blessed and Exalted; and he is negligence of Allah’s taking their witnesses to obey them, and also their Governorships are incumbent on them.’
Solaim says, I said: ‘O the Commander of the believers, explain me that evident and witness.’ The Holiness answered: ‘The evident and the Guardian of Allah to His worshippers are those whom Allah has allied with Himself and His Messenger and has mentioned them together, and He has said:
“O you who have believed, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you.”
Solaim says, I said: ‘May Allah make me sacrifice to you, please clarify this subject to me, and make it clear.’ The Highness answered: “Those in authority and the Divine Evidences are those whom the Messenger of Allah has mentioned them time and again, and on the day of his demise he mentioned them in his last sermon and commanded the people to follow them.” He has also said: “I shall leave two important things with you and if cling at them you will get never astray, one of them is Allah’s Book and the next one is my family, that is, my off spring. It is because the Fair and Aware Allah has promised me not to let them be separated until they both come to me by the Kow‘thar [river in Paradise], just like these two fingers of mine;” Saying so, the Messenger of Allah simultaneously raised his two hands and joined the two index fingers of his and showed them to the gathering saying: “I do not mean like these two fingers.” Next, the Messenger of Allah made a ‘V’ sign with his index and middle fingers – which are different in sizes – (he meant the Book of Allah and his Household are the same and none has priority on the next) and while showing them to the people he said: ‘O people you cling to these two and do not search for priority between them for you will get lost.’
And also in the commentary of “Burhan”, under the verse:
اطيعو اللَّه واطيعوا الرّسول و اولي الامرِ مِنكم
‘obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you’, and “Ghāyat al-Maram”, and in the commentary of “al-Mizan” from the commentary of “Burhan”, the narrative of Jabir ibn Abdullah Ansari, relates from the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, that the Messenger of counts the immaculate Imams one by one in that narration and he explains the cause for the absence of the Holiness Mahdi, the Existing of the Household of Muhammad. And this narrative includes illuminating points and the best subjects:
Anyhow, the conformity of ‘those in authority’ to the immaculate Imams upon them be peace is so much that in narratives, Imam Sadiq has cursed those who try to discuss and prove it. As it is narrated in “Burhan” and “Ghāyat al-Maram”, and in the commentary of “al-Mizan” from Muhammad bin Ya’yqub Kolaini in “Kafee” which relates Abu Masrouq, who related from the Holiness Abi Abdullah upon him be peace.
قال: قلت له: انا نكلم اهل الكلام فنحتج عليهم بقول الله عز و جل: اطيعوا الله و اطيعوا الرسول و اولى الامر منكم فيقولون: نزلت فى المؤمنين، و نحتج عليهم بقول الله عز و جل: قل لا اسئلكم عليه اجرا الا المودة فى القربى، فيقولون: نزلت فى قربى المسلمين، قال: فلم ادع شيئا مما حضرنى ذكره من هذا و شبهه الا ذكرته، فقال لى: اذا كان ذلك فادعهم الى المباهلة، قلت: و كيف اصنع؟ فقال: اصلح نفسك ثلاثا و اطبه، قال: و صم و اغتسل و ابرز انت و هو الى الجبال فتشبك اصابعك من يدك اليمنى فى اصابعه، ثم انصفه و ابدا بنفسك و قل: اللهم رب السموات السبع و رب الارضين السبع عالم الغيب و الشهادة الرحمن الرحيم، ان كان ابو مسروق جحد حقا و ادعى باطلا فانزل عليه حسبانا من السماء و عذابا اليما، ثم رد الدعوة عليه فقل: و ان جحد حقا و ادعى باطلا فانزل عليه حسبانا من السماء و عذابا اليما، ثم قال لى: فانك لا تلبث ان ترى ذلك فيه، فو الله ما وجدت خلقا يجيبنى اليه. 
Abu Masrouq says: ‘I had the honour to inform him, [the Holiness Imam Sadiq upon him be peace that we discuss and argue with those people speaking with us by the Word of Allah, the Honourable and Exalted, as: ‘obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you’, but to our question they say, ‘This verse has been sent down for the status of the believers.’ And then, we discuss with them according to the Honourable and Exalted Allah’s saying: ‘I do not demand you any reward for it except to be friendly with those close to you;’ And again to our question they say, ‘This verse has been sent down in the case of the relationship among the Muslims.’
Abu Masrouq says: ‘I had the honour to inform the Imam whatever questions I had in my mind and I had discussed with the people.’
The Holiness Imam stated: ‘As it is what you say so invite them for discussion.’ I said: ‘How should I discuss?’ The Holiness stated: ‘To improve your condition and purify your soul, take care of yourself and go on fasting for three days, take washings, then set out walking with him towards the mountain. Take his hand in your hand and then start discussing with him very friendly – first you take the turn and say: ‘O Allah, You are the Creator and You are the most Efficient in creating the seven heavens and the seven earths. You are Aware of the manifest and the secrets of the world, and You are the most Beneficent and the most Merciful. If Abu Masruq has denied any right in his discussion but he has referred to vain affairs You send disaster and calamity from the sky upon him. Then, hand over this prayer to him and let him say: “If I have denied the right and claimed the vain instead, so let a Divine disaster and a painful chastisement fall on me.”’
Then, the Holiness Imam said: ‘You shall not wait any longer, you will see the chastisement falling on him.’ By Allah, I found no one to accept my invitation for discussion.
The Holiness, Imam Baqir upon him be peace has stated: ‘The correct time for discussions must be between the dawn and the sunrise.’
And Hakim Haskani, by his own chains of documents, narrates that Ibn Abi Aiiash said:
حدثني بشر بن المفضل النيسابوري قال حدثنا عيسى بن يوسف الهمداني عن أبي الحسن علي بن يحيى قال حدثني أبان بن أبي عياش قال حدثني سليم بن قيس الهلالي عن علي قال قال رسول الله ص شركائي الذين قرنهم الله بنفسه و بي و أنزل فيهم يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ الآية، فإن خفتم تنازعا في أمر فارجعوه إلى الله و الرسول و أولي الأمر. قلت يا نبي الله من هم قال أنت أولهم 
‘Solaim bin Ghais Hilali related to me that Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace, said: ‘The Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants stated: “My partners are those whom Allah has associated with Himself and I in the verses of the Qur’an, and then, has sent down the verse “Those in Authority” for their position. Therefore, if you fear that there might raise a dispute on a matter among you, concerning that matter refer to Allah, His Messenger and to “Those in Authority”; so, I asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah, who are “Those in Authority”?’
He said: ‘You are the first one of them.’ (Shawahid at-Tanzil, volume 2 page 148)
And the commentary of “al-Mizan” quotes from the commentary of “Ayyashi” who narrates from Omar ibn Saeed that the Holiness Abul Hassan upon him be peace relates that the verse:
“اطيعو اللَّه واطيعوا الرّسول و اولي الامرِ مِنكم”قال: عليّ بن أبيطالب و الأوصياء مِن بعدِه 
‘Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you’ refers to Ali ibn Abī Tālib upon him be peace, and the Executors after him. (The commentary of al-Mizan, volume 4 page 436)
And it is related by ibn Shahr Aashub that:
سال الحسن بن صالح عن الصادق عليه السلام عن ذلك، فقال: الائمة من اهل بيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم 
‘Al-Hassan bin Salih asked Imam Sadiq upon him be peace about that and he said: “They are the Imams from the Household of the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants (The commentary of al-Mizan, volume 4 page 436)
So far, we have explained some of the based on discussion commentaries about “those in Authority” and the other narratives that denote “those in Authority” (so, anyone who wants more knowledge concerning this, he should refer to the commentary of “Burhan” under the verse ‘obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you’, and also to the “Ghāyat al-Maram” which has related four common and four specific narrations, and also one should refer to the “Yanabi al-Mawadda”). Thus, it has become clear that “those in Authority” are the innocent and free from errors Imams.
It is strange, and we are going to explain it well in the future, but as a hint, Imam Fakhr Radi accepts the necessity of chastity in this verse for those in Authority but he says: ‘Chastity and being immune of the errors is by the means of the board of management. In other words, every individual in the board of management is not innocent and free from errors, but by the changes of the views, all the members in the board become immune and the chastity settles in the management.’
God-willing, we will explain in details the baseless of this fact, but here we are content to explain only a small point. That is, if the members of a board of management are the generators of the chastity then why Othman, who was introduced by Omar to the board of management, made so many mistakes? Why the greatest historians have recorded in their books so many errors, social crimes, ignoring the rights of the weak; and the privations of Muslims have been carried out by him?
Othman burnt the Qur’an, he tore apart the stomach of Am‘mār Yasir and kicked him so severely that he fainted and fell on the ground, and was infected with hernia. While the position of Am‘mār, the great follower of the Messenger of Allah, crystal clear to all and the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants said about him: “
عمّار مع الحقّ والحقّ مع عمّار حيث كان، عمّار جلدة مابين عيني و أنفي 
Am‘mār is with the Truth and the Truth is with Am‘mār; Am‘mār is as a part of [my body, he is as a piece of] skin between my eyes and nose.” (Montahi al-Amal, volume I page 92)
It was clear to everyone that Othman lashed Abdullah bin Masood for not giving Othman the Qur’an he had compiled; Othman also injured Abuzar Ghaffari, that generous follower of the Messenger of Allah Bless be to him and his Descendants, the one about his dignity and the position the Messenger had said:
ما أظلّتِ الخضراء و لا أقلّتِالغبراء علي ذي لهجةٍ أصدق مِن أبي ذرّ 
he sacked him from Ash-Sham to Medina for his frankness and enjoining good behavior and abstaining unlawful. He made him ride on a fast running saddle-less camel, and from there he sent him to Rabadah without food or shelter; on the way there, he died in the barren desert.
Othman shared the Muslims Treasury among the commanders and Bani Omayyad who were of his relatives and friends. He tortured the Muslims, he handed over the ‘Fadak’ to Khalid ibn Walid; he gave away the heritage of Fatima, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, to that cruel bold man. Othman called Hakam, who was rejected by the Messenger of Allah, to Medina and gave away to him the revenue of Africa in one friendly gathering.
The Commander of the believers upon him be peace, as an advice told Othman:
وَ إِنَّ شَرَّ النَّاسِ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ إِمَامٌ جَائِرٌ ضَلَّ وَ ضُلَّ بِهِ، فَأَمَاتَ سُنَّةً مَأْخُوذَةً وَ أَحْيَا بِدْعَةً مَتْرُوكَةً، وَ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ آلِهِ يَقُولُ يُؤْتَى يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ بِالْإِمَامِ الْجَائِرِ وَ لَيْسَ مَعَهُ نَصِيرٌ وَ لَا عَاذِرٌ فَيُلْقَى فِي جَهَنَّمَ فَيَدُورُ فِيهَا كَمَا تَدُورُ الرَّحَى، ثُمَّ يَرْتَبِطُ فِي قَعْرِهَا 
‘Certainly the worst man in the sight of Allah is an unjust Imam who goes astray, and in the mean time, he leads the people off the course; and that unjust Imam ruins the right rules and traditions but brings the abandoned wrong and ugly things back to the people’s lives. I did hear from the Messenger of saying: “On the Day of Resurrection, they will draw the unjust Imam closer while he has one accompany him, and he has no excuses to defend himself; he will be tossed into the Fire where he will circle and whirl as the millstone until he drowns deep at the bottom of the hell.”’
In most of his sermons, letters and narratives, the Commander of the believers upon him be peace, has complained about the oppressions he had gone through concerning his missing governorship, and they did not let the things go on the natural way, he finds fault that the governorship was not trusted to the right Guardian, he feels sorry for the abject nation who have turned away from the Book of Allah and the rules and traditions of the Messenger of Allah. In “Nahj –u- Balagha”, in many occasions, he points to this subject and says:
ْ حَتَّى إِذَا قَبَضَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ ص رَجَعَ قَوْمٌ عَلَى الْأَعْقَابِ وَ غَالَتْهُمُ السُّبُلُ وَ اتَّكَلُوا عَلَى الْوَلَائِجِ وَ وَصَلُوا غَيْرَ الرَّحِمِ وَ هَجَرُوا السَّبَبَ الَّذِي أُمِرُوا بِمَوَدَّتِهِ وَ نَقَلُوا الْبِنَاءَ عَنْ رَصِّ أَسَاسِهِ فَبَنَوْهُ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعِهِ مَعَادِنُ كُلِّ خَطِيئَةٍ وَ أَبْوَابُ كُلِّ ضَارِبٍ فِي غَمْرَةٍ قَدْ مَارُوا فِي الْحَيْرَةِ وَ ذَهَلُوا فِي السَّكْرَةِ عَلَى سُنَّةٍ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ مِنْ مُنْقَطِعٍ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا رَاكِنٍ أَوْ مُفَارِقٍ لِلدِّينِ مُبَايِنٍ 
“It was when Allah took His Messenger to Him, a group of the people turned to their ignorance misbehavior and disbelief, and different unaccepted courses furnished the unpleasant seem pleasant to them. They relied on the tricks and deceits; they married the outcast and let the acquaintance on their own and turned away from them. They uprooted the base of belief, governorship and the Imamate and derailed it from their straight courses. They were the cause of many crimes and errors, and so were they the open gates for the rebels to enter – they raised many quarrels and disputes. They were indeed abject, wandering in despair, and they forgot the Truth in their false positions and drunk. They totally forgot the Qur’an, rules and traditions, revelations and the Imamate; similar to the tradition of the Pharaoh, they either turned to the worldly affairs or ignored the religion and took the path to nowhere.”
And in a letter that he was writing to Malik Ashtar he states:
فَلَمَّا مَضَى تَنَازَعَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ الْأَمْرَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ، فَوَ اللَّهِ مَا كَانَ يُلْقَى فِي رُوعِي وَ لَا يَخْطُرُ عَلَى بَالِي أَنَّ الْعَرَبَ تَعْرُجُ [تُزْعِجُ] هَذَا الْأَمْرَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ (صلی الله عليه و آله) عَنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ، وَ لَا أَنَّهُمْ مُنَحُّوهُ عَنِّي مِنْ بَعْدِهِ ...
فَمَا رَاعَنِي إِلَّا انْثِيَالُ النَّاسِ عَلَى فُلَانٍ يُبَايِعُونَهُ فَأَمْسَكْتُ يَدِي حَتَّى رَأَيْتُ رَاجِعَةَ النَّاسِ قَدْ رَجَعَتْ عَنِ الْإِسْلَامِ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى مَحْقِ دَيْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ ص فَخَشِيتُ إِنْ لَمْ أَنْصُرِ الْإِسْلَامَ وَ أَهْلَهُ أَنْ أَرَى فِيهِ ثَلْماً أَوْ هَدْماً تَكُونُ الْمُصِيبَةُ بِهِ عَلَيَّ أَعْظَمَ مِنْ فَوْتِ وِلَايَتِكُمُ الَّتِي إِنَّمَا هِيَ مَتَاعُ أَيَّامٍ قَلَائِلَ يَزُولُ مِنْهَا مَا كَانَ كَمَا يَزُولُ السَّرَابُ أَوْ كَمَا يَتَقَشَّعُ السَّحَابُ فَنَهَضْتُ فِي تِلْكَ الْأَحْدَاثِ حَتَّى زَاحَ الْبَاطِلُ وَ زَهَقَ وَ اطْمَأَنَّ الدِّينُ وَ تَنَهْنَهَ 
“When the Messenger of Allah passed away, about the Governorship and the Imamate, the Muslims quarreled; by Allah, it never occurred to me to think of the Arabs to separate the Governorship and the Imamate from the Household after Allah’s Messenger’s demise. I did not care until I saw the people rushing to Au Bakr to swear the allegiance. Thus, I ignored combating for the Governorship until I noticed that the people who had turned away from me were gradually turning away from the religion. They were inviting the others to damage the religion of Muhammad. It was then that I thought if I did not support Islam and the followers of Islam, there would be such a severe damage in the religion that it would be more crucial than the Governorship. A Governorship that would last a few days and then disappear as an illusion or, like the clouds in the sky, it would be cut in pieces and disperse. Therefore, I rose at that situation, the wrong disappeared and the right one established and the religion was secured.” (The Path of Eloquence, the section of the ‘Letters’, page 119)
 Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 59.
 Surah 16, "نحل", Verse 44.
 The reliable proof for the meaning of this narrative that in "شواهد التنزيل", volume 1, page 149 he has related by the means of his documents is: His Statement, by Mojahid (يا ايها الذين آمنوا) that is 'they accepted the Monotheism as right, (اطيعوا الله), that is, in your rites and (و اطيعوا الرسول), that is intraditions, and (اولى الامر منكم): He says it was revealed to the Commander of the believers when the Messenger of Allah was in Medina.
يا ايها الذين آمنوا يعنى الذين صدقوا بالتوحيد، اطيعوا الله يعنى فى فرائضه و اطيعوا الرسول يعنى فى سنته و اولى الامر منكم قال نزلت فى امير المؤمنين حين خلفه رسول الله بالمدينة.
 Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 105.
 Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 159.
 Same Surah
 Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 64.
 And in the commentary of al-Mizan, volum 4, page 437he relates a narrative that proves this claim. He states: 'And in the Commentary of al-Ay'yashi, from Abdullah bin Ojlan, quoting Abi Ja'far, peace be upon him, saying: 'Obey Allah and obey His Messenger, and obey those in authority among you,' he says, it is for Ali that Allah has assigned the Imams at the position of the messengers – no one apart from them deal with the lawful and unlawful.'
 In the al-Mizan, volume 4, page 437, he says: And in al-Kafi, by means of his documents from Barid bin Mua'wiyah says: 'Abu Ja'far, peace be upon him, recited:
"اطيعوا الله و اطيعوا الرسول و اولى الامر منكم فان خفتم تنازعا فى الامر فارجعوه الى الله و الى الرسول و الى اولى الامر منكم"
Obey Allah and obey His Messenger, and obey those in authority among you. Then if you have any dispute over anything, refer to Allah and the Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day – for that is best and becoming in the end.' He said: how can He command their obeying and intercede in their dispute? Then, he says they are the Marqin who say to them "Obey Allah and obey His Messenger". And in the Commentary of al-Ayyashi from Barid bin Mua'wiyah says quotes Abi-Ja'far, peace be upon him (And it is Kafi's old narrative), and in the narrative:
"قال للناس يا ايها الذين آمنوا فجمع المؤمنين الى يوم القيامة اطيعوا الله و اطيعوا الرسول و اولى الامر منكم"
as well as the narrative
" فان خفتم تنازعاً فى الامر فارجعوا الى الله و الى الرسول و الى اولى الامر منكم"
then, how can He command their obeying and intercede in their dispute?Thus, he says: they are the Marqin who say to them
" اطيعوا الله و اطيعوا الرسول و اولى الامر منكم ".
 In expression, the meaning of "اناا" is from the trace and effect deducing the efficacious and cause.
 The Commentary of "Borhan, volume 1, page 235" and the "Ghayat-al-Maram', page 265, 266, the third narrative from section 59; and also Allama Tabatabaee has related it in his Commentary of al-Mizan, volume 4, page 437 quoting Ay'yashi, and in " شواهد التنزيل ", volume 1, page 149 up to the statement of the Messenger of Allah " فاعطانى ذلك"; he has related it up to " فاعطانى ذلك".
 Surah 33, "احزاب", Verse 33.
 The Commentary of " برهان" volume 1, page 238 and " غاية المرام" page 263-264, the first narrative in the section 57; and also in " الميزان" volume 4, page 439 from the Commentary of " برهان".
 It has been related in Commentary of " برهان", volume 1, page 237, and " غاية المرام" page 264, the second narrative from the section 57, and also in " الميزان" volume 4, page 439 from the Commentary of " برهان".
 The Commentary of "برهان", page 236 and also in "غاية المرام" page 267, the eighth narrative in section 59.
 The Commentary of "الميزان", volume 4, page 439.
This narrative has been explained in the commentary of “Burhan”, volume 1 page 234 and 235; and in the “Ghāyat al-Maram” page 265 and 266 from the late Sadouq, and also from Allama Tabatabaee, in the commentary of “al-Mizan” volume 4 page 435 and 436 who has quoted it from the commentary of “Burhan”.
 It has been related in the Commentary of "برهان", volume 1, page 235, and also in "غاية المرام" page 268, the eleventh narrative from the section of 59, and in the Commentary of "الميزان" volume 4, page 436-437 up to the end of the first narrative: "خلقا يجيبنى اليه ".
 Shawahid at-Tanzil, volume 2 page 148.The commentary of al-Mizan, volume 4 page 436.
 The commentary of al-Mizan, volume 4 page 436.Montahi al-Amal, volume I page 92. "بحار الانوار", volume 15, page 109, Aakhondi's publication.
 "نهج البلاغه", the section of the sermons, page 304, T Abdah Egypt."نهج البلاغه", the section of the sermons, page 271 and 272, from the publication of Abdah Egypt. "نهج البلاغه", the section of the letters, page 119 from the publication of Abdah Egypt.