In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lessons 102-105: The narrative on the presenting the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, to the people, as Joseph presented to the Egyptian women

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The narrative on the presenting the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, to the people, as Joseph presented to the Egyptian women

It is here that this line of the learned poet, Fariz Misri, finds its value to be read:

         فَكُلُّ مَلِيحٍ حُسْنُهُ مِنْ جَمَالِهَا             مُعَارٌ لَهُ بَلْ حُسْنُ كُلِّ مَلِيحَه‏ [95]

The whole beauty and integrity trusted to the beautiful of the world is of His beauty!

How nice it would be if we mentioned the story of Sheikh of commentary, Abu-al-Fotoh Razi, May Allah greaten his position!

'Then, he pointed to Ali, the Commander of the believers and called him to him and took him on the pulpit. He held on the two arms of him, lifted them so high that his armpits were seen by the gathering. He kept silence for a short while. It has been related that on the Day of Ghadir, Shebilli went closer to a friend of his and congratulated the occasion, and then said: 'O my Master, do you know what the secret was when your grandfather held your father on his arm, raised him high but did not say anything?!' He said: No, I know nothing.'

He said: 'It was a sign that those women who were unaware of Josef's beauty went on blaming Zoleikha and said:

امْرَأه الْعَزِيزِ تُرَاوِدُ فَتَيَها عَنْ نَفْسِهِ قَدْ شَغَفَهَا حُبّاً إنَّا لَنَرَيهَا فى ضَلَالٍ مُبِين.‏

'…and [a band of certain] women in the town said, ‘The chief’s wife has asked of her slave an evil deed, and she has seduced him! We see her in plain error, (Qur'an: 12/30).'   

She wanted to let them know of the beauty of Josef, so she prepared a party and invited those women; and there were two entrances to the room, so she let them sit. While Josef was wearing white clothes, she told him: 'For the sake of me, just enter the room through one door and pass by to the next door so that the women see you.' And then, she told her guests: 'I want to show you this friend of mine once, so do watch him and tell me your opinion about him.'

They asked her to know how they should do it. She told them: 'I'll give each of you a knife and a tangerine and when the boy enters the room, start pealing the fruit and give a share to him!' They said: 'Of course, we will do so.' However, when he entered the room and they sought sight of his beauty, they cut in surprise their hands instead of the tangerines. And then when he left the room through the other door, they said:

حَاشَ للهِ مَا هَذَا بَشَرٌ إنْ هَذَا إلا مَلَكٌ كَريم.

'…they said, ‘Allah forbid! This is not a man, but a noble angel! (Qur'an: 12/31).' 

Thus, she said: 'Did you see him? This is the very boy you blamed me being charmed at him, because of this: فذلكن الذى لمتننى فيه.‏ [She said], ‘…well, this is the person whom you blamed me about! (Qur'an: 12/32).'    ‏

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The “ألستُ أولي بِكم مِن أنفسكم” is also the commentator of the word “Maula”

The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, also pointed at it saying: 'This man is such a man that if I say a word about him, you did not like it and started blaming me, but today, be witness what Allah has said about him!' Then, he said:

 مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَهَذَا عَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاهُ؛ اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالَاهُ، وَ عَادَ مَنْ عَادَاهُ، وَ انْصرْ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ، وَ اخْذُل مَنْ خَذَلَه‏ 

'Whomsoever I am Master to so is Ali his Master! O Allah, do love him who loves Ali and be opponent to him who is his enemy; and whoever is his assistant do assist him and he who humiliates him do humiliate him.' Then, he said: اللَّهُمَّ هَلْ بَلَّغْتْ؟ 'O Allah, did I fulfill my duty?' And next he said to the companions: 'Did you hear that I told you what Allah commanded me to do?' They answered: 'Yes, we did.'

He said: اللَّهُمَّ اشْهَدْ عَلَيْهِم 'O Allah, bear witness upon them!' and he carried it up to the end of the story. [96]

Concerning this, Molla-e-Ru:mi says:

زين سبب پيغمبر با اجتهاد               نام خود و آن على مولا نهاد

گفت: هر كس را منم مولا ودوست    ابن عم من على، مولاى اوست‏

كيست مولا، آن كه آزادت كند          بند رقيت ز پايت بر كند

چون به آزادى نبوت هادى است       مؤمنان را زانبيا آزادى است‏

اى، گروه مؤمنان شادى كنيد           همچو سر و سوسن آزادى كنيد [97]

'It was why the Jurisprudence Messenger called his name and Ali's Master; saying: 'whomsoever I am Master and friend, my cousin is his Master and friend.' Then, who is a Master? It is he who liberates you; he who unties fetter from your ankle! Messenger is a guide to freedom, and the believers get freedom by the messengers. O the company of the believers be pleasant, feel free like cypresses and lilies!'

The second witness and the reason that the word "مولى" in the narrative of Ghadir means the Imamate and the Guardianship, is the statement of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, before starting this sermon. He addressed the people and then questioned them: أَلَسْتُ أوْلَى بِكُمْ مِنْ أنْفُسِكُمْ؟ 'Am I not most prior to you than you yourselves are?' All of them unanimously said: 'Yes, you are.' And based on their saying, the Holiness stated: فَمَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاه 'So whoever I am Master so is this Ali his Master.'

As the statement of the Holiness, أَلَسْتُ أوْلَى بِكُمْ مِنْ أنْفُسِكُمْ؟, matches the verse of the Qur'an:

 النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ [98]

'…the Messenger is closer to the believers than they themselves, (Qur'an: 33/6),' the Care of the Messenger towards the believers is more than their care to themselves. And with no doubt, this care and Guardianship is comprehensive spiritually and physically, apparently and inwardly, for this world and the next. Therefore, the questionably statement of the Holiness in his statement 'أَلَسْتُ أوْلَى بِكُمْ' is the same Guardianship. Thus, the Guardianship given to the Commander of the believers is the very Guardianship stated in: مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاه.

Apart from all the Shiite's scholars, the following Sunnite's Scholars have also written this interrogative sentence of the Messenger of Allah just as the event of the Guardianship; like: Ahmad bin Hanbal, Termizi, Ibn Majeh, NesaeeTabari and Tabarani, Abu Hatam, Dar Ghotni, Zahabi, Hakim, Abu Noaim, Tha‘labi, Baihaghi, Khatib, Haskani, Ibn Moghazili, Sejistani, Kharazmi, Ibn Asakir, Baizawi, Ibn Athir, Abu-al-Faraj, Taftazani, Hammoee, Ganji, Eeji, Ibn Sabbagh, Ibn Hajar, Seyu:ti and most of the others. And Al‘lāma Amini has mentioned the number of these great men of Sunnite who have written the event in their books to be sixty-four.[99]

According to this statement, the very interrogative sentence has also become of the successive ones and most of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, have mentioned it prior to relating the narrative.

Now, it was time we said: the purpose of the word مولى, in the narrative of the Guardianship is the word اولى in the beginning of the sermon, in the interrogative sentence of the Messenger of Allah. In other words, the two: أَلَسْتُ أوْلَى بِكُمْ مِنْ أنْفُسِكُمْ and فمَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاه have the same meaning; otherwise, the first sentence would be separated from the second one and would be useless.

And another reason for this subject is that most scholars who have related the narrative – as we previously mentioned it – have expressed it that: after the interrogative sentence, the Messenger of Allah has stated:  الا فمَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاه'Oh, know that whomsoever I am prior to so Ali is his Guardian.' So, this sentence clearly shows the connection of two interrogative and the indicative sentences of the Messenger of Allah.

Hafiz Abu-al-Faradj Yahia bin Saeed Saghafi Isfahani, after relating the introduction of the Ghadir sermon in the book of "مرج البحرين", says: The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, held Ali on his hand and said: مَنْ كُنْتُ وَليَّهُ وَ أوْلَى بِهِ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ فَعَلِىٌّ وَليُّه' Whomsoever I am Master and prior in Guardian upon him than he himself is, so is Ali his Guardian.

And Sebt ibn Jozi, after taking into account the first meaning of  أوْلَى in the event of Ghadir, sys: 'the meaning of the word مولى in the narrative, is 'a certain obeying' and priority, and it means that:

  مَنْ كُنْتُ أوْلَى بِهِ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ فَعَلِىٌّ أوْلَى بِه [100]

'Whomsoever I am have more priority upon than himself, so has Ali pore prior upon.'

And ibn Talha Shafiee says: some people believe that the purpose of narrative is the priority.[101]

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The “اللهمّ وآلِ من ولاه” is also the meaning of Imamate from the word “Maula”

And by what is said so far, we understand the lack of truth some of the Sunnite have said that, this statement: أَلَسْتُ أوْلَى بِكُمْ مِنْ أنْفُسِكُمْ is completed by the Guardianship and Imamate when it is followed by a narrative, not to be the supplication of the Messenger of Allah اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالَاهُ، و عاد من عاداه, because the meaning of this case is 'O Allah, do love one who loves Ali! And be opponent to one who is the enemy of Ali!' And this supplication of the Messenger 'being friendly with the friends of Ali, which is presented with the word "وَالِ", represents that the word مولى also means friendship; in this case, the narrative has no relation with the Guardianship.

This reasoning is not right, because it is based on that when اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالَاه the meaning of the friendship and victory. But it is not so, the purpose is the real meaning of the Guardianship. The meaning of اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالَاه is that: 'O Allah, You undertake the Guardian of one who has undertaken the guardian of Ali! And do care and protect one who is under the care and protection of Ali.' Because as we already mentioned it 'the Guardianship means removing the veil, and the words مولى and ولى are used for either side of the party; and the conjugation of the verb is for the both sides. The word "وَالِ", is imperative and it means You undertake the Guardianship, and the phrase "وَالَاه", which is in the past tense, means it is dominated by His Guardianship.

So, apart from this part of the supplication of the Holiness Messenger of Allah has no inconsistent with the Guardianship in the beginning, it even confirms it. It is because, first of all, it incumbents the Guardianship of Ali to all, and has invited all to follow it. This meaning goes with the Guardianship but not with the friendship, kindness and victory.

And secondly, he has commanded all the people to help to confirm the Imamate and the Guardianship so that to remove the obstacles away. And it is clear that the whole people's assistant is needed to support and follow the Imamate; otherwise, showing kindness and assistance need not so much confirmation.

And thirdly, the chastity of the Holiness becomes clear by this reasoning, because the invitation of all the people without any condition and with caring no commands does not mean anything.

And by whatever said so far, it becomes clear that the context و عاد من عاداه 'and be opponent to one who is enemy to Ali,' for the sentence وال من والاه is not carrying the meaning of kindness and victory, because it lacks the meaning of the Guardianship and demonstrates hostility and enmity.

Apart from all these, either of the sentences من كنت مولاه فعلى مولاه and اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالَاه has an especial and independent meaning. Suppose that the meaning of وال من والاه is kindness and victory, then the manifestation of the sentence مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاه‏ it is doubted to be the correct case by the sentence أَلَسْتُ أوْلَى بِكُمْ مِنْ أنْفُسِكُمْ .

The third reason is the sentences and phrases that are in the sermon, each one of them clearly shows that the meaning of the word مولى refers to the Imamate; therefore, either of them is a proof for the meaning of our desirable meaning.

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The manifest witnesses in the sermon which refers to the meaning of Imamate by the word “Maula”

Among others, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, invites people to obey and follow the Book and the Household, and he calls them 'the weightiest ones', that is, the most precious beings. And he states their unity until the Day of Resurrection, saying: فَلَا تُقَدَّمُوهُمَا فَتَهْلِكُوا! وَلَا تَقْصُرُوا عَنْهُمَا فَتَهْلِكُوا 'So advance not the Book and the Household for you will ruin yourselves; and be not negligent in [supporting them] for you will ruin yourselves!'

Now, is there any other meaning in advancing and negligence other than obeying and disobeying the Book and the Household? The necessity of obeying is the sign of the Imamate.

And among them is that after the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, making the people confess to the unity of Allah and his own mission, he immediately set out the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, on their basis. And it is obvious that the association of the Guardianship together with and the mission of the Messenger and the unity of Holiness Divinity is nothing without authority and Imamate. The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stated:  

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ! بِمَ تَشْهَدُونَ؟! قَالُوا: نَشْهَدُ أنْ لَا إلَهَ إلا اللَهُ! قَالَ: ثُمَّ مَهْ؟! قَالُوا: وَ أنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ! قَالَ: فَمَنْ وَليُّكُمْ؟! قَالُوا: اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُه‏ مَوْلَانَا.

'O people! What are you witnessing at?' They said: 'We witness that there is no deity except Allah.' He stated: 'What else are you witnessing?' They said: 'Muhammad is His obedient worshipper and His Messenger.' He asked: Then, who is your Protector?' They answered: 'Allah and His Messenger are our Protectors!'

In the mean time, the Messenger held Ali on the arm, raised him up and said: مَنْ يَكُنِ اللهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ مَوْلَاهُ فَإنَّ هَذَا مَوْلَاه 'Whomsoever Allah and His Messenger are his Guardian, so is this Ali his Guardian.'

With little consideration on this statement it becomes clear that the Guardianship of Ali means the same Guardianship of Allah and His Messenger; there is no separation at all, there cannot be imagined another meaning to it, in that case, the whole statement is nonsense.

And it is put in the statement of Ahmad bin Hanbal that:

فَقَالَ: أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ! مَنْ اولى النَّاسِ بِالمؤمنينَ مِنْ أنْفُسِهِمْ؟ قَالوا: اللهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أعْلَمُ!

قَالَ: إنَّ اللَهَ مَوْلَاىَ وَ أنَا مَوْلَى الْمُؤْمنينَ وَ أنَا أوْلَى بِهِمْ مِنْ أنْفْسِهِمْ، فَمَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاه.‏

(The second sentence was repeated three times, and according to Ahmad Hanbal, four times).

[The Messenger] said: 'O people! Whose Guardianship on the people is in more priority than their own Guardianship to them?'

They said: 'Allah and the Messenger of Allah are wiser [about it].'

The Messenger said: 'Allah is my Guardian and I am the Guardian of the believers; and my Guardianship on the believers is more than their Guardianship towards themselves. Therefore, whomsoever I am Guardian to so is this Ali his Guardian.' 

Anyhow, the association and the unity of the Guardians, and the priority in this case of the sermon, between the Guardianship of the Messenger of Allah and the Guardianship of the Commander of the believers, Upon Them be the best Peace, is quite clear and there is no need to think about.

And among them is that in the beginning of the sermon, the Messenger states: كَأنَّى دُعِيتُ فَأَجَبْت 'As if I have been called and I have responded it.' Or: يُوشِكُ أنْ ادْعَى فَاجِيب 'It is near I am being called and I will answer.' Even that: ألَا وَ إنَّى اوشِكُ أنْ افَارِقَكُم 'Be aware that it is close my leaving you!' Or else: يُوشِكُ أنْ يأتىَ رَسُولُ رَبَّى فَاجِيب 'It is near the messenger of my Creator to come to me and I give up.'

And these kinds of statements carry the point that still there was remained an important point of the Messenger's transmission, and the Holiness was afraid that the death might approach and he could not fulfill it.

And we see that in this sermon he has said no more nor has he commanded anything but enjoining the people to look after his Household and then, nominating the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, as his certain successor. And it is obvious that the important affair, which was the descendant of the messenger of death, was something other than the question of Guardianship. Therefore, can it be assumed for the Guardianship that has come in this sermon – apart from the Messenger's worrying – any meaning such as kindness and victory other than the Imamate and the Islamic government that follows the Messenger-hood and the administration of the Messenger of Allah? Never ever!

And another point is that the Messenger states: وَ لْيُبَلِّغِ الشَّاهِدُ الْغَائِب' It is incumbent to all who are present here to carry this message to those who are absent.' If the purpose of the Guardianship is the victory or kindness, while these two had already mentioned in the books and the tradition, there would be no need to those who present to carry the news to those who were absent. It is clear that this message must be of great importance that it has to be carried to the absentees by those who are present.

Especially after announcing it, the Messenger called Allah to witness by saying: اللَّهُمَّ أنْتَ شَهِيدٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَنِّى قَدْ بَلَّغْتُ وَ نَصَحْت 'O Allah, now You are witness that I did my propagation and advised!' And the most important his constant calling Allah to bear witness in this sermon:  اللهم اشهد، اللهم اشهد means that the subject is very serious, it has happened on the same day not before.

And one of them is the statement of the messenger of Allah following the narrative: اللهُ اكْبَرُ عَلَى إكْمَالِ الدين، و إتْمَام النَّعْمَهِ، و رَضَى الرَّبِّ بِرِسَالَتِى وَ الْوَلَايهِ لِعَلِىِّ بْنِ أبى طَالِب 'Allah is the greatest for completing His religion, and fulfilling His blessings and the satisfaction of the Holiness Creator for my mission and also the Guardianship of Ali bin Abī Tālib.'

And also in the apparent narrative of Sheikh-ul-Islam Ham‘moee:

 اللهُ اكْبَرُ عَلَى تَمَامِ نُبُوَّتِى وَ تَمَامِ دِينِ اللهِ بِوَلايةِ عَلىَّ بَعْدِى [102]

'Allah is the greatest upon all my Prophet-hood, and upon the completion of Allah's religion through the Guardianship of Ali after me.'

(Faraeed-al-Semtain, volume 1, page 74,, narrative 40, by means of his documents from Kharazmi, connected to Abi Haroun Abdi, from Abi Saeed Khedri quoting the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants).

And among the statements of the Messenger of Allah after the sermon is: هَنِّئُونى! هَنِّئُونى إنَّ اللَهَ خَصَّنِى بِالنُّبُوَّه وَ خَصَّ أهْلَ بَيْتِى بِاْلامَامَه 'Do congratulate me! Do praise me for Allah has appointed me as a prophet, and He has assigned of my Household for the Imamate.'

The clear meaning of the phrase is the Imamate of the Household and prior to all is Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace. And it becomes clear that the cause of setting up a session and a separate pavilion for the ceremony of congratulation to Ali, the Commander of the believers, while sitting there, as the Emir of the believers, to respond the questions of the people; and then, commanding the believers to enter the pavilion and to congratulate him, and the Messenger of Allah sending his wives to him as well, all demonstrate the position of the Imamate and Guardianship of that Holiness.

Then, we saw that the two Sheikhs, Abu Bakr and Omar, when facing the Holiness they began congratulating him for his Guardian. They said:

 بَخٍّ بخٍّ لَكَ يَا بْنَ أَبِى طَالِبٍ! أَصْبَحْتَ وَ أَمْسَيْتَ مَوْلاى و مَوْلىَ كُلَّ مُؤْمِنٍ وَ مُؤْمِنَه [103]

'Well done! Congratulation; congratulation to you, o the son of Abu: Tālib that raised yourself at this position by passing through the nights and days, you are my Master and the Master of every believing man and woman!'

And among the numerous narratives is the event of the station on the Day of Ghadir, it is known as 'assigning', and therein the Messenger of states: 'Allah appointed me to set up your Imam for you.' And the term 'appoint' is replaced with the word Guardianship in many places, and has become with the phrase of 'setting up as the Guardian', it is the very meaning of the Imamate which has priority upon the affairs of the nation.

This phrase brings a new position to the Holiness Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, which has been given to him on the Day; there had not been the sign of that before. And it cannot be like the kindness and victory which had been since the old time and it had been apparent for all the Muslims. The phrase of 'assignment' is for appointing the Guardian. For example they say: 'Sultan set up and nominated a certain man to govern a certain place. They never say: Sultan assigned him as the centre of love, the helper, victorious and the beloved for a certain position. And this is the very position of the Guardianship, caliphate and the Successor for the affairs of the nation which the messenger of Allah appointed the Holiness Ali by the Command of Allah.

Sheikh-ul-Islam Ham‘moee, by the means of his documents from Solaim bin Ghais Hilali relates that: 'During the Caliphate of Othman, I saw that Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, was sitting in the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and a group of the people were also sitting and discussing, mostly on the jurisprudence and narratives.

He continues the story until he reaches at this point that: Zaid bin Argham and Bara‘ bin Aazib, Salman, Abuzar Mighdad and Ammar stood up and said: 'We witness that, we clearly remember that the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was standing on the pulpit and you were also standing beside him, when he was saying:     

يَا أيُّهَا النَّاسُ! إنَّ اللَهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أمَرَنى أنْ أنْصِبَ لَكُمْ إمَامَكُمْ وَ الْقَائِمَ فيكُمْ بَعْدِى وَ وَصِيَّى وَ خَليفَتِى، وَ الَّذِى فَرَضَ اللَهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ عَلَى الْمؤْمِنينَ فِى كِتَابِهِ طَاعَتَهُ، فَقَرَنَهُ بِطَاعَتِهِ وَ طَاعَتِى، وَ أمَرَكُمْ بِوَلَايَتِهِ. وَ إنَّى رَاجَعْتٌ رَبّى خَشْيَةَ طَعْنِ أهْلِ النِّفَاقِ وَ تَكْذِيبهِمْ فَأوْعَدَنِى لابَلِّغَهَا (ظ) أوْ لِيُعَذِّبَنِى. [104]

'O people! Allah, the Honorable and Exalted commanded me to assign your Imam for you, the Imam who takes the control of the affairs of yours after me, who is my Inheritor and Successor; he is the same man that Allah has made his obedience incumbent in His Book, and He has commanded you to respect his Guardianship. And I turned to my Creator from the fear and sarcasm of the opponents; and He warned me that either I might propagate the Guardianship of Ali or He would chastise me.'

And Sayyid Ali Shahab-ad-Din Hamedani has quoted Omar bin Khattab saying:

نصب رسول الله (ص) عَليًّا عَلَماً، فَقَالَ: مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىٌّ مَوْلَاهُ، اللَّهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالاهُ، وَ عَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ، وَ اخْذُلْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُ، وَ انْصُرْ مَنْ نَصَرَهُ، الَّلهُمَّ أنْتَ شَهِيدِى عَلَيهِم.[105]

'The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, assigned Ali bin Abī Tālib as the sign and said: 'Whomsoever I am Master to so is this Ali his Master. O Allah, have Guard him who has the Guardian of Ali, and be opponent to one who is his enemy. And humiliate one who humiliates him, and assist him who assists Ali. O Allah, You are my witness upon this nation!'

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The appointment of the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, as the Guardian proves his Imamate

And when the sermon of the Messenger of Allah ended, ibn Abbas said:[106] وَجَبَتْ وَ اللَهِ فِى رِقَابِ الْقَوْم 'By Allah, the Guardianship of Ali is incumbent upon the great men of Arabs.' That is, they became obedience.

If the meaning of the Guardianship was affection and victory then could you find any similarity to ibn Abbas' word? Because confirmation of the affection and victory has nothing to do with the obedience; however, the assignment of the Imamate and the caliphate demand ruling and governing and for the people who want to avoid it need not to be obedience.

Now that the discussion about the meaning of "مولى" in the event of Ghadir has come to an end, how nice it would be to bring the elegy of the Late Sayyid Reza Hindi Arab, which is known as the Elegy of Kow‘thar here, and then, to seek help from the blissful breathe of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. And to ask for help of that Blissful Spirit which is greater than the Holy Spirit, to help us and lead us to the Holiness, the Unity.

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Sayyid Reza Hindi Arab’s elegy of Kauthar

This poem consists of fifty-four lines, the first twenty-four lines are seeking help from the Holiness Messenger of Allah, and the rest of the poem is concerning the virtues, priorities of the Holiness Commander of the believers                                                     

1. أ مُفَلَّجُ ثَغْرُكَ أمْ جَوْهَرْ              وَ رَحِيقُ رُضَابُكَ أمْ سُكَّرْ

2. قَدْ قَالَ لِثَغْركَ صَانِعُهُ               إنَّا أعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرْ

3. وَ الْخَالُ بِخَدِّكَ أمْ مِسْكٌ             نَقَّطْتَ بِهِ الْوَرْدَ الْأحْمَرْ

4. أمْ ذَاكَ الْخَالُ بِذَاكَ الْخَدّ            فَتَّيْتَ النَّدَّ عَلَى مَجْمَرْ

5. عَجَباً مِنْ جَمْرَتِهِ تَذْكُو              وَ بِهَا لَا يَحْتَرِقُ الْعَنْبَرْ

6. يَا مَنْ تَبْدُو لِى وَفْرَتُهُ               فِى صُبْحِ مُحَيَّاهُ لأزْهَرْ

7. فَاجِنُّ بِهِ فِى اللَّيْلِ إذَا                يَغْشَى وَ الصُّبْحِ إذَا أسْفَرْ

8. إرْحَمْ أرِقاً لَوْ لَمْ تَمْرَضْ            بِنُعَاسِ جُفُونِكَ لَمْ يَسْهَرْ

9. تَبْيَضُّ لِهِجْرِكَ عَيْنَاهُ                حَزَناً وَ مَدَامِعُهُ تَحْمَرّ

10. يَا لَلْعُشَّاقِ لِمَفْتُونٍ                    بِهَوَا رَشَاءٍ أحْوَى أحْمَرْ

11. إنْ يَبْدُ لِذِى طَرَبٍ غَنَّى             أَوْ لَاحَ لِذِى نُسُكٍ كَبَّرْ

12. آمَنْتُ هَوًى بِنُبُوَتِه                   وَ بِعَيْنَيْهِ سِحْرٌ يُؤْثَرْ

13. أصْفَيْتُ الْوُدَّ لِذِى مَلَلٍ              عَيْشِى بِقَطِيعَتِهِ كَدَّرْ

14. يَا مَنْ قَدْ آثَرَ هِجْرَانِى               وَ عَلَىَّ بِلُقْيَاهُ اسْتَأثَرْ

15. أقْسَمْتُ عَلَيْكَ بِمَا أوْلَتْ             كَ النَّظْرَهَ مِنْ حُسْنِ الْمَنْظَرْ

16. وَ بِوَجْهِكَ إذْ يَحْمَرُّ حَياً             وَ بوَجْهِ مُحِبِّكَ إذْ يصْفَرْ

17. وَ بِلُؤْلُؤَ مَبْسَمِكَ الْمَنْظُومْ           وَ لُؤلُؤ دَمْعِىَ إذْ يُنْثَرْ

18. أنْ تَتْرُكَ هَذَا الْهَجْرَ فَلَيْ            سَ يَلِيقُ بِمِثْلِىِ أنْ يُهْجَرْ

19. فَأجِلِ الاقْدَاحَ بِصَرْفِ الرَّا         حِ عَسَى الافرَاحُ بِهَا تُنْشَرْ

20. وَ أشْغِلْ يُمْنَاكَ بِصَبَّ الْكَأْ          سِ وَ خَلَّ يُسْرَاكَ لِلْمَزْهَرْ

21. فَدَمُ الْعُنْقُودِ وَ لَحْنُ الْعُودِ           يُعِيدُ الْخَيْرَ وَ يَنْفَى الشَّرْ

22. بَكَّرْ لِلسُّكْرِ قُبَيْلَ الْفَجْرِ             فَصَفْوُ الدَّهْرِ لِمَنْ بَكَّرْ

23. هَذَا عَمَلِى فَاسْلُكْ سُبُلِى            إنْ كُنْتَ تَقِرُّ عَلَى الْمُنْكَرْ

24. فَلَقَدْ أسْرَفْتُ وَ مَا أسْلَفْتُ           لِنَفْسِى مَا فِيهِ أعْذَرْ

25. سودت صحيفه اعمالى            و وكلات الامر الى حيدر

26. هو كهفى من نوب الدّنيا           و شفيعى فى يوم المحشر

27. قد تمّت لى بولايته                 نعم جمّت عن ان تشكر

28. لا صيب بها الحظ الاوفى         و اخصّص بالسّهم الاوفر

29. بالحفظ من النار الكبرى           و الأمن من الفزع الاكبر

30. هل يمنعنى و هو الساقى          ان اشرب من حوض الكوثر

31. ام يطردنى عن مائده               وضعت للقانع و المعتر

32. يا من قد انكر من آيات             ابا حسن ما لا ينكر

33. ان كنت لجهلك بالايام              حجدت مقام ابى شبر

34. فاسأل بدراً و اسأل احدا            و سل الاحزاب و سل خيبر

35. مَنْ دَبَّرَ فِيهَا الْأمْرَ وَ مَنْ أرْدَ     الْأبْطَالَ وَ مَنْ دَمَّرْ

36. مَنْ هَدَّ حُصُونَ الشِّرْكِ وَ مَنْ      شَادَ الاسْلَامَ وَ مَنْ عَمَّرْ

37. مَنْ قَدَّمَهُ طه وَ عَلَى                 أهْلِ الْإيمَانِ لَهُ أمَّرْ

38. قَاسَوْكَ أبَا حَسَنٍ بِسِوَا كَ            وَ هَلْ بَالطَّوْدِ يُقَاسُ الذَّرّ

39. أنَّى سَاوَوْكَ بِمَنْ نَاوَوْكَ             وَ هَلْ سَاوَوْانَعْلَىْ قَنْبَرْ

40. مَنْ غَيْرُكَ مَنْ يُدْعَى لِلْحَرْ          بِ وَ للْمِحْرَابِ وَ للْمِنْبَرْ

41. أفْعَالُ الْخَيْرِ إذَا انْتَشَرتْ             فِى النَّاسِ فَأنْتَ لَهَا مَصْدَرْ

42. وَ إذَا ذُكِرَ الْمَعْروفُ فَمَا             لِسِوَاكَ بِهِ شَىُ يُذْكَرْ

43. أحْيَيْتَ الدَّينَ بِأبْيَضَ قَدْ             أوْدَعْتَ بِهِ الْمَوْتَ الْأحْمَرْ

44. قُطْباً لِلْحَرْبِ يُدِيرُ الضَّرْبَ         وَ يَجْلُو الْكَرْبَ بِيَوْمِ الْكَرّ

45. فَاصْدَعْ بِالْأمْرِ فَنَاصِرُكَ            التَّبَّارُ البَّتَّارُ وَ شَانِئُكَ الْأبْتَرْ

46. لَوْ لَمْ تُؤمَرْ بِالصَّبْرَ وَ كَظْمِ         الْغَيْظِ وَ لَيْتَكَ لَمْ تُؤَمَرْ

47. مَا نَالَ الْأمْرَ أخُوتَيْمٍ                 وَلَا تَنَاوَلَهُ مِنْهُ حَبْتَرْ

48. مَا آلَ الْأمْرُ إلَى التَّحْكِيمِ             وَ زَايَلَ مَوْقِفَهُ الْأشْتَرْ

49. لَكِنَّ أعْرَاضَ الْعَاجِل مَا             عَلِقَتْ بِرِدَائِكَ يَا جَوْهَرْ

50. أنْتَ الْمُهْتَمُّ بِحِفْظِ الدَّينِ              وَ غَيْرُكَ بِالدُّنْيَا تَغْتَرّ

51. أفْعَالُكَ مَا كَانَتْ فِيهَا                 إلَّا ذِكْرَى لِمَنِ اذَّكَّرْ

52. حُجَجاً ألْزَمْتَ بِهَا الْخُضَمآءَ        وَ تَبْصِرَهً لِمَنِ اسْتَبْصَرْ

53. آيَاتُ جَلَالِكَ لَا تُحْصَى              وَ صِفَاتُ كَمَالِكَ لَا تُحْصَرْ

54. مَنْ طَوَّلَ فِيكَ مَدَائِحَهُ               عَنْ أدْنَى وَاجِبِهَا قَصَّرْ

55. فَاقْبَلْ يَا كَعْبَهَ آمَالِى                 مِنْ هَدْىِ مَدِيحِىِ مَا اسْتَيْسَرْ

1- 'These are your front teeth gapping between in the same size, they look a set of pearls, the Creator has called it the Spring of Kow‘thar; and this drained saliva of yours is the pure wine or is it the pure sugar?

2- In the description of your teeth, the Creator has called if the Spring of Kow‘thar, and he has revealed the verse of: 'We have bestowed you the Spring of Kow‘thar.

3- And now there is on your cheek, on your face a spot have been marked, or perhaps musk it is by which you have dotted on a rose!

4- Or you would say that spot on that cheek is aloes-wood in the fire censer.

5- I wonder how from that censer of fire flames rise around, however, that piece of fragrant aloes-wood does not catch fire, nor does it melt.

6- O you, whose tails of hair hanging down on the both sides of the bright and light face, you did appear to me.

7- So it is because of that hair which in the pitch darkness of night I become unseen; and then, it is that bright face that unveils the darkness and draws back the curtain.

8- Have mercy upon the sick, from whose languishing eyes tears run down through the night till morning; if there were not those charming eyes of yours, he would not fall sick! 

9- By the sorrow and agony that he has received through your being away from him, his both eyes have turned pale and blind, and his tears course has changed into red.

10- O you the company of the lovers come and cure this mad of his madness, he who has fallen in love with the crimson infant gazelle.

11- [With such goodness and beauty] if he appears to a man of joyous he starts singing and dancing; and if he comes into sight of one who is praying, his voice chanting 'Allah is Great' raises high.

12- Through my excessive love and affection towards him, I believed in his Prophet-hood, but not only by the sign of magic issuing from his charming eyes!

13- I purified my love and affection for him who appeared to me with sorrow and depression; then, with his separation, he offended me!

14- O you who have chosen my being far away from you, and have picked up someone else to visit than me!

15- I swear by Him Who has given you such beauty in the face and handsome body and charming feature;

16- And I swear your blissful face and feature when it would turn red of bashfulness, and also the face of your opponent that turned pale and white!

17- And I swear by your white pear-looking front teeth in right setting; and my pearl-like tears running down on my face when I am watching you –

18- That you may stop your separation from me, and give up this disjointing! Because I do not deserve to be separated!

19- So, pass round to us these bowls to drink wine out of, we hope the happiness and cheerfulness shall issue in this way.

20- Hold your right hand on the bowl when pouring out the wine; and use your left hand playing the instrument.

21- Because the red blood extracting from the bunch of grapes and the sound of the instrument bring forward goodness and benevolent, and take away evil and wickedness.

22- A little before the true sunrise, get up for the drunkenness and haste for it; because the purest things for the chosen ones of the word is given at dawn!

23- This is my action! So you too, but if you are of those the steadfast denier, set out by roads that I have done, and take serious steps in this way!

24- But alas! I have been wasteful and extravagant in my affair, and I have forwarded anything prior to me to be the means of excuse for me!

25- I have blackened the document of my deeds; however, I have put my fate in the hand of HEIDAR!

26- He is my refuge in the agonies of this world, and so is he my intercessor in the Hereafter.

27- Under the radiance of his Guardianship I have been bestowed endless blessings – too many to be thankful of.

28- It was because, by those divine blessings, I could receive plenty share and would be specified for more blessings –

29- Immune of the flames of the Hereafter, and away from all frights of the Doomsday.

30- Would he ban me drinking out of the Spring of Kow‘thar, while he himself is the cupbearer there?

31- Can you imagine that he would avoid me eating out of the tablecloth he has spread for the abject and poor?

32- O you who are denying the verses and the proofs, which are not deniable, about Abu-al-Hassan!

33- If, due to your ignorance, you deny the history and the events of the world and the position of Abu Shubbar, Ali,

34- So ask [the battle of] Badr, and Uhod about his status and position. And do ask the Ahzab and ask the Kheibar!

Who did look after the affairs in these events and battles?

35- And who did bravely brought the world down on its knee? And who destroyed the enemies and send them to death?

36- Who ruined the strong disbelievers' ports and ruined them all? Who raise the position of Islam, and relieved it?

37- Who considered him, the Holiness TAHA, (the Messenger of Allah), prior to all people? And who assigned him the Emir, Sayyid and chief upon all believers?

38- O Abu-al-Hassan, they compared you with other than your level, is it possible to compare a mountain with a straw?

39- How did they match and compare you with those enemies of you? Do they own such dignity to be matched with the sandals of your slave, Ghanbar'?!

40- Who was he, apart from you, to be chosen to fight the enemies, praying in the mosque and delivering sermons on the pulpit?

41- All good actions that are issued among the people are because of you, their sources and references are only you.

42- When they consider and mention all the good actions, their origins are you; there is nothing to be mentioned to other than you!

43- You relieved the religion of Allah by the means of your 'cutting to pieces' sword; you had carved the red death on its tip!

44- Your sword is the battlefield axis; it is constantly searching to strike, cut and separate the necks from the bodies – and on the day of attacking, it removed the grief and sorrow.

45- So, loudly announce to the command of yours! For the assistant of you is the killer, cutter and the destroyer; and the offender of you is tail-cut one.

46- As if you were not in the authority to settle anger and wrath; I wish you were not. 

47- Then, Abu Taim, (Abu Bakr), would not be assigned for the post of Caliphate and Guardianship, nor would Habtar, (Omar), would get the post of the Guardianship by his command; and then, Malik Ashtar would not separate his position in the battlefield.

48- However, avoiding this passing world did not cling to your garment, for it did not belong to you, O you the rare essence of the entire being!

49- You were the only one who struggled for the religion of Allah; but those, apart from you, were proud of this world.

50- None of your actions and behaviors go unnoticed but are useful and good reminders for the people of thoughts.

51- Those actions are the proofs by which you have made the enemies incumbent; and they are causes for wakefulness and awareness to the perspicuous.

52- The signs of the majesty of yours and the marks of your greatness are outnumbered! Nor are your attributes and perfections countable!

53- He who praises you too much and goes on lecturing too long about you, still cannot do his duty!

54- Thus, o the Mecca of my wishes! Accept my too little and tiny praise which I dedicate you as a gift.'

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Discussion on the Kauthar’s elegy as the last part of this book

In the opinions of the great scholars, ll this poem is about the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, from the very first line: "أمفلّجثَغرُك ام جَوهَر" it is addressed to the Holiness; in my humble opinion it is not finished yet, there are lots of words to say about. First of all, everyone has called the Messenger of Allah as the: "مفلج الأسنان", that is: the front teeth of that Holiness were not pressed together, there were gaps between. Secondly, in the second line: "إنَّا أعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَر" is about the Messenger of Allah. Thirdly, on the twelfth line it says: "آمَنْتُ هَوىً بِنُبُوَّتِه" and it is obvious that the Prophet-hood belonged to the Messenger of Allah. And then, in the line of sixteen he says: "وَ بِوَجْهِكَ إذْ يَحْمَر " and this 'getting red in the face' is specialized for the Messenger; as well: " و هو رجل حيى "; and similarly the other parts of the poem are related to the Messenger of Allah.

The poet continues this poem until he reaches to the line twenty-five: " سوّدتُ صحيفة اعمالى و وكّلتُ الامر إلى حيدر". From here up to the end of the poem he has composed for the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and truly he has composed very interesting.

They say, because of composing this elegy, he won the prize on the competition held in Iraq concerning the best poem for the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace.

وَ لِكُلَّ بَيْتٍ بَيْتٌ فِى الْجَنَّهِ. رَحِمَهُ اللهُ رَحْمَهً وَاسِعَهً وَ حَشَرَهُ مَعَ مَوَالِيهِ بِمُحَمَّدٍ وَ آلِهِ الطَّاهِرِين.‏

By means of the chain documents of his, ibn Asakar has related Ammar Dohni quoting Abu Fakhtah that:

أقْبَلَ عَلِىٌّ وَ عُمَرُ جَالِسٌ فِى مَجْلِسِهِ؛ فَلَمَّا رَاهُ عُمَرُ تَضَعْضَعَ وَ تَوَاضَعَ وَ تَوَسَّعَ لَهُ فِى الْمَجْلِسِ. فَلَمَّا قَامَ عَلِىٌّ قال بعض القوم: يا أمير المؤمنين! إنَّكَ تَصْنَعُ بِعَلىَّ صَنِيعاً مَا تَصْنَعُهُ بِأحَدٍ منْ اصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ! قَالَ عُمَرُ: وَ مَا رَأيْتَنِى أصْنَعُ بِهِ؟! قَالَ: رَايْتُكَ كُلَّمَا رَايْتَهُ تَضَعْضَعَتَ وَ تَواضَعْتَ وَ أوْسَعْتَ حَتَّى يَجْلِسَ! قَالَ: وَ مَا يَمْنَغُنِى وَ اللَهِ إنَّهُ لَمَوْلَاىَ وَ مَوْلىَ كُلَّ مُؤمن.[107]   

'Ali bin Abī Tālib entered when Omar was sitting in his room; as he caught sight of Ali, he humbly stood up giving place to Ali to sit. After a while, when Ali left the room, some of the companions said to Omar: 'O you the Commander of the faithful, we see that you are behaving with Ali in such a way that you never behave with the other companions of the Messenger!' Omar said: 'How did I behave with him, tell me?!' One of them said: 'I have always seen that whenever you have met him, you have humiliated yourself, and you have offered him your place to sit in the sessions!' Omar said: 'Why should I not behave like that? By Allah, he is my Master, and so is he the believers' Master.'

And it is related in the book of "The Islamic Victories" that: 'Once Ali bin Abī Tālib gave verdict against an Arab, and the Arab was not pleased with his command; Omar seized him on his shirt collar and while pressing him, he said to him:

 ويلك ويلک انه مولاك و مولى كل مؤمن و مؤمنه [108]

'Woe upon you! He is your Master, and every believing man and woman's Master!'

And Tabrani has related that they had told Omar:

 إنَّكَ تَصْنَعُ بِعَلِىٍّ اىْ، مِنَ التَّعْظِيِم- شَيْئاً لَا تَصْنَعُ مَعَ أحَدٍ مِنْ أصْحَابِ النَّبِىِّ (ص)! فَقَالَ: إنَّهُ مَوْلَاى [109]

'you behave and respect Ali in so humility way that you never do with the other companions of the Messenger of Allah!' Omar said: 'Why not! He is my Master.'

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[95] “The Poetic Works of ibn Farez” (تائية كبرى‏), page 70, line 242 from  تائية.

[96] “تفسير روح الجنان و روح الجنان‏”,is known as the Commentary of Abu-al-Fotoh Razi, Mozaf’fary printing , volume 2, page 192.

[97] “مثنوى‏”, Mirkhani publication, volume 6, page 641, line 23.

[98] Surah 33, "احزاب", Vehrse 6.

[99] "الغدیر", volume 1, page 371.

[100] "تذکرة الخواص", page 20.

[101] "مطالب السؤال", page 16.

[102] “فرائد السّمطين‏”, volume 1, page 74, narrative 40, with his document from Kharazmi, connected to Abu Haroon’s Abdi, from Abi Saeed Khedri, quoting the Messenger of Allah, bless be upon him and his Descendants.

[103] “فرائد السّمطين‏”, volume 1, section 9, narrative 30 and 31, page 65, and section 11, narrative 38, page 71, and section 13, narrative 44, page 77, and “شواهد التّنزيل‏”, volume 1, page 157, narrative 120, page 158, narrative 213; and “تاريخ ابن عساكر”, volume 1, page 48,narratives 546 and 547, and page 76, narrative 577. And page 78 narrative 578, and page 76, narrative 575. And in some of Ibn Asakar’s narratives, it has been printed: اصبحت مولاى و مولى كل مسلم‏.

[104] فرائد السمطين‏”, volume 1, section 58, narrative 50, pages 315 and 316.

[105] “مودّة القربى‏”, related of “ينابيع الموده‏”, Istanbul publication, page 249.

[106] “كشف الغمه‏”, Ali bin Isa Erbili, page 94.

[107] “تاريخ دمشق‏”, volume 1, page 82, narrative number 582.

[108] “الفتوحات الاسلاميه‏”, volume 2, page 307.

[109] “الغدير”, volume 1, pages 282 and 283. He has also said that: Zarghani Maliki has related it in “شرح مواهب‏”, page 13, from Dar Ghotni.

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