In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lessons 102-105: The purpose of Master in the event of Ghadir-e-Khum

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The purpose of Master in the event of Ghadir-e-Khum

Then he has had a discussion in the necessity of some of these meanings in the narrative of the Guardianship that we are to bring them here in brief:

The first one, which means "the Creator", cannot be taken as the same ""مَوْلًى for the Messenger of Allah, because it becomes as blasphemy. Nor can be taken the meanings of the second up to the thirteenth, because they mean false and lying; because it is not correct to say: whomever the Messenger of Allah is his uncle, the slave freer, is his owner, is his partner, is cooperative, is companion, or his partner he is. The meanings of the fourteenth to the eighteenth cannot be considered being of the narrative, that is, the owner, the neighbor, the son-in-law and so on.

It does not sense that the Messenger of Allah, in that huge crowd, on his journey in that hot climate to command the people to stop, and then command them to gather in one place – those who have passed the crowd to return and these who have fallen behind to reach. To fulfill the threatening command of the Creator, to stop them all in one place, and sitting in the sun and listening to his sermon; they spread their robes on the hot sand and covered their heads under part of it to avoid the heat. They made  pulpit by putting the camels' sacks on top of each other  and the Messenger climbed it to lecture the gathering, saying: as Allah announced my death time to me I have gathered you here to let you know of an important news. It is something of very important; it is of the importance of the religion, then saying: 'whomsoever I am companion with, I am his neighbor and I am very close to him, so is Ali his companion, neighbor and close friend to him.'

This great event has not happened by an ordinary person but it has been done by the greatest man, the Messenger of Allah. So it is an ugly affair to relate the meaning of "مَوْلًى " to such a lofty being.

And suppose that one of these meanings is this one, then, what is the use of that to the Commander of the believers, when they praise him in that session and shouting 'well-done.' Sa‘d bin Abi Wagh‘ghas, as the narrator says, prefers this virtue to all the red camels and all that exist in the world. Even he is given the life of Noah, during this long period of time, he may use these red camels and whatever in the world exists.

Nor can these two "منعِم-عَقيد", affluence giver and confederate be the real meaning of "مَوْلًى " in the narrative. It is obvious that whosoever the Messenger of Allah is his affluence giver, it is not necessarily for Ali bin Abī Tālib to be his affluence giver. Nor is it necessary for Ali bin Abī Tālib to be united in oath with whom the Messenger of Allah is. It means that the Messenger of Allah is one's guide, well-wisher and the savior of one in the religion of Allah, and so is Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace. It is because is Ali bin Abī Tālib is the savior of his religion after him, and Allah has completed His region by his hand, and he has fulfilled his duty by obeying Allah. Therefore, it is not against the meaning of Imamate and the Guardianship that we are after to discuss it.

And to take the meaning of "عَقيد" as: the purpose of covenant was those covenants that were set up between the Messenger of Allah and some of the tribes to make the peace treaties. And after the Messenger of Allah, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, is in his place to the government and to rule. In this case too it means the Guardianship and the Imamate.

Nor can the two words of " محبّ and ناصر" be of the noble narrative, because the purpose of: من كنت محبه او ناصره فعلى ناصره او محبه 'whomsoever I am Master and assister, so is Ali his Master and the assister.' Or it is necessary to Ali to be his friend and assister; in this case, it was not necessary that Ali attributed to be said to the crowd, and to announce it to the audience. It was enough for the Messenger of Allah to say everything to Alai in secret or write whatever he wanted on a piece of paper and to hand it over to him. Unless the purpose of the sermon and the crow listening to it is attracting the people to show affection to Ali, Upon Him be Peace, and to get to know that the Commander of the believers is at the position of the Messenger of Allah, and he is the most beloved of the messenger. Therefore, it is necessary to follow him, to fulfill his command, and never say a word against his will.

And as the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, started his statement with من كنت مولاه, it becomes clear that his purpose was not to show his affection to Ali or draw the people's attention to him – the Messenger dealt with him as he did with all the people. Therefore, Ali, Upon Him be Peace, received the same affection and he has such assistant.

In this way, this kind of affection and assistance is similar to the affection and assistance of the Messenger of Allah précised for the chiefs of the religion, the world and the responsible for the affairs, and the defender of their dynasty and the Islam. This meaning is the same meaning of preference to them. If it is not so, the fierce wolves, and the violent animals, and the followers of hypocrisy will ruin the society of Islam. And enemies will disturb the Muslims from every possible way, they will start looting the properties of the Muslims and disgrace the reverence of the Divine Shrine. Then, it is there and then that the Islam will be distorted. Of course, if one is in such highest position in affection and assistance it is he who can be the Caliph of Allah in the earth; so this is the real meaning of the Divine Great Guardianship.

If the point of the narrative is that the community of the Muslims must show affection towards Ali bin Abī Tālib and assist him, it means that: 'Whoever I am the friend and assistant to him he is the friend and assistant of Ali bin Abī Tālib. Or he is incumbent to be the friend and assistant of Ali. If it was the case, then, it was not new to need people's gathering and listening to the sermon, because it is clear that the Commander of the believers is the chief of the believers; and according to the verses of the Qur'an people like him and they must do so.

Apart from this, if the point of the narrative that Messenger of Allah stated was to convey the affection and assistance of the Muslims to the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, then he had state: من كان مولاى فهو مولى على 'whoever is my loving friend or assister, he must be Ali's loving friend and assister;' however, the meaning of the word is affection and assistant, but not the beloved and assisted. Therefore, a meaning cannot be considered for this narrative. This must be a good reason that ibn Juzi's son has clearly mentioned it in his "تذكره‏", page 19 that: 'in this narrative, we cannot take the meaning of "مولى" as the assister.'

And besides, the necessity of the Muslims affection and assistance are not specified only for the Commander of the believers; Muslims must love all the believers and help them when are in need. Thus, what is the use of preferring the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace? If only a degree of affection and assisting is considered more than that the peasants have towards each other, like the necessity of following and obeying, and like surrounding to the commands, in this case the reference of affection and assisting is the very Imamate; especially the one the Messenger of Allah assigned it for himself in the narrative when he stated: من كنت مولاه فعلى مولاه. To distinguish between these two priorities in a single phrase means nothing.

Anyhow, so far we have discussed twenty-two meanings of the word"مولى" out of twenty-seven different meanings of it, but none of them can represent the real meaning of "مولى" in the narrative of the Guardianship. Now, there remains five more meaning: 1- ولى (one who exercise power), 2- أولى بالشى‏ء (more deserving getting something), 3- سيّد (the master who neither is the owner nor does he relieve one), 4- متصرِّف في الامر (taking possession in an affair), 5- متولِّى في الامر (having authority in an affair).

The meaning of سيّد also must be the same meaning of أولى in the point of view of the religious supremacy to the nation of Islam, because it does not sense that the Great Messenger, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, by having such Divine sovereignty to give his cousin an oppressive sovereignty.

And also the meaning of the possessor concerning the affairs of the divine possession must be the same as the divine priority. Most people have taken the meaning of the possessor in the affairs as the Guardianship, such as Fakhr Razi, has written in his commentary, in the comment of the blessed verse:      

وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِاللَّهِ هُوَ مَوْلاكُمْ.[45]

'…and cling firmly to Allah; He is your Protector, (Qur'an: 22/78).'

Ghaf‘fal has said:  هو مولاكم يعنى سيدكم و المتصرف فيكم‏ that is, Allah is you Master and taking possession in an affair. And also both Saeed Chalabi, the Roman expounder of law, and Shahab-ad-Din Ahmad Khafaji have written about it in their comments in the commentary of Beizawi. And in "Sawaeegh" he has taken it as "مولى". And also Kamal-ad-Din Jahromi has written it in the translation of Sawaeegh; and Muhammad Abd-ur-Rasul Berzanji has mentioned it in "Nawaghez", and Sheikh Abd-ul-Hagh in his "Lameaat".

Therefore, the purpose of this "مولى" is what Allah, the Highest has assigned to guide the human race to the upward path; so He is in the highest priority and He deserves it to be the possessor of human society. And he must be assigned to be with the Messenger, and he deserves it to be followed by the divine command.

And so must be the meaning of متولّی (having authority in an affair), so that to be able, by the command of Allah, to have author upon the people and guide them to the right path.

Abu-al-Abbas Mobarred has taken the meaning of متولّی as the مولى, as Allah states:

 بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا [46]

'…that is because: Allah is the Protector of those who believe, (Qur'an: 47/11).' Then, he has said that both the "ولى و مولى" mean the same. And Abi-al-Hassan Wahedi, in his commentary, "وسيط" and also Ghortabi in his own commentary have brought it under the noble verse of:

 بل الله مولاكم [47]

that the words  مولىand متولّی are of the affairs. And ibn Athir in "Nehaya", and Zobaidi in " تاج العروس‏" and ibn Manzor in the " لسان العرب‏ " have translated the same meaning for مولى, and they have said: and the narrative related by the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, is the same: ايّما امرأة نكحت بغير اذن مولاها فنكاحها باطل 'every woman who marries without the permission of one who has authority in her marriage is null and void. And in another it has been related: بغير اذن وليها 'without the guardian of her.'

And Beizawi has mentioned it in three different parts of his commentary by the statements of Allah:

قُلْ لَنْ يُصِيبَنَا إِلا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوْلانَا وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ.[48]

'…say, ‘Nothing happens to us unless what Allah has written for us. He is our Supporter, and only on Allah should the believers rely, (Qur'an: 9/51).'

And His statement is:

 وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِاللَّهِ هُوَ مَوْلاكُمْ [49]

 '… and cling firmly to Allah; He is your Protector, (Qur'an: 22/78).'

And in His statement is:

وَاللَّهُ مَوْلاكُمْ [50]

'…and Allah is your affairs' Guardian, (Qur'an: 66/2).' He has stated مولى as the affairs' Guardian.

And Abu-as-Saud Emadi, in his commentary on the noble verse[51] وَاللَّهُ مَوْلاكُمْ has translated it as: '…and Allah is your Guardian; and in the noble verse of:[52] هِی مَوْلاكُمْ , He has translated it '…The Fire is your master;' which the meaning of  مولى is (having authority in an affair). And Raqib Isfahani has also translated it in the same way.

And there is a narrative from Ahmad bin Hassan ZAhid Darvajaki in his commentary book that:

المولى فى اللغة من يتولى مصالحك فهو مولاك يلى القيام بإمورك و ينصرك على اعدائك.‏

The word "مولى" is applied to someone who has authority upon someone else; one is your "مولى" who sees to your problems; and helps you against your enemies! Therefore, a cousin and the freer of a slave are called "مولى". As it is seen the word "مولى" is a noun and refers to someone who is stable upon something; it never separates from that thing.

AndZamakhshari in his "كشاف‏ ", and Abu-al-Abbas Ahmad bin Yusuf Shibani in the "تلخيص كشاف‏ ", and Nasafi in his commentary book, referring to His statement:[53] "انت مولانا" 'You are our Guardian', and Nishabori in the "غرائب القرآن", in the statement of Allah:[54] "انت مولانا", and in another statement of Allah:[55] "فاعلموا ان الله مولاكم" 'So know that Allah is your Guardian.' And in another statement of Allah:[56] "هى مولاكم" 'The Fire is your master.' Concerning all these, they have said that the word "مولى" is applied to someone who has authority upon someone else.

And in this way, Soyuti, in the commentary of "تفسير جلالين‏ ", has translated the noble verse of:[57] "انت مولانا" as 'You are our Master,' and in the noble verse of:[58] "فاعلموا ان الله مولاكم" 'So know that Allah is your Protector, (Qur'an: 8/40).'

And in the noble verse of:[59] " قل لن يصيبنا الا ما كتب الله لنا هو مولانا" '…say [O Messenger], ‘Nothing happens to us unless what Allah has assigned. He is our Supporter, that is, He is Guardian upon our affairs, (Qur'an: 9/51).'

This was a discussion about the numerous meanings of the word "مولى"; and it was understood that in the noble narrative of the Guardian cannot have another meaning than the Master, the Divine Imamate, and the one in author upon the Muslim nations.

Apart from this, what we are after is that after sinking into the Arabic word and the literature and the Arab society what one benefit is that: the actual meaning of "مولى" is something having priority over another thing; it has no other meanings – all other meanings refer to this one. Almost all of such words mean main concern with slight difference in the meanings. Anyhow, "مولى" has only one meaning as "worthy of". And this meaning differs according to the usage of the word. Prior to us, ibn Betrigh, who is the scholar of the Shiite in the six century has explained it in his book "عمده", and now and then, it is used by the scholars of the Sunnite.

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“Master” in the event of Ghadir means “the former”

And one of the reasons is that the first meaning that comes into mind by the word "مولى" is something having priority over another thing, which Muslim has related it from the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, in his "صحيح", that is, the Holiness has stated: لا يقل العبد لسيده مولاى 'Let a slave not to say his Master: "My Protector and Guardian!" And he has added to it in the narrative of Abi Mua‘wiyah: فان مولاكم الله 'It is because your Protector and Guardian is Allah!' And many of the narrators have written this in their books. [60]

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The poem of Akhtal, the Christian, on the praise of Abd-ul-Malik bin Marwan in the meaning of “Master”

 Sheikh Abu-al-Fotoh Razi says: 'In the narrative of "من كنت مولاه فعلى مولاه" there is no probability except " "اولى and Sayyid  Mota", as Akhtal says about Abd-ul-Malik Marwan. Akhtal was a Christian, and it was impossible for such a man to alter his region or to have any tendency towards this religion. His adorer was he who was the opponent of the Household; he says:

1. فما وجدت فيها قريش لاهلها       اعف و اوفى من ابيك و امجدا

2. و أورى بزنديه و لو كان غيره    غداة اختلاف الناس اكدى و اصلدا

3. فاصبحت مولاها من الناس كلهم   و احرى قريش ان يجاب و يحمدا

1- The tribe of Quraish couldn't find a more chastise and loyal man than your father, Marwan Hakam, for the Caliphate, getting the right and delivering it to the right owner.

2- He, with the both fire-tongs in his hand, brought the fire out from the depth; if in case, another man had become the Caliph the period of the differences of the people's deprivations would prolong.

3- An now you (Abd-ul-Malik  bin Marwan) are the Master, Sayyid and the Leader of the Caliphate for all people! You are the most deserving one among the Quraish whom they respond positively; and they admire and praise you! [61]

And among the poems that clearly refers to the Imamate and the Statesman's of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and the word "مولى" is used in it, are the poems of Amru bin Aasi. When Mua‘wiyah writes a letter to him, and against the Commander of the believers but for his own benefit invites him to leave his residence, Philistine, to go to him in Sham, to his letter he replies but composing a long letter counting the virtues of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. In this way, he wants to tell Mua‘wiyah that he wants to bring enmity between Ali, Upon Him be Peace, and him; then, he sends the letter to Mua‘wiyah. My benefit of this invitation must be a great thing but not a small and unimportant thing. And some of that poetry which is a good proof to our claim is:

1. و كم قد سمعنا من المصطفى        وصايا مخصصة فى على

2. و فى يوم خم رقى منبرا              و بلغ و الصحب لم ترحل

3. فامنحه امرة المؤمنين                 من الله مستخلف المنحل

4. و فى كفه كفه معلنا                    ينادى بامر العزيز العلى

5. و قال: فمن كنت مولى له           على له اليوم نعم الولى [62]

1- Oh, how many an advices and enjoinments we heard from MUSTAFA concerning Ali bin Abī Tālib!

2- And on the Day of Ghadir-e-Khum, the Messenger climbed the stand, propagating of Ali while the companions were still there – they had not set out.

3- And he honored the position of Guardianship upon the Muslims to him, but it was by the command of Allah who is the Main Assigner – in truth, Allah honored such position to the Commander of the believers.

4- And Ali's hand was in the hand of the Messenger of Allah, and he was clearly announcing it that the command was by the Loftiest Allah.

5- He said so: 'Whomsoever I am Master and Guardian to, today Ali bin Abī Tālib is his worthy Guardian.'

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The poems of Abu Tamam Taee and Abdi Kofi on Ghadir

And the famous poet of Arabs, Abu Tamam, the literally man of the second and third centuries explains the event this way:

1. و يوم الغدير استوضح الحق اهله    بضحيآء لا فيها حجاب و لا ستر

2. اقام رسول الله يدعوهم بها            ليقربهم عرف و يناهم نكر

3. يمد بضبعيه و يعلم انه                 ولى و مولاكم فهل لكم خبر

4. يروح و يغدو بالبيان لمعشر         يروح بهم غمر و يغدو بهم غمر

5. فكان لهم جهر باثبات حقه           و كان لهم فى بزهم حقه جهر [63]

1- And on the Day of Ghadir, the Right wanted to be manifest to the right people – on the Day when the sun was bright and there was no veil over it.

2- The Messenger of Allah made Ali stand up, and then he invited the people to that brightness, so that to become closer to merit and the ugliness to be removed of them.

3- He raised the two arms of Ali high, and announced the people: 'He is your Master and Guardian! So do you have enough knowledge of him?'

4- The Messenger used to meet the people nights and days with the awareness, at night they were in deep darkness and so were they in darkness the bright morning!

5- Those people were so that for the proof of Ali's right and defending him they raised their voices; similar to that they raised their voices to get his right back!

And Abdi Kofi, of the poets of the Household who lived in the era of the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, in a long poem says so:

1. و كان عنها لهم فى خم مزدجر         لما رقى احمد الهادى على قتب

2. و قال و الناس من دان اليه و من     ثاو لديه و من مصغ و مرتقب

3. :قم يا على فانى قد امرت بان          ابلغ الناس و التبليغ اجدر بى

4. انى نصبت عليا هاديا علما             بعدى و ان عليا خير منتصب

5. فبايعوك و كل باسط يده                اليك من فوق قلب عنك منقلب

6. عافوك لا مانع طولا و لا حصر      قولا و لا لهج بالغش و الريب

7. و كنت قطب رحى الاسلام دونهم    و لا تدور رحى الا على قطب

8. و لا تماثلهم فى الفضل مرتبة        و لا تشابههم فى البيت و النسب [64]

1- And as the Holiness Ahmad is the guide of the people, at Khum, he climbed the stand set up with the camels' saddle, there were there some of the people who wanted to avoid Ali taking the Caliphate but they themselves wanted to usurp it.

2- And while some of those people were standing closer to the Messenger, and almost all of them were anxious to hear what the Messenger was going to say about the event.

3- 'O Ali, stand up, because I am commanded to announce it to the people, and my propagation is effective.

4- I have assigned Ali as a guide and the banner of guidance for the people after me, in fact, Ali bin Abī Tālib is a worthy and chosen man for the position of the Imamate.

5- So those people swore allegiance with you [O Ali], and as paying the homage, each of them shook hands with you. However this homage was superficial but not heartily; their demand of you was false for they were looking after another person.

6- They considered you being free from any immorality and impurity; there was no shortcoming of your strength, nor was any doubt about you.

7- O Ali, you were the axis of the millstone of Islam and were axel to turn it around and never does the millstone turns round except with the axel.

8- You were never at their grade in privilege or nobility, nor were you alike them in the genuineness of the family!

Anyhow, all these are the documents to prove the meaning of the guardian, Imam, the leader, the judge upon the people's affairs and for those in the authority upon the people's affairs in this word, and their fates in the Hereafter by the command of Allah. That means, one who has reached at the position of annihilation to Allah, and there remains no gap or barrier between him and his Creator, and all the bright and dark veils have been taken away from upon his eyes: this is the fact of Mastership and Guardianship and the highest point of moving towards Him.   

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The Arabs’ literatures have taken the meaning of “Maula” as the Imam and the former

Besides the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and the poets contemporary to the Messenger of Allah and the pure Imams, Peace be upon them all, whom we have already explained, there are many great men of literary among the Arabs who were either in the era of the Imams, Upon Them be Peace, or after them. They all have composed poems concerning the Ghadir-e-Khum and the virtues and privileges of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. All their works have been based on the words "مولى" which has been extracted from the narratives popular and well-known among the Arabs; the poets include: De‘bel Khozzaee, Emir Abu Feras, Hussein bin Hajjaj, Hammani Kufi, Sharif Alam-ul-Hoda Sayyid Mortaza, Sharif Sayyid Razi, Ibn-e-Roomi, Senobari, Mofajja‘, Sahib bin Abbad, Nashi Saghir, ibn Alawiiah, ibn Hammad, ibn Tabataba, ibn Oudi Nili and Johary, Zahi, Tanookhi, Souli Nili, Abu-al-Ala Sarvi, Mahyar,[65] Fanjkerdi, Abu-al-Faraj Razi. And we had already mentioned some of these great men, and we re-wrote some of their distinguished poems previously. Now, can anyone doubt about these works which the composers are originally Arabs!

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An accurate explanation on the words مولى and اولى‏

It must be known that in the translation of the verse:

فَالْيَوْمَ لا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْكُمْ فِدْيَةٌ وَلا مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مَأْوَاكُمُ النَّارُ هِيَ مَوْلاكُمْ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ.[66]

'…so today no ransom is accepted from you, nor from those who disbelieve – the Fire is your abode; it is your shelter, and how evil destination it is, (Qur'an: 57/15),' most of the Sunnite commentators have said: 'Here, the meaning of مولى" " is "اولى"; that means: 'Fire is better for you; it is prior to to everything for you!' Among these people are Kalbi, Zajjaj, Farra and Abu Obaida. Abu Obaida Mo‘mar bin Mothanna Basri was diseased in the Lunar year 210, and according to some of the great scholars, such as Sayyid Mortaza Alam-ul-Hoda, Akhfash Ousat, Saeed bin Masadah, ibn Ghotaiba, Thalab Ahmad bin Yahia, Abu Bakr Anbari , Shahab ad-Din Ahmad Khafaji, and Abu Obaida [67] have witnessed that it is by Lobaid bin Rabiah;

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Reasoning to the composition of Lobaid, in “Moallaghat Sab‘on the comment of “Maula”

They unanimously agree on it that the word is اولى but not مولى. And we already brought the poem of Lobaid in the commentary of Abu-al-Fotoh. Now, once again, we explain it but from Lobaid's own poem so that it becomes quite clear:

1. و تضى‏ء فى وجه الظلام منيرة      كجمانة البحرى سل نظامها

2. حتى اذا انحسر الظلام و اسفرت    بكرت تزل عن الثرى ازلامها

3. علهت تردد فى نهآء صعائد[68]          سبعا تؤآما كاملا ايامها

4. حتى اذا يئست و اسحق حالق        لم يبله ارضاعها و فطامها

5. و توجست رز الانيس فراعها      عن ظهر غيب و الانيس سقامها

6. فغدت كلا الفرجين تحسب انه      مولى المخافة خلفها و امامها [69]

This elegy is altogether eighty-eight lines, and in these six lines that we have mentioned here, he explains the attributes of a beautiful wild cow whose calf has been hunted, and the cow, while being afraid of the cruel people, nights and days searching here and there for her calf. She is so frightened that it is impossible to explain her situation – she is in panic and worried about the outcome.

That bright and white cow, which looked as pearls setting together at the early part of the night, now the string is broken and the pearls scattered around in the desert, the dazzling cow is running here and there and brightens around her.

It is the same until the darkness comes to an end and gives way to the bright morning; then, she comes back with her muddy feet but not her calf with her.

She mourns after her lost calf, and travels within the high risen water for seven whole nights in chance to find her calf.

She cries so much that and in the end becomes despair, her mild burdened breasts dry out, this loss of milk is due to her sorrow about her lost calf.

5- On that state, she hears a weak voice of a human being but without witnessing him, she hears the voice beyond a veil, she is frightened because a human, no matter who he is, is frightful: that is a human being who hunts and catches her.

6- She frightens so much that she does not know and cannot make out how to control her dead body and trembling feet; her fright dominates her and while feeling someone coming to her, she does not know from which direction he was approaching her – from the front or behind!

In the explanation of "Moal‘laghat" has been written about this line that Tha‘lab says: 'In this line, "مولى" means worthy and more deserving, like the statement of Allah: النّار هى مولاكم 'Fire is what you deserve it,' it is your master. Thus, it means: 'That cow passed the night and the morning came while she was thinking the gap between her front legs with the rear were in fright. Or the split between her legs was the position for differences that is the cow was thinking that either of the gaps between her front feet and the rear was a state to be afraid of.[70]

Lobaid was a poet of the ignorance time, and one of his vey well-known elegies was this one in the "Moallagha"; and the other one is the elegy of Lameiia which goes as:

ألَا كُلُّ شَىً مَا خَلَا اللهَ بَاطِلُ             وَ كُلُّ نَعِيمٍ لَا مَحَالَهَ زَائِل‏

'Beware! Everything, apart from Allah, is null and void, and every blessing helplessly comes to an end!'

And when they read this line to the Messenger of Allah he stated: "اصدق شعر قالته العرب "‏ 'This line is the most correct poem that an Arab has composed it.'

Lobaid sensed the position of Islam and he embraced Islam, and his life lasted until the time of Othman – he was the oldest man of his time. Those who have written his biography have not mentioned his life to be less than a hundred and ten years – some have even said he was a hundred and fifty-seven when he died.

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Investigation in the real meanings of the word “Maula”

And among the other people who have made the meaning of "مولى" clear in the verse هى مولاكم  it is worthier, are Bokhari, Abu Ja‘far Tabari,[71] Abu-al-Hassan Wahidi, Abu-al-Faraj ibn Juzi,[72] Muhammad bin Tal‘ha Shafiee,[73] the son of ibn Juzi,[74] Taftazani in the explanation of " شرح مقاصد" related from Abu Obei‘da,[75] ibn Sab‘bagh Maliki,[76] Siyu:ti [77] and some others.

In a pestle that Sheikh Mofid has explained the meaning of "مولى", and Sayyid Mortaza Alam-ul-Hoda in the book of Shafi both have taken the meaning of "مولى" as "اولی"; and in this way they have reasoned the Imamate of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.

Ghoshchi in "شرح تجريد الاعتقاد" has quoted Khajeh Nasir-ad-Din's widely transmitted narrative of Ghadir for the Shiite has said: one of the meanings of "مولى" is "اولی" as Allah states: مَأوَيكُمُ النَّارُ هِىَ مَوْلَاكُم which means أوْلَى بِكُم. Abu Obeida has also mentioned the same; and the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, has stated: أيُّمَا امْرَأَةٍ نَكَحَتْ بِغَيْرِ اذْنِ مَوْلَاهَا that is بِغَيْرِ إذْنِ الأَوْلَى بِهَا وَ الْمَالِكِ لِتَدْبِيرِ أمْرِهَا; and there are many similar to this one in the poems.

Similarly, the use of "مولى" for "متولی" is ordinary in Arabic language; and it has been related by the Imams. The purpose of this kind of usage is that the word "مولى" is used as a noun, but not adjective: the word "مولى" is a comparative adjective here and it is used comparatively.

Of course, in the event of Ghadir it must have the same meaning so that to go with the statement of the Holiness:       أَ لَسْتُ أوْلَى بِكُمْ مِنْ أنْفِسُكم 'Am I not prior to you than you yourselves are?'

As Ghoshchi is a Sunnite, and he has tried to do away with the event of Ghadir-e-Khum, has taken the meaning of "اولی" in other way. [78]

Zamakhshari too in the comment of the verse هِىَ مَوْلَاكُم has said: 'It has been said that its meaning is أوْلَى بِكُمْ;' and he has referred to Lobaid's poem and then has continued:

وحَقِيقَهُ مَوْلَاكُمْ مَحْرَاكُمْ وَ مَقْمَنُكُمْ أىْ مَكَانُكُمُ الَّذِى يُقَالُ فِيهِ هُوَ أوْلَى بِكُمْ كَمَا قِيلَ: هُوَ مَئَنَّهُ الْكَرَمِ أىْ مَكَانٌ لِقَوْلِ الْقَائِلِ: إنَّهُ الْكَريُم.[79]

The fact of مَوْلَاكُمْ here is your place and position, the position that it is deserved to be spoken about, that is prior to you. As it can be said: It is place for the generosity, instead of saying: He is generous.

In his commentary book, Beizawi has also put this statement of Zamakhshari, and then he has referred to Lobaid, and has mentioned it. It is obvious that Beizawi has copied Zamakhshari; because the demise of Zamakhshari was in the year 538 while Beizawi's was 791. Both of them have said probably the meaning of "مولى" in the noble verse was "the assister". However, later on, either of them brings his own example; Zamakhshari says: 'And it can be هِىَ نَاصِرُ كُم, that is لَا نَاصِرَ لَكُمْ غَيْرَهَا not assistant to you or another one. Here, the purpose is rejecting the assistant altogether. It is similar to that that they say: اصِيبَ فُلَانٌ بِكَذَا فَاسْتَنْصَرَ الْجَزَع 'Someone was involved in a disaster and looked for assistance by grief and agony.' And so is the statement of Allah, the Exalted: 

وَ إنْ يَسْتَغِيثُوا يُغَاثُوا بِمَآءٍ كَالْمُهْل.[80]

'…if they ask for some relief, then water-like molten brass will be showered on them to scorch their faces, (Qur'an: 18/29).'

Beizawi says: 'Or the meaning of "مولى" can be "the assistor", according to the Arabs who say: تَحِيَّهُ بَيْنِهِمْ ضَرْبٌ وَجِيع‏ that is, 'the only salutation among them was hard beating each other.' [81]

And in the comment of هِىَ مَوْلَاكُم Khazen says: that is, وليكم. And it has been said: هى اولى بكم 'It has privilege over you because of the sins you have committed in this world.' And its meaning becomes: Fire is the same thing that it has authority over you, it has dominated you, you have given up in front it, so fire is the most wanted thing for you! And it has been said that the meaning of the verse is: لَا مَوْلىَ لَكُمْ وَ لَا نَاصِر 'You have neither Master nor assistor upon you,' because whoever has fire as him master, then there is no master upon him.[82]

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Fakhr Razi’s statement on the meanings of “Maula and the Former”

By confessing that one of the meanings of "مولى" is "اولی", Fakhr Razi has taken another line for his own, he has said that: 'By this way, the reasoning of Mortaza, concerning the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, does not come to an end.' So now we are going to mention the very opinion of his and then explain it in details.

He has said: concerning the word "مولى" in the noble verse: (مَأوَاكُمُ النَّارُهِىَ مَوْلَاكُمْ وَ بِئْسَ الْمَصِير) there are some different opinions: one is ibn Abbas opinion who says: مَوْلَاكُمْ means your direction, because the true meaning is that "مولى" is the place and position of "اولی"; and "اولی" means the nearness. Therefore, the meaning is: Fire is your place and position;' the very place and position that you are heading for.

The second one is the opinion of Kalbi who says: 'It means that: the word اولی in   اولى بكمmeans that fair is your master and has authority over you.' And this is what Zajjaj, Farra and Abu Obaida believe. And know that this what they have mentioned; but it is not the real meaning of "مولى", because if the meaning of "مولى" and "اولی" are the same, then, their usage in the sentence must mean the same – but it is not so. Therefore, it must be right when we say:  هذا مولى من فلان as  we say: هَذَا أوْلَى مِنْ فُلَان . And it must be right when we say:هَذَا أوْلَى فُلَان , as we say: هذا مولى فُلَان. But this statement is wrong, because the meaning of "اولی" is to represent a purpose but not to comment the word "مولى".

And now we point out that as for the Imamate of Ali, Upon Him be Peace, Sharif Mortaza has held the statement of the Messenger of Allah مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاه and has said: one of the meanings of "مولى" is "اولی". And then, to prove his claim he has held the statement of those the experts in language and the comment of the verse هِىَ مَوْلَاكُم; that they have said: the meaning "مولى" is "اولی". And as it became clear that the word "مولى" can replace "اولی" so it is necessary we take it as it is in the narrative of مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ; because some other meanings of it is fixed about Ali, such as the cousin and the assistor.

Then he says: as we proved it by reasoning that the statements of these grammarians here is the meaning that they have mentioned, but not its real meaning, therefore, holing to the verse of هِىَ مَوْلَاكُم for proving the religion of Sayyid Razi is lapsed.

And another phase can be imagined from this verse, it is that we say: هِىَ مَوْلَاكُمْ، لَا نَاصِرَ لَكُم. Because whoever the fire is his master then he has no Master upon him; it is as to be said:   نَاصِرُهُ الْخِذْلَانُ وَ مُعِينُه الْبُكآء his assistor is the lack of success; his only helper is mourning and crying – he has no assistance. And what emphases this phase is the statement of Allah when He states:

 وَ أنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ لَا مَوْلَى لَهُم [83]

'…and indeed the disbelievers have not a protector, (Qur'an: 47/11.)' And also it is the statement of Allah who states:

يُغَاثُوا بِمَآءٍ كَالْمُهْل [84] & [85]

'…then, [upon the companions of the fire,] water-like molten brass will be showered, (Qur'an: 18/29.)'

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The statement of Al‘lāma Amini on rejecting Fakhr Razi’s opinion on “Maula”

Al‘lāma Amini, Allah have mercy upon him, after explaining more than us about Fakhr Razi, he relates a story of him in the book of "Nehayat-ul-Oghul" where he says: words can be manipulated in separate but when they come into a sentences the cannot be translated separately. For example the word 'human' represent a certain noun and condition, and the word of animal for another purpose. And as we compared animals to humans and said: الْإنْسَانُ حَيْوَان, this comparison is not of their positions but their intelligence. Therefore, so is the two words of "مولى" and "اولی", without adding or taking anything away from them; we should know the meanings of the words and how to combine and replace them. Now, we understood that it is not the situation, but only the single words have their own positions. And as we cannot put the word"مولى" in the place of "اولی" or vice versa, so we must accept that these two words different meanings. [86]

And also he says: in another occasion, Razi even goes beyond his limitation and while supposing he is right, in his book "نهايه العقول" writes: 'none of the grammarian scholars has mentioned the verb being for the tense or position or it is infinitive so that to be taken comparative out of.' Thus, according to his claim, Ghazi Azud Aichi, in the "مواقف", and Shah Sahib Hindi in "تحفة اثنا عشريّه", and Kaboli in "صواقع", Abd-ul-Hagh Dehlavi in "لمعات" and Ghazi Panah-ul-Lah Pani Pity "سيف مسلول" have followed what he has said. And some of them have gone so far that they have considered the Arabs being ignorant of their grammar!

The cause of this doubt is only Razi who has mentioned it in his book without referring to the others. And these followers have also followed him blindly and they have done their best to weaken the Shiite

And due to this theory, Shah Wali-ul-Lah Sahib Hindi has mentioned it in " تحفة اثنا عشريّه", the relation of the event of Ghair to the Imamate is fulfilled when "مولى" is taken for "اولی", even if the case of مفعَل has not been used for  فَعيل.

He is trying to reject the clear explanation of "مولى" that the grammarians have taken as the meaning of "اولی". While it is clear that "مولى" has been used and it means as ولى امر, 'plenipotentiary' in the case of patron of a woman, the patron of the orphan, the patron of a slave, the guardianship of a Sultan, the prince, and also in great many other cases have been used.

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The reasoning of Al‘lāma Amini that that the meaning of “Maula” is the Former

Al‘lāma Amini has seriously stood against the doubts of Razi, and he has tried to prove and change the real meaning of "مولى" to patron upon something. He says: 'It is very surprising that the fact has been hidden from Razi that in numerous cases of the derivations, in the necessary side, according to their different uses. Therefore, the different uses of the word "مولى" and the word "اولی" is that the second one has to be uses with the letter به, that is, it must be said اولى به , and also using it without  به, just saying اولی. Or it must be uses with the letter من which is the same category and we say: اولى به من فلان; therefore, the meaning of "فلان اولى بفلان is singe and the same as" فلان مولى فلان ", because in both cases the purpose of precedence is something other than that.

It is similar to the case of أفْعَل, the comparative verb adding to a pair or plural, or it is a reference as it is said: زَيْدٌ أفْضَلُ الرَّجُلَيْنِ وَ أفْضَلُهُمَا؛ وَ أفْضَلُ الْقَوْم وَ أفْضَلُهُم. However, if there is a plural after that then we cannot add anything to it; we cannot say: زَيْدٌ أفْضَلُ عَمْرو; we must use it with the help of preposition, as, أفْضَلُ من عَمْرو. Never does a wise man doubt that the meanings in all cases are single, and so is in other comparative cases such as: اعلم, اشجع, احسن, اسمح, اجمل and so on.

And to confirm his saying he has referred to the statements of Taftazani, " شرح مقاصد" and Ghoshchi, " شرح تجريد", who have not rejected the word "مولى" being replaced with the word "اولی" in the narrative. As well Mir Sayyid Sharif Jorjani, in " شرح مقاصد" has accepted both their statements; but he has rejected the discussion of Ghazi by saying: "مولى" with the meaning of متولّى and  مالك امر and  اولى به تصرّف are general in the Arabic language, and they are all accepted by the grammarians. *****

And ibn Hajar in "صواعق", page 24, accepts him about the event of Ghadir taking the word"مولى" as being comparative; but only his question is whether it is for all or in a separate occasion. Then, after a while, he has accepted the last probability. And he has related the understanding of this narrative only with the two Sheikhs, Abu Bakr and Omar who told the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace,

أمْسَيْتَ مَوْلَى كُلِّ مُؤمِنٍ وَ مُؤْمِنَه         

And Sheikh Abd-ul-Hagh has related it in his "لمعات". And Sheikh Shab-ad-Din Ahmad bin Abd-ul-Ghadir Shafiee in "ذخيره المال‏", has followed ibn Hajar and has said: التَّوَلَّى الْوَلَايَه and that is ally, assistor and prior to follow and the nearness; like the statement of Allah:

 إنَّ أوْلَى النَّاسِ بِابْرَاهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوه‏ [87]

'…in fact, the closest people to Abraham are those who have followed him, (Qur'an: 3/68).' And this is the very meaning that Omar gpt to know from the narrative, when he heard the narrative, he said: هَنِيئاً يَا بْنَ أبِى طَالِبٍ! أَمْسَيْتَ وَلِىَّ كُلَّ مُؤمِنٍ وَ مُؤمِنَه Now, ibn Hajar saying came to an end.

And Sharif Sayyid Mortaza has quoted Abu-al-Abbas Mobarred that: the right one يَا وَلىُّ was ، الَّذِى هُوَ أوْلَى وَ أحَق and so is the word مولى.

And concerning the word وَلىُّ  abu Nasr Farabi Johari in "صحاح اللغه‏" says: the purpose of Lobaid was that: أوْلَى مَوْضِعٍ يَكُونُ فِيهِ الْخَوْف. And Abu Zakareiia Khatib Tabrizi, in the explanation of "ديوان حماسه ", volume 1, page 22 has quoted Ja‘far bin Olba al-Harethi saying:   

ألَهْفِى بِقُرَّى سَحْبَلٍ[88] حِينَ أحْلَبَتْ      عَلَيْنَا الْوَلَايَا وَ الْعَدُوُّ الْمُبَاسِل.‏

'Alas! O sorrowful alas of mine! I wish you were and could observe in the vast open land of Ghorra, how the close women to me, or the weak and clans, have becomed allied with the enemies and encouraging one another to attack us!' And among the eight meanings of  مولىare: وَلىُّ and اولى به شى‏ء. And Omar bin Abd-ur-Rahman Farsi Ghazvini in " كَشْفُ الكَشَّاف " concerning the poem's of Lobaid says:

مَوْلَى الْمَخَافَهِ يعنى أوْلَى وَ أحْرَى بِأنْ يَكُونَ فِيهِ الْخَوْف.

And Sibt ibn Juzi in "تذكره", on page 19 has taken the word "أوْلَى" as one of the ten meanings that is related to the scholars of the Arabs. And similar to ibn Juzi, ibn Talha Shafiee too in the book " مَطَالِبُ اسَّؤول", page 16 has mentioned the word"أوْلَى" in the beginning of his book. And Shalanji has followed him and his book "نور الأبصار", page 78, has related this word to the learned and scholars. And two of the commentators of "معلّقات سبع", Abd-ur-Rahim bin Abd-ul-Karim, and Rashid Nabi have said their opinions in the poems of Lobaid that: the purpose of [89] "وَلِىُّ الْمَخَافَهِ " is " الاوْلَى بِالْمَخَافَة ".

Anyhow, the Late Amini insists on the main meaning of  مولىto be أوْلَى. He even discussed on the twenty-six different usages of the word   مولى and changes them into أوْلَى. And Fakhr Razi as well his followers try to prove that the meaning of مولى is not أوْلَىas the Late Amini and the others say – it is not in comparative case. Therefore, in the narrative of "من كنت مولاه فعلى مولاه" as Sayyid Mortaza has said in "شافى" it cannot be used.

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The reasoning of Mosahhif on the real meaning of “Maula”, the region of guarding and the name of the region

In my opinion, due to their enmities, these two scholars have made mistakes. However, Fakhr Razi, considering that the real meaning of "مولى " is not "أوْلَى", can assume to be right.

So far this is enough for reasoning about the Imamate; and from Sayyid Mortaza's reasoning cannot be benefitted anything more. He says: 'One of the meanings of مولى is أوْلَى, and as the other meanings are proved or are wrong so the meaning must be مولى which must be true.

However, Al‘lāma Amini: because we have no more authentic reasoning that his saying of مولى to be أوْلَى is right, we accept it. Thus, to prove the opinion of the Imamate followers we need no more than this. We easily prove the righteousness of the narrative of Guardianship and Imamate, and keep away from Fakhr Razi's complexes idea. To make it most clear, we need to explain two brief introductions.

The first introduction: the differences of the words and different usages are too many with diverse meanings. According to this variety, most people believe that there are not synonyms for the words. Whatever looks synonym or the grammarians take them as the synonyms in their books, in fact, are not synonyms and two are not made to have the same meanings. Either of two words has its own especial meaning and usage and it has been made for a certain purpose, though they same the same shape or sense. For example these two "man and human" seem to be synonym, and they have been made to represent the fact of the human being against the animals, however, human is composed of flesh, bones, skin and skeleton against the angels and jinn who lack of flesh, bones, skin and skeleton; man is the being with sociability and forgetfulness. It is why, in the Qur'an, the prophets say to the people: 'We are human being as you are, that is, we have flesh, bones and skin.' As this verse says:

قَالَتْ لَهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ إنْ نَحْنُ إلَّا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُم.‏[90]

'…their messengers said to them, ‘we are also human beings like you, (Qur'an: 14/11).'

قُلْ إنَّمَا أنَا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ يُوحَى إلَىَّ أنَّمَا إلَهُكُمْ إلَهٌ وَاحِد.[91]

'…say, ‘I am a human being like you; it is revealed to me that your God is just One God, (Qur'an: 18/11).'

In these conversations, the disbelievers rejected the mission of the Messenger only because he was similar to those ordinary people with flesh, bones and skin. Or the Holinesses Mary says to the heavenly angel: 'How can I have a child while a human being not touched; and I am not a loose woman!' 

قَالَتْ أنَّى يَكُونُ لِى غُلَامٌ وَ لَم يَمْسَسْنِى بَشرٌ وَ لَمْ أكُ بَغِيّا.[92]

'…she said, ‘How can be a son for me when no human being has ever touched me, nor am I a loose woman, (Qur'an: 19/20).'

Because the necessity of bringing a child is having intercourse with a man having flesh, bones and skin, not the divine spirit!

According to this statement, the formula of an active word is made to be uses in a tense: past, now or the future. However, Fakhr Razi has said: Khalil and his other companions have not mentioned it in their books.[93] And Mir Sayyid Sharif has said in "شرح مواقف" that: none of the grammarians has taken the formula of "مفعل" for the "افعل"; as the statement of Allah, the Highest:

وَ مَأوَاكُمُ النَّارُ هِىَ مَوْلَاكُمْ يعنى مَقَرُّكُمْ وَ مَا إليهِ مَالْكُمْ وَ عَاقِبَتُكُم.‏

for this reason He has immediately stated: و بس المصير it is a bad return.[94]

And according to what is said, it is benefitted that: considering the meaning of أوْلَى from مولى which has come in many commentaries, is drawing the real meaning out of, even if it hard or not being the real one. This method is seen in many commentary books that they do not express the real meanings but use them according to their tastes and need.

The second introduction is divided into two parts, the first one is natural: the purpose is taking the word to express two nouns with one sense; that is: we want to say: the meaning of x and x is the same. For example: الانسان حيوان ناطق 'human being and speaking animal' which there is no difference between the meaning of 'human being' الانسان and speaking animal' حيوان ناطق. That is two different words are used with one meaning. That is, we want to say: even those words are not the same but the meaning present only one meaning. And like زيد انسان 'the fellow is human', and زيد قائم 'the fellow is standing; here, the meanings of the fellow and the man are united, and both is sensed the same, and meaning of the fellow and standing is united.

Now that these two introductions are clear, we say that: without doubt, there is difference between the formula of مفعل and the meaning of the formula of افعل تفضيل; however, in meaning they are united. Therefore, if we said: فلان مولى فلان and by using مولى we meant the comparative then it is correct; and if we said the other way round, it is also correct. And if we said: فلان ليس مولى فلان 'so and so has no authority over so and so', and our purpose of saying مولى was to compare them, it is right. And also if it is said: مولى ليس اولى it is still right; though they are not in the same sense. Similar to ' زيد ليس بقائم' is not right, but by using اولى it is right.

By what is explained so far, it becomes clear that either Fakhr Razi or Al‘lāma Amini have taken one part of the discussion and they try to prove something that need not be discussed; and they reject something that it need not be rejected.

Fakhr Razi says: مولى is not اولى. According to the first one which is natural it is correct, but according to the published it is wrong, because we are trying to unite their meanings but we are after their natural unity, as: زيد انسان, and this meaning is finished by their published case; because for proving the Guardianship the meaning of unity and apparent meaning is enough. However, Fakhr Razi wants to get a result two published unities from the lack of two senses; therefore, he has considered Sayyid Mortaza's opinion to be wrong; and this statement is incorrect.

 Al‘lāma Amini says: مولى is the same اولى. According to the published case, this is correct, but according to the natural case it is wrong, because there is no unity between the two senses. Thus, the same published unity is enough for us. However, Al‘lāma Amini wants to receive a result from between two senses, and to say: As the two senses are the same, so away from this formula, Ali, Upon Him be Peace, conforms with the sense of priority. And this statement is wrong because we need not to have a purport unity for the published unity. Let there be a difference between the two meanings of مولى and اولى, and the adverb of place to be different from the comparative case. No matter how it be translated, the Imamate of Ali, Upon Him be Peace, is fixed, and there is no way for the deniers to escape it.

Thus, whatever is said so far, it has become clear that the real meaning of مولى to Al‘lāma Amini is اولى, and more deserved receiving something. However, with me the most humble, the fact is the adverb of place, a position that the fact of the Guardianship to be there. And although the Guardianship has time and again explained, the highest point of veil is between two things so that nothing else to be put between those two things. And all the meanings that have been mentioned for مولى , ولى, اولىand etceteras, is because of this meaning that is used in many cases. And the statement of bearing a witness: وَ أشْهَدُ أنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلىُّ الله means: I bear witness that Ali has reached a position and grade, and he has risen at such a status that in the position of servitude there is no veil between Allah and he. This is the real meaning of the Guardianship, and this is the meaning of complete servitude.

اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمُتَمَسَّكِينَ بَوَلَايَتِه.‏

O Allah, assign us among those who take hold of his Guardianship. At that stage of the sanctity which is the manifestation of all attributes and all Divine Names and the source of Majesty and dignity, the great position cannot manifest itself but whatever it receives is from Allah.

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[45] Surah 22, "حج", Verse 78.
[46] Surah 47, "محمد", Verse 11.
[47] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 150.
[48] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 51.
[49] Surah 22, "حج", Verse 78.
[50] Surah 66, "تحریم", Verse 2.
Surah 66, "تحریم", Verse 2.

[52] Surah 57, "حدید", Verse 15.

[53] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 268.
Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 268.
[55] Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 40.
[56] Surah 57, "حدید", Verse 15.
[57] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 268.
[58] Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 40.
[59] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 51.
[60] "الغدیر", volume 1, selection from pages 362-370.
[61] The commentary of Abul-Fotooh, "تفسیر أبوالفتوح", volume 2, page 198.
[62] These poems are a part of the elegy tha Amru bin Aasi sent to Egypt for Muawiiah, and as Muawiiiah wanted to dismiss him from the government, he changed his mind to compose it against him and praising the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace. Sayyid Ne’mat-ul-lah Jazayeri has related this elegy in “أنوار نعمانيّه‏”.
[63] “ديوان أبى تمام طائى‏”,page 143. And Khatib has explained all the situation of Abu Tamam in “the History of Baghdad”, volume 8, from the page of 248 to 253, under the title of: Habib Bin ous Abu Tamam Taee, the poet.
And in “مناقب» ابن شهرآشوب‏”, volume 1, page 539, he has brought theses five lines along with another verse, which goes as:

أحجَّة ربّ العالمين و وارثُ             النَّبىِّ ألا عهدٌ و فىّ و لا اصر

[64] It is from Abu Muhammad Sofyan bin Mas’ab Abdi Kofi (Al-Ghadir, volume 2, page 292).
[65] In the book of “نقض‏” which is known as “بعض مثالب النّواصِب فى نقض بعض فضائح الرَّوافض‏”, composed by Abu Rashid Abd-ul-Jalil Ghazvini Razi, has put in the page of 247 that: Mahyar bin Marzoyeh, the writer, was of children of The Just Anoshirwan.
[66] Surah 57, "حدید", Verse 15.
[67] “تفسير فخر رازى‏”, the commentary of Fakhr Razi, volume 8, page 131.
[68] The word “نُهاء” means the raised water from the surface, and “صعائد” is the name of a district.
[69] “ديوان لُبَيد” is the publication of Dar-e-Sadir-e-Beirut, 1386, pages 172 and 173.
[70] Zozani’s شرح معلّقات سبع‏, the explanation of the elegy of “لبيد بن ربيعة انصارى‏”, lithography printing, page 78. The explainer of Moal’laghat, Ghazi Zozani: Hussein bin Ahmad who died in 486.
[71] “تفسير طبرى‏”, the commentary of Tabari, volume 9, page 117.
The commentary of ibn Jouzi: “زاد المسير”.
مطالب السَّؤول‏”, page 16.
تذكره خواصّ الامة”, page 19.
[75] page 288.
[76] "الفصول المهمة", page 27, the old publication, and page 25 of the Najaf's letter publication.
[77] The commentary of Jalalain, "تفسیر جلالین".

[78] "شرح تجرید قوشجی", The last thirteen pages of the book.
تفسير كشاف”, volume 2, page 435, first printing in “مطبعه شرقيه‏”.
[80] Surah 18, "کهف", Verse 29.
The “تفسير انوار التنزيل و اسرار التاويل‏”od Beizawi, the publication of “مكتبه الجمهوريه المصريه‏”, page 555.
[82] "لباب التاويل في معاني التتزيل", the commentary of Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Baghdadi known as Khazen, "مطبعة مصطفی محمد", volume 7, page 29.
[83] Surah 47, "محمد", Verse 11.
[84] Surah 18, "کهف", Verse 29.

[85] "تفسیر مفاتیح الغیب", known as "تفسیر فخر رازی", volume 8, page 131.

[86] We brought a summary of Razi'a words not the entire of it.

[87] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 68.

[88] “الهفى بقرى سجل‏” has brought it in “الغدير”, but as it had no correct meaning, thus it was referred to the explanation of “ديوان حماسه‏” in the statement of Ja’far bin Olbah al-Harethi, they had recorded “الهفا بقرى سحبل‏”, in it, thus we brought it similar to that which was in the text. There, they have written: the first letter in alphabet is of the question form; so is it the name of a land, or it denotes a gathering. And Sahbal is a vast land.

[89] A brief statement of Amini, bless be upon him, in “الغدير”, volume 1, pages 351 – 362.

[90] Surah 14, "ابراهیم", Verse 11.

[91] Surah 18, "کهف", Verse 110.

[92] Surah 19, "مریم", Verse 20.

[93] "الغدیر", volume 1, page 359.

[94] "شرح مواقف", Iiji, page 612.

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