In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lesson 21: The Meaning of ‘Those is the Authority’ is the Infallible Imams

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lesson Twenty One: The Meaning of ‘Those is the Authority’ is the Infallible Imams


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.


The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا [1]

‘… O you who believe, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. Then if you have any dispute over anything, refer to Allah and the Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day – for that is better and becoming in the end, (Qur’an: 4/59).’


The interpretation of ‘Those in authority’ is the two significant that the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, left behind for his nation.

In his final sermon, [2] the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, stated:

إِنِّي مُخَلِّفٌ فِيكُمُ الثَّقَلَيْنِ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَ عِتْرَتِي أَهْلَ بَيْتِي وَ إِنَّهُمَا لَنْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْض. [3]

As memento, I leave two things with you – two lofty things – the Book of Allah and my Household; and those two will not separate until they reach me by the Kow‘thar [river in Paradise].

It sounds that the Qur’an by itself, without the instructors and guardians, is not enough for [guiding] the people. However, according to the Messenger’s statement, Omar’s saying that: ‘Allah’s Book is enough for us and we need no Imams’ is a sheer mistake. It is because the Messenger of Allah has stated: ‘These two, the Book of Allah and his Household, are not inseparable.’ Therefore, if one takes only one he loses both of them.

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The reason of not separating of the two most loved Facts until the Day of Resurrection.

Therefore, the man who expressed: ‘We take the Qur’an but we have nothing to do with the Household’, for sure, he even could not take the Book of Allah – nor nor did his followers reach the Book of Allah and the Household. It is because the Holy Qur’an includes such a fact and truth that it is beyond their imagination.

It looks like that which, on a piece of paper, we would write a name as: Hassan, Hussein or Ali, these bleak names stand for some facts having souls with thousands desires, and limitations, characteristics, aspirations, power and weakness points which have manifold meaning comparing to the simple names. These names are just simple indicators; they refer to something more important than the fact. Similarly, the fact of the Qur’an is also something loftier, superior and quite different from its outward appearance. It is full of facts and truth; it includes all methods of human lives, the good and evil ways, paradise and hell, the Resurrection and Judgment, and numerous things related to life and death. The words appearing on the pages of the Qur’an are just representing the main facts and truth that only the Imam is familiar to them. The Imam upon him be peace is aware of the whole facts and truth in the Divine Book, in other words, the essence of the Qur’an is with the Imam; as it is stated:

      وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ أحْصَيْنَاهُ فِي إِمَامٍ مُبِينٍ [4]

‘… and We have calculated everything in the Glorious Divine Ledger, (Qur’an: 36/12).’

عليٌّ مع القرآنِ و القرآن مع علِيٍّ لا يفترِقانِ حتّي يرِدا عليّ الحوض. [5]

Ali is with the Qur’an and so is the Qur’an with Ali; these two will not separate until they come to me by the Kow‘thar [river in Paradise].

It is obvious that this companionship is certainly the fact of the Qur'an – not only in the book like this:

وَ كَذلِكَ انْزَلْنا الَيْكَ الْكِتابَ فَالَّذينَ آتَيْناهُمُ الْكِتابَ يُؤمِنُونَ بِهِ ... وَ ما كُنْتَ تَتْلُوا مِنْ قَبْلِهِ مِنْ كِتابٍ وَ لا تَخُطُّهُ بِيَمينِكَ اذاً لَارْتابَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ بَلْ هُوَ آياتٌ بَيِّناتٌ فى صُدُورِ الَّذينَ اوتُوا الْعِلْم [6]

'…and thus We have revealed to you this Book. Those to whom We have given the Book believe in it – and some among them follow it – and except the disbelievers [no one] deny Our signs.
*And you [O Muhammad] was not the reader of any Scripture before this, nor you wrote any with your own hand; otherwise, the followers of falsehood would suspect [this Qur’an].
* Rather this [Qur'an] is clear Revelations in the breasts of those who have been given knowledge; and none denies Our signs but the wrongdoers, (Qur'an: 29/47-49).'‏

(Rather the holy Qur'an consists of the clear versessettling in the hearts of those who have been given knowledge.)

Also Allah states:

 "قُلْ كَفى بِاللهِ شَهيداً بَيْنى وَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَ مَنْ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ الْكِتاب‏" [7]

'…’ Say, ‘Allah is sufficient as a Witness between you and I, and so is one who has the knowledge of the Book, (Qur'an: 13/43).'‏

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The Commander of the believers’ companionship with the Holy Qur’an

There are many narratives from both the Sunnite and Shiite [8] that one who has been given knowledge is the Holiness Commander of the believers, upon him be peace. And is also a narrative that the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, stated:

إنّ فيكم من يقاتل على تأويلِ القرآنِ كما قاتلت على تنزيله. قال أبو بكرٍ: أنا هو يا رسول اللهِ ؟! قال : لا قال عمر : أنا هو يا رسول الله ؟! قال : لا ولكن خاصف النعلِ ، وكان أعطى عليا نعله يخصِفها [9]

The Holiness Messenger of Allah stated: ‘There is among you one who struggles to secure the meaning of the Qur’an as I did for the revelation and securing its manifestation.’ Abu Bakr, ‘O the Messenger of Allah, is it me?’ He answered, ‘No.’ Then Omar said, ‘Is it me o the Messenger of Allah?’ He answered, ‘No, he is one who is now patching up my shoes.’ Prior to his statement, the Holiness had given his shoes to the Commander of the believers and he was busy patching them up.

By these clear Verses it is understood that the Commander of the believers had the most knowledge of the Qur’an and he was the true Guardian of the Divine Book; he had been given authority by Allah to secure it and teach its meaning to the people.

According to what is said so far, the statement of those who say: ‘We refer to the Qur’an and benefit it according to our needs, therefore, we have no need of the infallible Household and their narratives’ is absolutely a false statement and it is no longer valid. Apart from that the sole Book of Allah is not enough to direct us, in many occasions it commands us to refer to the infallible Household, as:

وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا [10]

‘… take whatever Messenger may give you, but leave whatever he forbids you, (Qur’an: 59/7).’

And it is also stated:

 إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ [11]

‘… Your protector is only Allah, and His Messenger and those who believe, perform the prayer, and pay the due welfare tax even when bowing down [to pray], (Qur’an: 5/55).’

Therefore, there are great many narratives from the Sunnite and Shiite relating that these Verses refer to the Commander of the believers upon him be peace.[12] And there are also other Verses, like: “Those in Authorities” where Allah incumbents their obedience.

There are four common narratives in the Ghāyat al-Maram, page 263, and fourteen narratives in page 265 specifically have been quoted and all relating that “Those in Authority” refers to immaculate Imams, peace be upon them all. Therefore, those who say: ‘We just refer to the Book of Allah’, should know that according to some Verses, Allah’s Book has referred them to Messenger; as it sates:  

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللّهِ [13]

‘… and We did not send any messenger(s) but to be obeyed with the permission of Allah, (Qur’an: 4/64).’

And similar to these Verses:

أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ [14]

أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ ورسوله [15]

Obey Allah and obey the Messenger,

Obey Allah and Hid Messenger, (Qur’an: 4/59 and 24/54).’

The obedience of the Messenger of Allah is incumbent to everyone; and by the ‘Hadith of Thaghalain’, the Narratives of the Two Important Ones, and the narrative of Clan, the story of Ghadir, and the narrative of Khasaf Na’lain and the story of Safina and some more narratives he has enjoined to obey the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace. And according to the Verse of “Those in Authority”, which has been quoted in many narratives, Allah has incumbent the obedience of the infallible Imams – and the authentic of those narrative have been confirmed.

In the book of ‘Kafi’ and the documentary of ‘Ayyashi’ it is narrated from Holiness Imam Sadiq, upon him be peace, that he had stated concerning the Verse of “Those in Authority”:    

اِيّانا عني خاصّة، أمر جميع المؤمِنين اِلي يومِ القِيامةِ بِطاعتِنا [16]

‘In the Verse of “Those in Authority” Allah means refers it to us, the infallible Imams, and He has enjoined all the Muslims to obey us until the Day of Resurrection.’

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The comment and the reference of ‘Those in authority’ to the innocent Imams, Upon Them be Peace, and the condition of the revelation of Purity Verse.

And also in the book of ‘Kafi’, it is quoted from the Holiness Imam Sadiq upon him be peace that when he was asked of the necessity of the obedience of the Executors he stated: 

نَعَمْ هُمُ الَّذِينَ قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى  أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ

‘Yes, the Executors of the Messenger of Allah are those about whom Allah has stated: “Obey your Executors” ; Allah stated:

إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمْ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ [17]

‘…Your protector is only Allah, and His Messenger and those who believe, perform the prayer, and pay the due welfare tax even when bowing down [to pray], (Qur’an: 5/55).’

 And also in the book of ‘Kafi’ and ‘Ay’yashi’ it is related from the Holiness Imam Sadiq upon him be peace that this Verse has been sent down for the sake of both Hassan and Hussein. Then, when some people asked the Holiness: ‘Why Allah has not mentioned the names of Ali and his Household in His Book?’ The Holiness answered: ‘It is obvious, in the Book, Allah has enjoined the prayer but He has not mentioned the exact amount of it – whether to pray two , three or four turns of prostrations in each prayer. It was the Messenger of Allah who clarified and explained its exact amount; and also the welfare tax-paying is incumbent in the Qur’an but it is not mentioned whether one dirham out of forty dirhams must be paid for the welfare, but he was also the Messenger of Allah who made it clear. Hajj is also enjoined in the Book but it is not mentioned how many circumambulations are needed, but the Messenger of Allah declared it to the nation.; and so is the Verse:     

أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ

obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you,

was revealed concerning Ali, Hassan and Hussein, peace be upon them, and later on, the Messenger of Allah mentioned Ali’s status by stating: 

من كنت مولاه فعليٌّ مولاه

Whomsoever I am Master, [and I have authority upon him,] so is Ali his Master [and has authority on him].

And he said:

أُوصِيكُمْ بِكِتَابِ اللَهِ وَ أهْلِ بِيْتِي‌، فَآءنِّي‌سَأَلْتُ اللَهُ عَزَّوَجَلَّ أنْ لاَيُفَرِّقَ بَيْنَهُمَا حَتَّي‌يُوردَهُما عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ، فَأعْطَانِي‌ذَلِكَ

I enjoin you to take hold of the Book and my Household for I asked Allah not to separate those two from each other until He sends them to me by the Kow‘thar [river in Paradise]; Allah too has accepted my request and granted it. And he has said:      

لا تعلِّموهم فاِنّهم اعلم منكم [18]

‘Do not try to teach anything to my Household for they are the most learned among you.’

And He said:

وقال: لن يخرِجكم مِن بابِ هديً و لن يدخِلوكم في بابٍ ضلالةٍ

My Household never derails you from the guidance course nor do they enter you into aberration and adversity.

Therefore, if Messenger of Allah had kept silent and had not introduced his Household then some unknown such and such would claim for the Caliphate; however, Almighty Allah, in His Book, sent down to Messenger, Bless be to him and his Descendants, an affirmation stating:

إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُـمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيراً [19]

‘… Allah only desires to put away any impurity from you, the Household, and to purify you, (Qur’an: 33/33);’and it is also said in the Ghāyat al-Maram, page 27.

At that moment, in the house of Umm Salma, Ali, Hassan, Hussein and Fatima were with the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, when he took them under his loose open-in-front cloak and implored:

اللهمّ اِنّ لِكلِّ نبِيٍّ أهلاً و ثقلاً وهؤلاء اهل بيتي و ثقلي  

O Allah, for every messenger is a family and the beloved and these are my family and the beloved.’ Then, Umm Salama asked: ‘Am I also of your family?’ The Holiness answered: ‘You are in the line of benevolent but only these are my family and the beloved.’ At that moment, Allah sent down the Verse of Purification. [20] 

And it is related from Imam Sadiq, peace be upon him, that he was asked: ‘Upon what the pillars of the Islam are set up so that by referring them one becomes pure and is protected against the evil acts?’ He answered: ‘It is based on ‘bearing witness that “There is no Deity except Allah, and that Muhammad, Bless be to him and his Descendants, is the Messenger of Allah’; and also accepting what Allah has sent down to His Messenger, paying the dutiful farewell taxes and accepting the real Guardianship whom Allah has honoured to His Messenger.”

That is why the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, has stated:

من مات ولم يعرِف اِمام زمانِهِ مات ميتةً جاهِليِّةً  

‘Whoever dies before getting to know his “Monarch for the Time”, he indeed dies as the [pre-history] Ignorance.’

Allah has stated: ‘

أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ

فكان على عليه السلام ثم صار من بعده الحسن ثم من بعده الحسين ثم من بعده على بن الحسين ثم من بعده محمد بن على ثم هكذا يكون الامر، ان الارض لا تصلح الا بامام عليهم السلام [21]

obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you,

 Thus, the word, [those] in the phrase of “Those in authority among you” refers to Ali, upon him be peace; and following him is the Holiness Hassan and then Hussein. After those two is Ali Bin Al-Hussein and then, Muhammad Bin Ali until the Last One, the Monarch for the Time; they are, with no intermission, one after another – the world will not be competent without the Imam, upon him be peace

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Mansour bin Hazim’s reasoning for the necessity of the Imam to understand the meaning of the Qur’an.

Muhammad bin Ya‘ghub Kolaini relates from Man‘sōōr bin Hazim in his book that he had said: ‘I had the honour to inform the Holiness Imam Ja‘far Sadiq, peace be upon him: ‘Allah is too Great to be known by His creatures but it is the creatures that are known to Allah.’ To my utterance, the Highness answered: ‘You are right.’ Again I said: ‘Whoever believes that he has Creator he must know what satisfies or dissatisfies Him so as not to do anything against His will; that is he must perform whatever makes Him pleased with him. His happiness or wrath will not be noticed except by the Divine Revelation which is propelled by Him, or being announced by the Messenger of His. Therefore, anyone who does not receive the revelation he has to refer to the messengers, and when he is at the presence of them, he should know that they are the signs of Allah and their obedience is incumbent.’

Then I told the gathering: ‘Do you know that this Messenger of Allah is the Sign of Allah and he is a Proof to His creatures?’ They all said, ‘Yes.’

I asked: ‘When the Messenger of Allah has passed away then who is the proof of Allah to His creatures?’ They answered: ‘It is the Qur’an.’

By hearing the name of the Qur’an, I paused a bit and hesitated that, at that time, ‘Morgi, the Qadari and the Zandiq’,[22] who believed not in Allah, referred to the Qur’an. To prove their false claims against their oppositions, they often reasoned by the means of the Qur’an. However, I knew that the Qur’an alone, without a Guardian, could not be an authentic proof of Allah for His creatures; there needed a well-learned one to be acquainted with the facts, Secrets and the interpretation of the Book of Allah. Because it is only he who is a proof from Allah to His creatures and whatever he says about the secrets and miracles of the Qur’an is right. 

Thus, I asked them: ‘Who is the Guardian for the Qur’an?’ They said: ‘Well, Ibn Mas‘ōōd; and Omar and Hozaifi knew the Qur’an.’

I asked: ‘Did they know the whole Qur’an?’ They said, ‘No;’ therefore, I found no one among them to say he knows the Qur’an except Ali bin Abī Tālib upon him be peace. Yes, he was only Ali who, when a complex problem occurred among the nation, had the right answer to it. I knew that in all difficulties it was he who solved it in ease. In comparison among the claimant, I became quite certain that Ali, upon hi be peace, was the real Guardian, his obedience was incumbent, after the Messenger of, Bless be to him and his Descendants, he was the Sign of Allah for His creatures and whatever he said about the Qur’an was true.’

When the Holiness heard what I say. He stated: ‘May Allah have mercy upon you!’ [23]

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The debate of Imam Sadiq’s men with a man from Syrian concerning Imamate

And Kolaini, by means of his document, has narrated Yunus bin Ya’ghub that he had said: “I was sitting with Imam Ja‘far Sadiq, peace be upon him, when a man from Syria approached us and said: “I a man of jurisprudence and the religious student, I have come here to debate with your men.” The Holiness asked: “Are you going to utter your own words or are going to quote the words of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants?”

He said: “Both; I am going to quote the words of the Messenger as well as mine.”

The Holiness stated: “In that case you are the partner of the Messenger of Allah!” His reply was, ‘No.’ Then, the Holiness said: “Do you receive Revelations of Allah, and does He inform you what to say?” Again the man said, ‘No.’

The Holiness asked: “Is your obedience necessary as the obedience of the Messenger is?” He answered: ‘No.’

Yunus said: “Then, the Holiness turned to me saying: “O Yunus bin Ya’ghub, look! Before beginning his debate, this man confessed against himself and his claims.”’

After that, the Holiness stated: ‘How nice it would be if you were expert in discussion and debate with this man.’

Yunus says: ‘I thought, begrudged, sighed and regretted that I was void of the knowledge of the debate, so I had the honour to inform the Holiness: “May I be made your sacrifice, I myself heard you avoiding us to dispute, and you always said, ‘Woe on those orators who, on their discussions, say: ‘This is right, and that is wrong; you can say this but cannot say that,  you can reason on this subject but cannot reason on that one!’ 

The Holiness said: ‘But, I said ‘woe on those who wink at my command but use their minds in discussions.’

Next, the Holiness commanded me: ‘Now you, hurry up, go to the street and look for a man of the speakers and bring him to me.’ Yunus says: ‘I carried out his command and brought Humran bin A;yan, who was fluent in speech, as well as Ahwal (Muhammad bin Noman, who was known as the peerless believer, and also called Hisham bin Salim and Ghais bin Masir who were clever in debate and discussions – they had been trained in conversation by the Holiness Ali Bin Al-Hussein upon him be peace.

When all of them came to the Holiness in the tent which was put up close to the House of Ka‘ba for that Highness to settle during the days of the ceremonies of the Hajj Pilgrimage – everyone sat and the session was to begin. It was then the Holiness looked out through the opening of the tent and saw that a camel-mounted man was approaching the tent. The Holiness turned to his guests saying, ‘By Allah, the Owner of the House, he is Hisham.’ We thought that he was Hisham, the grandsons of Aghil who the Holiness loved very much. Right then, Hisham bin Hakam entered the tent. He was in his teens and we all looked older than he was. The Holiness stood up in respect and offered him to sit by his side and saying:

ناصِرنا بِقلبِهِ و لِسانِهِ و يدِهِ

‘He is, by all means, our supporter: by his heart, tongue and hands.’

 Then, the Holiness said: ‘O Himran, do debate with this Syrian.’ Himran started his debate and prevailed on him. Soon after, the Highness said: ‘Now, you o Taghi,[24] discuss with that man.’ He too began discussing and before long prevailed upon him. Next, the Holiness said: ‘O Hisham bin Salim, start your discussion with this man.’ Those two went on talking too much until they got to know each other’s capacity and aim. Then, the Holiness stated: ‘O Ghais ibn Masir, debate with this man.’ He started his discussion with the man and cornered the man with his skillfulness, the man halted which made the Holiness laugh. Therefore, the Holiness told the Syrian: ‘Now, debate with this nyoung man, (Hisham bin Hakam),’ The Syrian said: ‘Of course,’ and then, he turned to Hisham and said, ‘O young man, ask me about this man, (the Holiness Imam Sadiq). By hearing what the man say, Hisham got so furious that he was shivering, and asked: ‘O you the Syrian, is Allah Clear-sighted and the Owner of command upon His creatures or the creatures clear-sighted on their affairs?’ The Syrian said: ‘Of course, it is Allah Who is the Clear-sighted.’

Hisham asked: ‘By having such Clear-sight, Command and Plan, what does Allah do for His creature?’

The Syrian answered: ‘He assigns His Signs and Guardians to stop people getting separated and not opposing each other in their affairs. Those Guardians make them be friends and kind to one another, bring them to the straight path and let them know their religious duties and Allah’s Commands.’

Hisham asked: ‘Who is such Guide?’

The Syrian said: ‘He is the Messenger of Allah.’

Hisham said: ‘Who is the proof after the Messenger of Allah?’

The Syrian said: ‘It is the Book of Allah and His Messenger’

Hisham said: ‘Now, are the laws and traditions of the Messenger and thee Book of Allah enough for meeting our differences?’

The Syrian said: ‘Yes, of course.’

Hisham said: ‘Then, why have you come here from Syria to discuss your differences with us?’

Yunus says: ‘The Syrian kept quiet, and the Holiness told him: “Why did you keep quiet, why do you not speak any more?” The Syrian said: “If I say that we have no differences then surely I have lied, and if I say the Book, and the laws and traditions wipe out our differences I have said something nonsense, because the Book and laws and traditions are tangible, they can be carried everywhere and can be manipulated by everyone’s wills and desires and then refer to it. And if I say that we have differences with each other and everyone goes his own way, in this case, the Book and traditions have no share in our lives and we do not need them. Thus, I cannot answer this young man unless to ignore the facts.’ The Holiness answered: ‘Do ask him even more, you will find him the most patient man.’

The Syian said: ‘O you the young man! Has the Creator of mankind more favour upon His creatures or His creatures upon Him?’

Hisham said: ‘Their Creator has the most favour upon them then they have.’

The Syrian asked: ‘Has Allah assigned for them a man to direct them from the diversity to Monotheism, and from wrong to right: informing them of the fact and keeping them away from wrong?’

Hisham said: ‘Do you mean at the time of the Messenger, Bless be to him and his Descendants, or at this time?’

The Syrian said: ‘It is obvious that at that time the Messenger of Allah was the proof himself, so let me know who is at this time?’

Hisham said: ‘He is just this man who is sitting here, the one for his visit people have come from long away to ask their questions; he informs us from the events of the sky (and earth) – this miracle is a heritage to him from his father and grandfather.’

The Syrian said: ‘How am I going to know the fact?’

Hisham said: ‘Do ask him about whatever you want.’

The Syrian said: ‘You ended my dilemma and stopped me making excuses so now it is with me to ask my questions.’ Right then, the Holiness turned to him saying: ‘O Syrian, do you like me to inform you of your travelling here in details? Your journey was such and such until you reached here.’

Hearing what he say, the Syrian agreed with him and said:

أسلمت لِلّهِ السّاعة

‘Now, I surrender in the Command of Allah and embrace Islam.’

The Holiness said:

بل آمنت بِاللهِ السّاعة

‘Yes indeed, you surrendered to Allah at very moment; surrendering is prior to belief. On the basis of Islam people receive heritage from each other, they marry and run their lives in decent way, but through their belief they obtain the rewards of the Hereafter.’

The Syrian said:

صَدَقْتَ فَانَا السّاعَةَ اشْهَدُ انْ لا الهَ الّا الله وَ انَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم وَ انَّكَ وَصِىُّ الْاوْصِياء

‘You are right, now I witness that there is no deity except Allah and that Muhammad,  Bless be to him and his Descendants, is His Messenger and that you are the Executer of all Executers.’

Yunus says: ‘Then the Holiness turned to Himran and said, “Well, you did base your debate on the narratives and apparently you are victorious in this discussion,” and then, he turned to Hisham bin Salim saying: “And you too are trying to reason it through the narratives but without having enough knowledge about them.” Then, the Holiness turned to Ahwal [25] and said: “You are leading your discussion only with comparisons and cunningly trying to overcome your anger – you are answering his wrong questions with wrong answers, though the wrong saying of yours is closer to the fact.” Then, to Ghais bin Masir [26] he expressed: “In your discussion, instead of using the narration of the Messenger of Allah you are leaving them but using some subjects which are far away from the facts; and in your discussion you mix up the right with wrong, but you should know that true speeches seem to be short but they are more effective than the long but wrong speeches.

أنت والاحول قفّازانِ حاذقانِ

Both you and Ahwal are zigzagging in your conversations and making your opponents puzzle – you are clever in this art.”’

Yunus says: ‘By Allah, at that moment, I thought that the Holiness would say the same thing to Hisham bin Hakam – as he said to those two. However, he told Hisham bin Hakam, “O Hisham, you never let yourself be desperate in discussions; you are similar to a shot-bird falling on the ground but soon after it gathers its legs under its stomach and flies into the sky. The men like you have to discuss with people, then, the spiritual aids will come to you.”’[27]

And Ne‘mani has put it in his documentary that Ismaeel bin Jabir said:    

سَمِعْتُ ابا عَبْدِ اللهِ جَعْفَرَ بْنَ مُحمَّدٍ الصّادِقَ عليهما السلام يَقُولُ

انَّ اللهَ تَبارَكَ وَ تَعالى بَعَثَ مُحَمَّداً فَخَتَمَ بِهِ الْانبِياءَ فَلا نَبىَّ بَعْدَهُ، وَ انْزَلَ عَلَيْهِ كِتاباً فَخَتَمَ بِهِ الْكُتُبَ فَلا كِتابَ بَعْدَهُ، احَلَّ فيهِ حَلالًا وَ حَرَّمَ حَراماً فَحَلالُهُ حَلالٌ الى يَوْمِ الْقِيامَةِ وَ حَرامُهُ حَرامٌ الى يَوْمِ الْقِيامَةِ، فيهِ شَرْعُكُمْ وَ خَبَرُ مَنْ قَبْلَكُمْ وَ بَعْدَكُمْ وَ جَعَلَهُ النَّبىُّ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم عِلْماً باقياً فى اوْصِيائِهِ. [28]

‘I heard it from the Holiness Aba Abdellah Ja‘far bin Muhammad Sadiq, upon him be peace, saying: “Allah Almighty, the most High, assigned Muhammad and ended the prophet-hood by him, that is, there is no messenger after him. He sent down a Book to him and ended up His Divine Book by that, therefore, there is no Book after that to be sent down. In that Book, something has been considered lawful and some other things unlawful, its command concerning the lawful or unlawful are untouched until the Day of Resurrection. In that Book, there are laws and legislations and the religion of yours; it is included the history of those prior to you as well as those who are going to come after you – and the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to him and his Descendants, has set it up as the everlasting knowledge among the Executers of his.

Anyhow, after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, by crying: كفانا كِتاب اللهِ, that is, “Allah’s Book is enough for us,” they diverted the people from the Household; they ignored the status, the Chastity and the great Guardian of Allah. The lowly and worldly men took the Caliphate of the Messenger of Allah as a commonplace affair, and through their passions, they usurped the governorship. They led many people to deviation and made the pillar of Islam unstable.”

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The sermon of the Commander of the believers about the status of the Household, peace be upon them all.

In his second sermon, in the “Nahj-ul-Balagha”, concerning the Household of the Prophet, the Commander of the believers, states:

همْ مَوْضِعُ سِرَّهِ وَ لَجَاٌ امْرِهِ و عَيْبَةُ عِلْمِهِ وَ مَوْئِلُ حُكْمِهِ وَ كُهُوفُ كُتُبِهِ وَ جِبالُ ديِنِهِ. بِهِمْ اقامَ انْحِناءَ ظَهْرِهِ وَ اذْهَبَ ارْتِعادَ فَرائِصِهِ.

 )وَ مِنْها يَعْنى قَوْماً آخَرينَ) زَرَعُوا الْفُجُورَ وَ سَقَوْهُ الْغُرُورَ وَ حَصَدَوا الثُّبُورَ. لا يُقاسُ بِآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم مِنْ هذِهِ الْامَّةِ احَدٌ، وَ لا يُسَوّى بِهِمْ مَنْ جَرَتْ نِعْمَتُهُمْ عَلَيْهِ ابَداً. هُمْ اساسُ الدِّينِ وَ عِمادُ الْيَقينِ. الَيْهِمْ يَفى‏ءُ الْغالى، وَ بِهِمْ يُلْحَقُ التّالى. وَ لَهُمْ خَصائِصُ حَقِّ الْوِلايَةِ، وَ فيهِمْ الْوَصِيَّةُ وَ الْوِراثَةُ. الْآنَ اذْ رَجَعَ الْحَقُّ الى اهْلِهِ وَ نُقِلَ الى مُنْتَقَلِه‏.[29]

They are the trustees of His secrets, shelter for His affairs, source of knowledge about Him, centre of His wisdom, valleys for His books and mountains of His religion. With them Allah straightened the bend of religion's back and removed the trembling of its limbs.

And of them, that is another folk)

They sowed vices, watered them with deception and harvested destruction. None in the Islamic community can be taken at par with the Progeny of the Prophet (The Household of Muhammad). One who was under their obligation cannot be matched with them. They are the foundation of religion and pillar of Belief. The forward runner has to turn back to them while the follower has to overtake them. They possess the chief characteristics for Caliphate. In their favour exists the will and succession (of the Prophet). This is the time when right has returned to its owner and diverted to its centre of return.

However, those who kept away from the Book of Allah and separated the religion from the Household of Muhammad, and took the Caliphate away from its due course, and planted the seeds of vice and disobedience in the hearts of the poor nation, they indeed hid the fact in their revengeful hearts and irrigated it with their everlasting whims and passions until their sown plant turned out to be corrupt and misery. It is because, in comparison, no one is alike the Household of Messenger. Those who stole the blessings of the Messenger and tried recording them for their own benefit are quite different from the Household.
The Household are the main basis of the religion and the pillars of certainty. The exaggerators who have been extravagant in the religion and exceeded the straight path have to return to the course of the Household and follow them. They must adjust their way of living and try to exact themselves to suit the status of the progeny; because the Governorship is specified for the Household of Muhammad. The endless power and knowledge that Allah has assigned for them entitles them to be the inheritor of the seal of the Messengers. Now, it is the time that right be put in the hands of those deserve it (it denotes that the right has been out of its place so far.)

And it is also said in different way:   

فَوَ اللهِ ما زِلْتُ مَدْفُوعاً عَنْ حَقّى مُسْتأْثَراً عَلَىَّ مُنْذُ قَبَضَ اللهُ نَبِيَّهُ صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم حَتّى يَوْمِ النّاسِ هذا.[30]

By Allah, I have been continually deprived of my right since Allah took the life the Prophet, Bless be to him and his Descendants, with Him until now.

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The Sermon of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, about not having any assistance

It is well understood by this sermon of the Holiness, which has been delivered after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, that how lonely he felt when Abbas ibn Mottalib and Abu Sufian went to him to pay homage, as he says:

أَيُّها النَّاسُ، شُقُّوا أَمْوَاجَ الفِتَنِ بِسُفُنِ النَّجَاةِ، وَعَرِّجُوا عَنْ طَريقِ الـمُنَافَرَةِ، وَضَعُوا تِيجَانَ الـمُفَاخَرَةِ. َفْلَحَ مَنْ نَهَضَ بِجَنَاح، أوِ اسْتَسْلَمَ فَأَراحَ، مَاءٌ آجِنٌ ، وَلُقْمَةٌ يَغَصُّ بِهَا آكِلُهَا، وَمُجْتَنِي الَّثمَرَةِ لِغَيْرِ وَقْتِ إِينَاعِهَا  كالزَّارعِ بِغَيْرِ أَرْضِهِ.فَإِنْ أقُلْ يَقُولُوا: حَرَصَ عَلَى الـمُلْكِ، وَإنْ أَسْكُتْ يَقُولُوا: جَزعَ  مِنَ المَوْتِ! هَيْهَاتَ  بَعْدَ اللَّتَيَّا وَالَّتِي ! وَاللهِ لاَبْنُ أَبي طَالِب آنَسُ بالمَوْتِ مِنَ الطِّفْلِ بِثَدْي أُمِّهِ، بَلِ انْدَمَجْتُ  عَلَى مَكْنُونِ عِلْم لَوْ بُحْتُ بِهِ لاَضْطَرَبْتُمُ اضْطِرَابَ الاْرْشِيَةِ  في الطَّوِيِّ  البَعِيدَةِ![31]

O, People! Steer clear through the waves of mischief by boats* of deliverance; turn away from the path of dissension and put off the crowns of pride. Prosperous is one who rises with wings (i.e. when he has power) or else he remains peaceful and others enjoy ease. It (i.e. the aspiration for Caliphate) is like turbid water or like a morsel that would suffocate the person who swallows it. One who plucks fruits before ripening is like one who cultivated in another's field.

If I speak out they would call me greedy towards power; but if I keep quiet they would say I was afraid of death. It is a pity that after all the ups and downs (I have been through); by Allah, the son of Abu Tālib is more familiar with death than an infant is with the breast of its mother. I have hidden knowledge; if I disclose it to you then you will start trembling like ropes in deep wells.

* In this sentence :

مثل أهل بيتي فيكم كسفينة نوح، من ركِبها نجا،  ومن تخلف عـنها غـرِق

The similitude of my Household is like that of the Ark of Noah:

Whoever embarks it, will have saved his soul, and he who avoids it, drowns.

In this sermon, the Commander of the believers denotes that: victory and prosperous is for him who rises up by the assistance of friends and supporters to get his right, like a bird that soars high with the strong wings of it; or it is for one who totally forsakes it for the lack of his supporters and friends; thus, he says: ‘This Caliphate which you are inviting me to and are insisting to pay homage, although according to the Verse of the Qur’an and the will of the Messenger of Allah it is my right, however, for the opposition of Bani Taim and Bani Addi, who immediately paid homage to me after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, and later on seriously resisted against the will of the Messenger. Their similarity is that of the polluted water which has lost its freshness and finally has changed into dirt, or like the food which is contaminated with thistles and while it is eaten tears apart the throat. 

Whoever picks up a kind of a green fruit from the tree it is clearly bitter and useless to eat; it is similar to a farmer planting his seeds in the land of someone unknown man to him – then, surely he will not get any benefit of it. (My Caliphate is the Divine Caliphate and it is based on piety and is the religious Guardianship of the Messenger of Allah which is to guide people and lead them to the highest spiritual position and the safe normal life.

If I rise up against these opposition groups, with no supporters on my side to prevail them, then, there will be chaos, seditions and untimely blood shedding. Above all, it is what the enemy wants). Therefore, if I said, I would like to take the Caliphate, they would say: ‘He has become greedy for the Caliphate,’ and if I kept quiet, then, they would say, ‘He is frightened of the death.’ O that! It is not Ali’s policy, after all difficulties, disasters and fighting, to be afraid of war. By Allah, the son of Abī Tālib’s tendency to death is more than a child’s desire for its mother’s breasts. The reason of my lack of rising against them and taking the Caliphate is that I am aware of the Devine secrets, the knowledge of events and blessings; they are all mixed up with my essence. If I reveled a tiny piece of them to you, you would shake like a loose rope in surprise – you would not tolerate to listen to me.’

This statement of the Holiness denotes the Devine sure decrees testing the opposed, those who have forsaken the vivid religion and Guardian-ship of the Messenger of Allah, separated from those the rightful people and made two different sections; so it is stated:

فَرِيقٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌ فِي السَّعِيرِ [32]

‘… a group will be in Paradise while another group in the depth of Blaze, (Qur’an: 42/7).’

Then, a group of them will remain under the protection of the Household, and the other group cast into hell with no blessing.

 وَتِلْكَ الأيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنكُمْ شُهَدَاء وَاللّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الظَّالِمِينَ

وَلِيُمَحِّصَ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ وَيَمْحَقَ الْكَافِرِينَ

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُواْ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعْلَمِ اللّهُ الَّذِينَ جَاهَدُواْ مِنكُمْ وَيَعْلَمَ الصَّابِرِينَ [33]


‘… and We deal out such [loss and victory] days among mankind so that Allah may attest those who believe and accept witness from among you – for Allah does not like the wrongdoers.                                            

And that Allah may purify the believers, and destroy the disbelievers.

Did you expect that you would enter Paradise without Allah assigning those among you who struggle, and who are the patient, (Qur’an: 3/140-142).’


The only reason that the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace,   did not up-rise against the usurpers was that he had not any supporters and aids, according to his saying that: ‘The Messenger of Allah said to me: “O Ali, after my demise, if you found enough supporters, rise up against the enemies and take your rights but if did not fine, they keep silence and do not struggle and fight.[34] (It is related if the Ghāyat al-Maram, page 550,from the book of Salim bin Ghais who has narrated it from Salman Farsi. In the mean time, there is a long narrative from the Messenger of Allah who related it to the Commander of the believers before his demise, which goes as:

 يا اخى ستلقى بعدى من قريش شدة من تظاهرهم عليك و ظلمهم لك، فان وجدت أعوانا عليهم فجاهدهم و قاتل من خالفك بمن وافقك، و ان لم تجد أعوانا فاصبر و كف يدك و لا تلق بها الى التهلكة فانك منى بمنزلة هارون من موسى، و لك بهارون اسوة حسنة انه قال لموسى: ان القوم استضعفونى و كادوا يقتلوننى

It is the exact saying of the Holiness that stating: ‘If after the demise of Allah, if I had forty followers and followers, (of course the loyal friends and supporters), I would take my sword, up-rise against the enemies and fought.’ [35]

And in a letter which Mua‘wiyah writes to him, he mentions, ‘O Ali, you are the same man that after the demise of the Messenger of Allah has not at least forty close friends and supporters. You are the man that when my father, Abu Sofian, came to you to pay homage, you told him that if you had forty real supporters, you would rebel against your enemies.’[36] Therefore, when finding the Holiness quite lonely, his close friends: Salman, Abuzar, Meghdad, Zubair, Ammar ibn Yasir, Abbas Abdul –Muttalib, Obaii bin Ka’b, Otba bin Abi Lahab, Bara’ bin Azib, Sa’d bin Abi Waq‘qass and Talha bi Abidellah [37] and all the Bani Hashim, as well as some of Mohajerin and Ansar took sanctuary at the house of Fatima. They did not find any secured place to save their lives than her house. Later on, they sent Abu Bakr and Omar to take them to swear allegiance, they were ordered to kill them if they resisted:

فاِن ابوا فقاتِلهم [38]

‘If they resisted, then kill them.’

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The quality of asking the Commander of the believers to pay allegiance forcefully

Omar, along with a few of his followers, went to the house of Fatima, upon her be peace. Ibn Abi al-Hadid says:

ثُمَّ دَخَلَ عُمَرُ فَقالَ لِعَلِىٍّ: قُمْ فَبايِعْ فَتَلَكَّأَ وَ احْتَبَسَ،[39] فَاخَذَ بِيَده فَقالَ: قُمْ، فَابى انْ يَقُومَ، فَحَمَلهُ وَ دَفَعَهُ كَما دَفَعَ الزُّبَيْرَ حَتّى امْسَكَهُما خَالِدٌ وَ ساقَهُما عُمَرُ وَ مَنْ مَعَهُ سَوْقاً عَنيفاً، وَ اجْتَمَعَ النّاسُ يَنظُرُونَ وَ امْتَلَأَتْ شَوارعُ الْمَدينَةِ بِالرِّجالِ، وَ رَأتْ فاطِمَةُ ما صَنَعَ عُمَرُ فَصَرَخْت وَ وَلْوَلتْ وَ اجْتَمَعَ مَعَها كَثيرٌ مِنْ الْهاشِمِيّاتِ وَ غَيْرِهِنَّ فَخَرَجَتْ الى بابِ حُجْرَتِها وَ نادَت: يا ابا بَكْرٍ ما اسْرَعَ ما اغَرْتُمْ عَلى اهْلِ بَيْتِ رَسُولِ اللهِ، وَ اللهِ لا أُكَلِّمُ عُمَرَ حَتّى الْقَى اللهَ.[40]

After making an attack at the house of Fatima, they seized the sword of Zubair from his hand and broke it with big rocks, then they arrested him and trusted him to Khalid bin Walid and his men standing outside by the gate. Omar entered the house and told Ali bin Abī Tālib, upon him be peace: Now, stand up and pay homage!’ The Holiness did not take it serious and then resisted it. Omar took the Holiness on his hand and told him: ‘Stand up and pay homage.’ The Holiness refused to give in, then Omar with his friends acted as they had acted with Zubair; they all firmly seized Ali and made him helpless to resist. Then, Khali and Omar forced and dragged him to the mosque – on the way to the mosque, the people on the road were observing the sight. When Fatima saw Omar’s fierce acts against him, she started crying, shouting and following them to the mosque. In the mean time, a few Bani Hashim’s ladies accompanied her to the mosque. Fatima entered and stood close to her ‘chamber’ in the mosque, then, when caught sight of Abu Bakr, she said: ‘O Abu Bakr, how early you attacked the Household of the Prophet through your ignorance and grudge! By Allah, I will never say a single word to Omar until I meet my Creator.’

Anyhow, in that disarray state they took the Commander of the believers to the mosque, they even tided a rope around his neck and dragged him to the mosque to pay homage.

The best witness to this event is ‘Talha bin Abidehllah’ who, at the time of Othman’s Caliphate, when was among the people by Ali, and Ali was telling the gathering of his superiorities and privileges, he asked: ‘By seeing this status and privileges of you what should we do against the claims of Omar and Abu Bakr who tided you with a rope and dragged you to the mosque?’ [41]

And another proof is the letter that Mua‘wiyah has written to the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, in his letter he has pointed out: ‘You are the very man that they dragged him to the mosque like a *branded camel to pay homage to Abu Bakr.’

(*Here, the branded camel, is a camel that they horizontally made a hole in the bone of his nose and then after riding a stick within, they tied a rope at either side of it to make the animal tamed and obedience).

By saving his integrities and pointing at Mua‘wiyah’s weak points, the Commander of the believers has replied his letter superbly; and considering  his statement, the Holiness has replied: ‘Correct, they took me to the mosque that way, but you are trying to defect  me by that however, you have not thought that this is a praise for me. I did avoid it for not to surrendering to their oppression.’  

وَ قُلْتُ انّى كُنْتُ اقادُ كَما يُقادُ الْجَمَلُ الْمَخْشُوشَ حَتَّى ابايعَ، وَ لَعَمْرُ اللهِ لَقَدْ ارَدْتَ انْ تَذُمَّ فَمَدَحْتَ وَ انْ تَفْضَحَ فَافْتَضَحْتَ، وَ ما عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ مِنْ غَضاضَةٍ فى انْ يَكُونَ مَظْلُوماً ما لَمْ يَكُنْ شاكّاً فى دينِهِ وَ لا مُرْتاباً بِيَقينِهِ وَ هذِهِ حُجَّتى الى غَيْرِكَ قصْدُها وَ لكنّى اطْلَقْتُ لَكَ مِنْها بِقَدرِ ما سَنَحَ مِنْ ذِكْرِها .[42]

You also want to taunt me by saying that when I refused to accept the caliphate of the First Caliph I was dragged like a camel with a rope round my neck and every kind of cruelty and humiliation was leveled against me. I swear by my life that by talking like that you want to bring disgrace to me but you are actually doing the greatest service to me and are disgracing yourself as well as the cause that you pretend to support.

However, that which you have written in your letter and compared me as a drilled-in-nose-bone camel and is drawn forward to pay homage, by Allah, your aim is to find my defect and put me down. You have been quite unaware that by that way you are praising me! You wanted to defame me but it happened to be your own offend! (My not-paying homage is quite optional, it proves their invalidity, however, you that are their obedience, have confessed your invalidity, you have disgraced yourself). You should know that being oppressed is not considered a defect for a believer unless that defect causes one to doubt in his religion and to be in the state of dilemma – (Abjectness goes to the oppressive in this world through cursing, and in the Hereafter, the repay is disgracefulness). And this is my argument for the other criminals than you, because you do not even deserve my proof, but I briefly explained and opened the course of saying to you.’ [43]

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[1] Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 59.
[2] In the second introduction of the Commentary of "الصافى‏", extracted from "الكافى‏".
[3] Ahmad Hanbal, by quoting the narrative of Zeid bin Thabit, in the fifth part of his "مسند", has related this narrative in two ways, as it is, the first one is in the beginning of the page 182, and the second is at the end of page 189. And also Ahmad in his"مسند", Tbrani in "معجم كبير" and in "كنز العمال‏", volume 1, page 47-48have related it in the same way, as:

 " قال رسول الله (ص): انى تارك فيكم خليفتين كتاب الله عز و جل حبل ممدود ما بين السماء و الارض و عترتى اهل بيتى و انهما لن يفترقا حتى يردا على الحوض‏".

And in "الدر المنثور", volume 6, page 7, Siyu:ti says:

" و اخرج الترمذى و حسنه و ابن الانبارى فى «المصاحف» عن زيد بن ارقم رضى الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله (ص): انى تارك فيكم الثقلين ما ان تمسكتم به لن تضلوا بعدى، احدهما اعظم من الآخر كتاب الله حبل ممدود من السماء الى الارض و عترتى اهل بيتى و لن يفترقا حتى يردا على الحوض، فانظروا كيف تخلفونى فيهما".

And he relates in "غاية المرام‏" page 211, 39 narratives by the Sunnite, on page 217, and by the Shiite 82 narratives about the Two most Loved facts.And the omniscient Allamah, Mirza Najm-ad-Din Sharif Askari has written a book called: "محمد و على و حديث الثقلين و حديث السفينة", and therein he has mentioned it in details.
[4] Surah 36, "یس", Verse 12.
[5] In "ينابيع المودة", page 90, by taking it from the Book of "جمع الفوائد",he relates Ali's being with the Qur'an and also the Qur'an's being him; and then, he mentions the phrase 'the middle and the small. He also discuss about it in "غاية المرام‏" page 539, by means of three narratives from Kharazmi and Zamakhshari in the "ربيع الأبرار".
Surah 29, "عنکبوت", Verse 47-49.

[7] Surah 13, "رعد", Verse 43.
[8] In "غایة المرام", page 357, there are six narratives from the Sunnite and 18 narratives from the Shiite; And in "ینابیع المودة", page 102, there are a lot of narrations regards to this subject.
[9] At the bottom of the page of 131 of "الغدير", this narrative has been related saying that: 'Some of the reciters have extracted this narrativeand Hakim and Zahabi and Heithami, as it is being explained, have proved it, as it is explained. And concerning the murder of the Commander of the believers there are great many narratives which are all related in the " بحار الانوار", volume 8, pages 455 and 456.
[10] Surah 59, "حشر", Verse 7.
[11] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 55.
[12] There are four common narratives in غاية المرام‏, page 103, by the Sunnite, in page 263, and fourteen narratives by the Shiite in page 265.
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 64.
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 59; Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 92; Surah 24, "نور", Verse 54; Surah 47, "محمد", Verse 33; Surah 64, "تغابن", Verse 12. Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verses 32 & 132: اطيعوا الله و الرسول
[15] Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 1 & 20 & 46; Surah 58, "مجادله", Verse 13.
[16] "The Commentary of Safi", volume 1, page 364.
[17] "The Commentary of Safi", volume 1, page 364.
[18] Some of it is mentioned in the narrative of Al-Ghadir, and some in "غاية المرام‏", page 214, under the title of the narrative 18, and 19.
[19] The descent of Tathir Verse (
Surah 33, Verse 33) for the household has been said in "غایة المرام", page 27 with 41 narrations from the Sunnites and in page 294 with 24 narrations of the Shiites.
[20] He has explained this narrative in details in "The Commentary of Safi", volume 1, page 364

[21] "The Commentary of Safi", volume 1, page 365.
[22] The Morji, which whose plural is "Morja'ah" are a clan in Islam who say: By having the belief, crimes do not harm you, and by disbelief no worshipping benefits you. And they called "Marja'ah" simply because they believe Allah postpones their chastisement. And the Ghadriia are those who are either Fatalists or resigning to religion, and the Zandiq are those who either totally reject Allah, or believe in two good or evil.
[23] "اصول كافى‏ ", Volume 1, the Book of Al-Hojjat, page 168.
[24] "Taghi" is the very believer who had a shop under the Arch in the market and people would call him after his position as 'the believer of arch', however, the Sunnite have mentioned him in their books as the 'The Satan of the Arch!'
Ayat-ul-lah Sayyid Hassan Sadr has brought it in the book “Ta‘sis Ash‘shiah li Oloum al-Islam” page 358, who has branded as “Ahwal” the squint, the famous lecturers of the Shiite; he states: ‘And from them is Abu Ja‘far the Arch, whose shop used to be in ‘Tagh al-Mahamil’ in Kofa. They used to pay him cash, he would reject the fraud coins and made the semi-fraud coins known then, in this way it would become clear that his word was right. Therefore, they called him “The Devil of the Arch”, though his name was Muhammad bin Ali bin No‘man bin Abi Tarigha Bajalli Ahwal.
It has been narrated by the Holiness Ali bin al-Hussein and Abi Ja‘far and Abi Abdullah, upon them be peace: his position and status in inscription and knowing is beyond the known-to-the-public to be mentioned. He was an outstanding figure in grammar and unique in linguistic as well discussion. He had discussions with the senior lecturers of his own era, and he ruined the arguments of the oppositions. He did not stick to one opinion when discussing with his opponents, and he did not discuss as competing.
His literally works and compositions include: the book of “AF‘AL LA TAF‘AL” which is very long and interesting book, and the book of argumentation concerning the Imamate of the Commander of believers, Upon him be peace, and the book of his statement against the Khawaridj, and his book of assemblies with Abu Hanifa and Morjeah. And he is considered to be of the followers. Ibn Nadim says: ‘He was a man of orator and very expert in his work, and for him are the books: the book of the Imamate, the book of al-Ma‘rafa, the book of “Ar-Radd ala fi Imamate al-Mo‘tazela”, and the book of Talha and Zubair and Aisha, may Allah be pleased with them – it goes up to the end of index.

Ayat-ul-lah Sayyid Hassan Sadr, who, in his book, “the found of Islam in the science of Islam” has considered Ghais ibn Masir one of Shiite’s well-known orators, says. ‘One of them is Ghais Masir, he is one of the knowledgeable and orators of the Shiite. He had many students and was of the a Shiite in the knowledge of discourse. In art of speech, he was better than Hisham bin Hakam and Hamdan Ahwal; he had learned the art of speech from the Holiness Ali bin al-Hussein, upon him be peace.’
Here, as Ayat-ul-lah Sayyid Hassan Sadr quotes the statement of the Holiness Imam Sadigh, upon him be peace, about Ahwal and Homran bin A‘yan and Hisham bin Salim as we did relate it in the foregoing text, in the end he says, I say: ‘Homran bin A‘yan, is the brother of Zorara bin A‘yan, and he is of the group of the followers, because he, along with Ahwal the believer of the Arch and Ghais bin Masir, had learned the art of speech from the Holiness Zain al-Aabedin Ali bin al-Hussein, upon him be peace.’

[27] "اصول كافى‏ ", volume 1, page 171.
[28] "The Commentary of Safi", volume 1, page 23.
[29] "Nahj-ul-Balagha ", volume 1, page 29.
[30] "Nahj-ul-Balagha ", volume 1, page 42.
[31] "Nahj-ul-Balagha ", volume 1, page 40.
[32] Surah 42, "شوری", Verse 7.
[33] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verses 140 - 142.
[34] It is related if the Ghāyat al-Maram, page 550,from the book of Salim bin Ghais who has narrated it from Salman Farsi. In the mean time, there is a long narrative from the Messenger of Allah who related it to the Commander of the believers before his demise, which goes as:

 يا اخى ستلقى بعدى من قريش شدة من تظاهرهم عليك و ظلمهم لك، فان وجدت أعوانا عليهم فجاهدهم و قاتل من خالفك بمن وافقك، و ان لم تجد أعوانا فاصبر و كف يدك و لا تلق بها الى التهلكة فانك منى بمنزلة هارون من موسى، و لك بهارون اسوة حسنة انه قال لموسى: ان القوم استضعفونى و كادوا يقتلوننى...

And this lengthy narrative has been devided in two in the Book of Salim, the first part on page 69 to 72, and the second part from the page of 79 to 83.
[35] And in the "غاية المرام‏", at the bottom of the page 550, he relates a narrative from Salman that: On the night, when the Holiness mounted Fatima on the donkey, he asked for the assistance of the Immigrants and the Supporters as:

 فما استجاب له الا اربعة و اربعون رجلا، فامرهم ان يصبحوا محلقين رؤوسهم و معهم سلاحهم على ان يبايعوه على الموت، و اصبحوا لم يوافقه منهم الا اربعة.

[36] The letter of Muawiiah which by answering it by the Commander of the believers in "Nahj-ul-Balagha , page 33, it becomes quites clear."
[37] In the book of “Abdullah bin Saba”, Egypt publication, page 65, he says: ‘This group rejected paying homage and took shelter in Fatima’s house,’ in “الرياض النضرة”, volume 1, page 167, and in “تاريخ الخميس‏”, 1/188, and in “ابن عبد ربه‏”, 3/64, and “تاريخ ابى الفداء”, 1/156, and “ابن شحنة”, Behamish “الكامل‏”, 112, and according to the narrative of ibn Abi al-Hadid, volume 2, pages 130 and 134, and “سيرة الحلبيّة”, 3/394 and 397.
[38] "كنز العمّال‏", volume 3, page 140.
[39] “تَلكَّأ”, means: he retarted, stopped, also the meaning of “احْتَبَس‏”, stopped and delayed.
[40] And he has brought this Explanaition of Nahj-ul-Balagha, in volume 2, page 19, and also in volume 1, page 134.
[41] It is related in the book of " سليم بن قيس‏" page 117, and also in the same book page 89from Salman Farsi quoting:

 نادى على عليه السلام قبل ان يبايع و الحبل فى عنقه: يا بن ام ان القوم استضعفونى و كادوا يقتلوننى‏

and he relates the same narrative in " غاية المرام‏", page 552 from Salman Farsi.
[42] “نهج البلاغه‏”, page 33, number 28 of the letters.
[43] Ibn Abi al-Hadid, who relates this letter in the "Explanation of the Nahj-ul-Balagha", volume 3, page 455 to 457, he goes on explaining indetails and says: 'Concerning this letter, I questioned Abu Ja'far Naqib Yahia bin Zaied, and he said: The Commander of the believers replied two letters of Muawiah. The first letter that Muawiah sent, there is no the term of " كالجمل المخشوش‏" in it, but instead, there are these clauses, as: حسدتَ الخلفاء و بغيت عليهم، عرفنا ذلك من نظرك الشَّزر و قولك الهجر و تنفّسك الصعداء و ابطائك عن الخلفاء . And he had sent this letter to the Commander of the believers by Abu Moslim Kholani. Then, when the Holiness replied his letter, he sent another letter by Abu-al-Ghasim Bahili and this term: " كالجمل المخشوش‏" is therein. (It is Abu Ja'far who has dictated Muawiah's letter to ibn Abi-al-Hadid and he has written it – page 456). And as it is seen in the Nahj-ul-Balagha, the Holiness has answered him. Abu Ja'far Naqib says that: Most of the people are not aware of the two letters of Muawiah, they believe that had had only sent one letter and he had, by mistake, put the term of " كالجمل المخشوش‏" in it. But it is wrong. At the bottom of the page 78, volume 5 of "Al-Ghadir", Allama Amini says that: This term, " كالجمل المخشوش‏", is in "العقد الفريد", page 285, and in "صبح الاعشى‏", volume 1, page 228, and in "شرح ابن ابى الحديد", volume 3, page 407.

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