In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lessons 106-109: Benefitting the meaning of الْيَوْمَfrom the verse: الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُم

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Benefitting the meaning of الْيَوْمَfrom the verse: الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُم
Now that we understood these probabilities about the meaning of "
الیوم" is not correct, we get closer to the real meaning of "الیوم" in this verse, it is easily obtained from the verse itself. So, to make the meaning clear, we have to explain something before.
That which is obtained from the verses of the Qur'an is that from the very beginning of Islam, the disbelievers were trying to uproot it. This enmity of them always worried the Muslims, and their opponent was seen here and there and it made troubles for the Muslims – they were always on their guards to avoid their attacks.
Allah has stated:

 وَدَّتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يُضِلُّونَكُمْ [53]

'…a group of the people of the Book would like to mislead you, (Qur'an: 3/69).'

And in another occasion He sates:

وَدَّ كَثيرٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَبِ لَوْ يرُدُّونَكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفّارًا حَسَدًا مِن عِندِ أنفُسِهِمْ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَينَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ فَأعْفُوا وَ أَصْفَحُوا حَتَّى يأْتِى اللَهُ بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللَهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْ‏ءٍ قَدِير [54]

'…many of the people of the Book – though the truth had become clear to them – wished in the jealousy of their souls, after you had believed, to turn you back into disbelief. So, forget and disregard it until Allah brings His command, surely Allah is powerful over everything, (Qur'an: 2/109).'

And the disbelievers were always trying to create problems for the Muslims, to make life uneasy for them because it was the Muslims' new religion that had made life difficult for them; it was disgracing their dignities. Islam had stopped them to go beyond their limit and controlled them to do anything out of the laws and commands of Islam.
That which caused their hatred and enmity was Islam but not the Muslims by own – it was because of their right religion. The disbelievers were not after destroying the Muslims and ruining their religion and community, their aim was putting out the Light of Allah. Then, instead, setting up the pillar of disbelief which had been wiped out through Islam and the divine verses; they intended to turn away the Muslims from their belief, as Allah states:

وَ لا يزَالُونَ يقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّى يرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ استَطَاعُوا. [55]

'…and they keep on fighting with you until they make you abandon your religion – but if they are able to, (Qur'an: 2/217).'

And He states:

إِنْ تُطِيعُوا فَرِيقًا مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَبَ يرُدُّوكُم بَعْدَ إيمَانِكُمْ كَافِرِين.‏[56]

'…if you obey a party of those who have received the Book, they will make you disbelievers after your belief, (Qur'an: 3/100).'

And He states:

يرِيدُونَ لِيطْفِئوا نُورَ اللَهِ بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَ اللَهُ مُتِمُّ نُورِهِ وَ لَوْ كَره الْكفِرُونَ. هُوَ الَّذِى أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَ دِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَ لَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُون.‏[57]

'…they want to blow Allah’s Light out with their mouths while He is Perfecting His Light though the disbelievers may dislike.
It is He Who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, so He may have it prevail over every religion, though the idolaters be averse, (Qur'an: 61/8-9).'

And He states:

فَأدْعُوَا اللَهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَ لَوْ كَرِهَ الْكفِرُون.‏[58]

'…so, supplicate Allah [while] making your religion His sincerely, though the disbelievers may be averse, (Qur'an: 40/14).'

For this reason, the disbelievers' main task was to uproot the newly planted fresh tree of Islam and to do without forever. Their only way to carry out their trick was to bring enmity among the Muslims; to create doubts among them so that to become hopeless of their religion.
The first thing to do was to weaken the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, in their determination they wanted to disgrace him by spending their wealth, as Allah, the Exalted states concerning this:

وَ انطَلَقَ المَلأُ مِنهُم أنِ امْشُوا وَ اصْبِرُوا عَلَى ءالِهَتِكُمْ إِنَّ هَذَا لَشى‏ءٌ يرَاد. [59]

'…and the leaders among them went on, [saying to one another]: ‘walk around and be steadfast about your gods, this is but a thing of our intention, (Qur'an: 38/6).'

Or they wanted to weaken him through his association with them, as Allah states:

وَدُّوا لَوْ تُدْهِنُ فَيدْهِنُون.‏[60]

'…the disbelievers wish you should be yielding, so that they may be yielding, (Qur'an: 68/9).'

And He states:

وَ لَوْلا أَن ثَبَّتْنَاكَ لَقَدْ كِدْتَ تَرْكَنُ إِلَيهِمْ شَيئًا قَلِيلا.[61]

'…had We not braced you, you might have almost inclined a little bit towards them, (Qur'an: 17/74).'

And the last thing that they hoped would destroy Islam was that because of the lack of the successor, after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, the religion would deteriorate. They thought that Muhammad did not have a son to support the religion after him. The disbelievers had taken the messenger-hood and the mission of the Messenger as a sovereignty being disguised as the prophet-hood, and they kept saying: 'If he passes away, similar to the kings and sultans his kingdom will wade away and forgotten, as the case is with the common rulers. Although they have power and author over the nation, by their death everything come to an end; their names and fames are soon forgotten. The laws and rules that they have set up among the people are buried in their graves – unless they have children to run the country after them. Now that Muhammad has no children his religion and tradition will disappear soon after his demise.' Therefore, due to their belief, Allah informs that:

إِنَّ شَانِئَكَ هُوَ الابْتَر[62]

'…surely your opponent is he lacking prosperity, (Qur'an: 108/3).'

All that which we mentioned and many more things like those were desires and wishes of the disbelievers to extinguish the Light of Allah with, in their imaginations the mission of the Messenger of Allah was nothing more than an ordinary game and false invitation to the new religion! It was baseless and would wade away sooner or later!
However, the gradual advent of Islam and its influence among the people and its wide spreading around made them hopeless. The most important thing the strong determination of the Messenger that they couldn't stop it; and more over, it was his heedlessness for their offering: money, wealth and other means.
The strength and glory of Islam made them hopeless of doing anything to the Muslims, there was only one thing that they always relied on, it was only that Muhammad had no children; he had no son to take the ruler-ship after him, to be his successor, to protect Islam and the Muslims.
It is obvious that the perfection of the laws and commands of a religion, no matter how strong it is, it cannot stand on its own. None of the divine traditions and the religions has remained by itself as fresh as it was in the start, neither by its greatness nor by the followers of that religion. It was saved only by the capable rulers and sympathetic successors.
Now, it has become clear by what has been said so far that the disbelievers' despair would increase by Allah appointing a Successor to support the religion of Allah and the tradition of the Messenger by guiding people to the straight path.
In this case, when the disbelievers noticed that the religion was getting stronger by transferring it to a successor and was growing larger and stronger in this way. So, this is the perfection of the religion and the completion of the blessing.
It is likely that the noble verse in the chapter of Cow, which already was mentioned:

وَدَّ كَثيرٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَبِ لَوْ يرُدُّونَكُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفّارًا حَسَدًا مِن عِندِ أنفُسِهِمْ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَينَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ فَأعْفُوا وَ أَصْفَحُوا حَتَّى يأْتِى اللَهُ بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللَهَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْ‏ءٍ قَدِير

'…many of the people of the Book – though the truth had become clear to them – wished in the jealousy of their souls, after you had believed, to turn you back into disbelief. So, forget and disregard it until Allah brings His command, surely Allah is powerful over everything, (Qur'an: 2/109);'

Here, as this verse includes the clause "حَتَّى يأْتِى اللَهُ بِأَمْرِه" it points to the very meaning. It means when the command of Allah comes the believers get free from the greed of the disbelievers; that is the same Guardianship of the Commander of the believers, Ali bin Abī Tālib, by which the religion becomes strong and stable.
And the reliable examples to our claim are the narratives relating to the verse of Ghadir-e-Khum which was revealed on the 18th of Dhul-Hijja, the year tenth of the immigration, concerning the Guardianship of Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, the Commander of the believers. Therefore, the two sentences of:

اليوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم

اليوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُم وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيكُمْ نِعْمَتِى‏

are quite related to each other, and there remains not a single inaccuracy in their coming together.
And as the meaning of "despair" is understood in the verse, now, we can gather that the word "
الیوم", in the verse, is the adverb of time for the يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا. It presents the position of the verse which is sent on that day, because it is right time the religion changed from the personal form to the attribute of the stability.
The gracious verse
اليوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم is stating a double-faced genesis command: a phase pointing to the case and another phase indicates caution, which refers to the affairs of the present time, because it includes the abundance of blessing which is the cause for the despair of the disbelievers from the religion of the believers. And the meaning of الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا singles out the disbelievers of the Jews, Christians, and the Magian and so on.

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The meaning of "fearing Allah" being afraid of the position of the Guardianship
However, the negative imperative
فَلا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَ اخْشَون‏ is an advice of guidance but not a command. It means that: now, after the despair of the disbelievers which you were always disposed to danger, you have nothing to worry about. Because after being hopeless of achieving something, a disbeliever loses hopes continuing his effort; he understands that he can never achieve what he wanted. So, you believers are safe and protected from the disbelievers, so there is no need being afraid of them – thus, do not fear them, but fear me!
And for the circumstances of the style of the verse
فَلا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَ اخْشَون‏, 'do not fear them but fear me,' it is understood that he states: you must just fear me instead of fearing the disbelievers; and it means your fear must be only for the fear of the loss of religion but not anything else.
In other words, you must fear me for the sake of losing your religion. And this sentence is a kind of threatening for the listeners; therefore, we have not taken it as the obligation.
The example for this statement is that: it is always necessary to be afraid of Allah; there is no specific time and occasion for it.
If there was no fight then there would be no "
فَلا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَ اخْشَون‏". So this especial fright is different from the common fright which every believer has, it is a command of a specific kind of discipline. Now, it must be considered to know what kind of fright it is. And what are the cause, necessity, the command and this fright in the noble verse?
There is no doubt that these two cases in the verse, the first one:
اليوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم and the second one: اليوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُم وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيكُمْ نِعْمَتِى‏ in this verse are related to each other, and they are together form a single compound statement. Therefore, the religion that Allah perfected on that day, as well as the blessing He completed are both a unique fact done by the Creator – the very thing that the disbeliever were looking after, and the believers were in fright of the disbelievers because of that. However, Allah made the disbelievers hopeless to transgress it, and He completed and perfected it; and He commanded them to be afraid of the disbelievers just because of penetrating it!
So Allah perfected the very thing that He commanded the believers to be afraid of. And the fright that Allah enjoined the believers to be afraid of is that: Allah might take the religion from them which there was a great loss.
And we know that has commanded in the Glorious Qur'an: 'there is no any reason to Allah to cut His blessing from a nation unless they are ingratitude; and He has warned the ingratitude and stated:

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَهَ لَمْ يكُ مُغَيراً نِعْمَة أَنْعَمَهَا عَلَى قَوْمٍ حَتَّى يغَيرُوا مَا بِأنْفُسِهِمْ وَ أَنَّ اللَهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيم.[63]

'…this is because Allah does not change a blessing after He has granted to a people unless they change what they have in [their] minds – for sure Allah is the Absolute Knowing Hearer, (Qur'an: 8/53).'

He also states:

وَ مَن يبَدِّلْ نِعْمَة اللَهَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُ فَإِنَّ اللَهَ شَدِيدٌ الْعِقَاب.‏[64]

'…and he who changes Allah's blessing after it has come to him, [should know that] Allah is strict in retribution, (Qur'an: 2/211).'

And in the Glorious Qur'an, Allah, the Creator, strikes a common similitude concerning His blessing to the creatures and also the consequence of their ungratefulness; He states:

وَ ضَرَبَ اللَهُ مَثَلًا قَرْية كَانَتْ ءَامِنَة مُطْمَئِنَّة يأْتِيهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَدًا مِن كُلِّ مَكَانٍ فَكَفَرَ بِأَنعُمِ اللَهِ فَأَذَاقَهَا اللَهُ لِبَاسَ الْجُوعِ وَ الْخَوْفِ بِمَا كَانُوا يصْنَعُون.‏[65]

'…and Allah has struck a similitude about a township that dwelt secure and peaceful; their livelihood was brought to them comfortably from every quarter. Yet the people of it disbelieved in the favour of Allah, and Allah let them experience a pall of hunger and fear because of what they were producing, (Qur'an: 16/112).'

Therefore, what is said so far, the verse: اليوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم up to the sentence رَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإسْلَمَ دِينًا announces that: the Muslims are in security against the disbelievers, and they are immune that no danger from them threads them, there is no way for the disbelievers to penetrate the Muslims' affairs unless the Muslims give them a chance to do so. And this affliction comes to them only by their being ingratitude and forsake this perfect religion. In that case, Allah takes away His blessing from them, He replace His affluence with poverty and let them to put the garment of poverty, despair and misery!
Yes, the Muslims did so and Allah too let them see the consequence by changing His blessing to misery. If one is eager to know the amount of the truth and the sum of prophecy of the unseen in this verse which is obtained by the command: "
فَلا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَ اخْشَون‏", he must consider the present situation of the Islam and then refer back to the beginning of the Islam. One must refer to the history, read it attentively and see the chains of the events until to fine out the roots of the case after the demise of the Messenger of Allah.

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The difference of "Perfection" and "Completion" in the "Perfection of religion" and "Completion of Blessings"
Now, as we understood the meaning of the "
یوم" 'day', it is time we learned the meaning of 'perfection and completion'. Raqib Isfahani, in the "مفردات القرآن", the 'Dictionary of the Qur'an' says": "كمَالُ الشّى‏ءٍ حُصُولُ مَا هُوَ الغَرَضُ مِنْه‏" 'the perfection of a thing, is getting that which is expected getting of that word.'

وَ تَمَامُ الشّى‏ءِ انّتَهَاؤُهُ إلَى حَدٍ لا يحْتَاجُ إلَى شَى‏ءٍ خَارجٍ عَنْهُ. وَ النَّاقِصُ مَا يحْتَاجُ إلَى شَى‏ءٍ خَارجٍ عَنْه.‏

And the perfection of a thing is that 'a thing needs no more to be perfected; and the defect is that which needs something to be perfected.
And to perfect the meaning of this, we say: The affections of things are of two kinds: one is the affection that is derived from one thing; when all parts of that thing are ready but only one is missing, or it is lacking of a condition, that affection is not completed, for example as fasting, if a person breaks the limit and eats just a little time of a whole fasting period then his fast is void. So any similar thing is attributed as to be of valid, and is called complete, as the verse:

ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيامَ إِلَى الْلَّيل.‏ [66]

'Then, complete fast till the evening approaches, (Qur'an: 2/187).' And like the verse:

وَ تَمَّتْ كَلِمَة رَبِّكَ صِدْقًا وَ عَدْلا[67]

'…and perfect is the Word of your [Creator and Nurturer] Lord in truth and justice, (Qur'an: 6/115).'

And another one is the perfection of a thing without being all parts of together. The all parts are considered the result of that affection. Every part carries the meaning of that affection with it, and if all the parts come together again it carries the same affection, as:

فَمَن لَمْ يجِدُ فَصِيامُ ثَلَاثَة أيامٍ فِى الحَجِّ وَ سَبْعَة إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَة كَامِلَة [68]

'…so one who [performs the enjoyable Hajj and] cannot find offering, should fast three days during the Hajj Pilgrimage and seven days when he is back – that means ten, (Qur'an: 2/196).'

Here we know that any day can make the whole perfection, and that is, every day is the necessary perfection by its own.
And it is obtained that in the verse:
الْيوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُم وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيكُم نِعْمَتِى‏ the word " دِينَكُم ", 'your religion', includes the whole legislated knowledge, laws and commands, and only one item is added to that. Blessing, by its own, is a single spiritual affair but it was not yet perfected until that specific Day that it was completed.

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The purpose of blessing is the Guardianship
And blessing includes something that it goes with nature and nature never rejects it. And the existing things in the world, if supposedly, they are related to each other, most of them or even all are considered as blessing; as Allah has stated:

وَ إِن تَعِدُّوا نِعْمَة اللَهِ لا تُحْصُوهَا.[69]

'…and if you want to count the bounty(s) of Allah, you would never reckon them, (Qur'an: 14/34).'

And He has stated:

وَ أسْبَغَ عَلَيكُم نِعَمَهُ ظَاهِرَة وَ بَاطِنَة [70]

'…and He bestowed His favour upon you, both publicly and privately, (Qur'an: 31/20).'

However, Allah has branded out some of them as evil, meanness, debauchery and other wicked attributes, as He states in this verse:

وَ مَا هَذِهِ الْحَيوة الدُّنيا إِلا لَهْوٌ وَ لَعِبٌ وَ إِنَّ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَة لَهِى الْحَيوانُ لَوْ كَانُوا يعْلَمُون [71]

And the life of this world is nothing more than amusement and game, surely the Last Abode is Life, but if only they knew, (Qur'an: 29/64).' ‏

And similar the verse of:

لَا يغُرَّنَّكَ تَقَلُّبُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِى الْبِلادِ. مَتَاعٌ قَلِيلٌ ثُمَّ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَ بِئْسَ الْمِهَاد [72]

Let not ‘the disbelievers' bustling in towns' deceive you.
[It is] a brief enjoyment, and then their refuge will be Hell which is indeed the worst resting place, (Qur'an: 3/196-197).' ‏

And these verses indicating the things that are considered as blessings are such attributes that Allah has created them to be agreeable with man's desires. They have been created so that as the divine assistance for mankind. They are for man as guidance to lead them on their way to the right path which is the very nearness to the Holiness Beloved, the Glorious and Exalted; to attain genuine servitude and humbleness in front of his Creator. Allah states:

وَ مَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَ الْإنْسَ إِلَّا لِيعْبُدُون[73]

'…and I have not created jinn and men but only to worship Me, (Qur'an: 51/56).' ‏

Thus, whatever man attains and then uses it in the way of getting closer to the Greatness of his Creator, and receiving His affection, is called 'blessing and privilege'. However, if he uses it in the wrong path, it becomes, what is called, adversity.
According to this, nothing on its own is considered to be privilege or adversity. When they are used in the right way, in such a way that to lead mankind to his Creator, they are called blessings; in other words, blessing is in fact the very Sanctity of Allah. And whatever is attributed to the blessing, it includes the sanctity, which is the servitude. Allah states:

اللَهُ وَلِى الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا يخْرِجُهُمْ مِنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّور [74]

'…Allah is the Caring Guardian of the believers, and He leads them out of darkness into light, (Qur'an: 2/257).' ‏

And He sates:

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَهَ مَوْلَى الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا وَ أَنَّ الْكفِرِينَ لا مَوْلَى لَهُم [75]

'…that is because: Allah is the Protector of those who believe, while the disbelievers have not a protector, (Qur'an: 47/11).'

And He states concerning the sanctity and Guardianship of His Messenger:

فلا وَ رَبِّكَ لا يؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّى يحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَينَهُمْ ثُمَّ لا يجِدُوا فِى أَنفُسِهِمْ‏ حَرَجًا مِمَّا قَضَيتَ وَ يسَلِّمُوا تَسلِيمًا. [76]

'…but no, by your [Creator and Nurturer] Lord, they do not believe until they seek your arbitration in their dispute; then find within themselves no dislike [no doubt] the justice for your verdicts, and surrender in full obedience, (Qur'an: 4/65).' ‏

According to these verses and proofs, Islam is a set of comprehensive laws and commands – a religion – by Allah to invite the creatures to obedience of Him only. And worshipping Allah, obeying His Sanctity and believing in the Guardianship of His Messenger and those in the authorities after His Messenger, is blessing.
And the Charge of Allah, the Honorable and Exalted, that is, His sending the religion for the affairs of His creatures, cannot be perfect unless by the Guardianship of His Messenger. And the Guardianship of His Messenger cannot be completed unless by the Guardianship of those in authorities after him.
The policy of those in authorities concerning the affairs of the religion of the nations is by the permission of Allah, as He states:

يأيهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنوا أَطِيعُوا اللَهَ وَ أَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَ أُولِى الا مْرِ مِنُكُم.‏[77]

'…O you who believe, obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you, (Qur'an: 4/59).' ‏

And He states:

إِنَّمَا وَلِيكُمُ اللَهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا الَّذِينَ يقِيمُونَ الصَّلَوة وَ يؤْتُونَ الزَّكَوة وَ هُمْ رَاكِعُون [78]

Your protector is only Allah, and His Messenger and those who believe, establish prayer, and [like Ali, upon him be peace] pay the due welfare tax when bowing down [to pray], (Qur'an: 5/55).'

And concerning this generous verse, we had a detailed discussion in lesson seventy-two up to seventy-five of the 'Knowing the Imams' volumes five. [79]
So far, the result of our discussion is that the interpretation of the noble verse is that the word "
الیوم" means: the same day that the disbelievers were desperate of your religion, I sent the comprehensive laws and commands of the religion to you and completed it for you, and perfected My blessing to you by assigning the Guardianship upon the affairs of you. Before that, the Guardianship was only for Allah's and His Messenger, it was just enough as long as the revelations were sent down, but it became inadequate when the revelations stopped. And it was because that there were no more messengers to look after the religion of Allah and to avoid diverse calamities disturbing the religion. In this case, a successor was necessary for the Messenger, and he could be only a Guardian to be able to look after the nation after the Messenger.
In that case, the Guardianship at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was an incomplete legislation and it was perfected after assigning a Guardian by the Messenger.
Therefore, the verse means: 'Now that the legislation of the religion is completed, and the Guardianship is completed, I am pleased with you for having such a religion, the Islam which is based on the Monotheism, the religion that only Allah is worshipped, and apart from Allah and those whom Allah has assigned and lets them have authorities, no one is obeyed. No one is obeyed but the Messenger and those Custodians over your religion.'
This verse informs that after a long time the believers were afraid of not to be able to keep safe their religion, Allah is satisfied to assign the religion of Islam, which is based on the Monotheism, for them. So, it is their duty to worship Allah but not those whom Allah has not given authority to them.

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The verse of the completion of the religion is of the true copies of: وعدالله الذین آمنوا منکم
And by close attention to the particles of this verse:

الْيوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم، فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَ اخْشَوْنِ و از اليَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيكُم نِعْمَتِى وَ رَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإسْلَمَ دِينًا.

'…today, those who disbelieve are despair of [dividing] your religion, but do not fear them, just fear Me. Today, I have perfected your religion for you, and completed My favour upon you, and have granted Islam as a religion for you – a commitment to live in peace, (Qur'an: 5/3).'

And also by close attention to the chapter of "النّور", the Light, one gets to know that these are the right promise that Allah has made. Because He states:

وَعَدَ اللَهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّلِحَتِ لَيسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِى الأرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخ. لَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَ لَيمَكَنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الذّى ارتَضَى لَهُمْ وَ لَيبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا يعْبُدُونَنِى لَا يشْرِكُونَ بِى شَيْئًا وَ مَنْ كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْفَسِقُون

Allah has promised those of you who have believed and done good deeds to be [the present Rulers’] successors in the earth, just as He made those before you the exalted rulers; and that He will surely establish their religion for them, which He has approved for them, and will give them in exchange, after their fear, confidence.
So that they should worship Me and do not associate anything else with Me. And whoso disbelieves after that – they are indeed the ungodly, (Qur'an: 24/55).'

In these verses, we notice that Allah has promised the believers and those who do good deeds. And on top, He has promised them to settle in the earth, their fright to be changed into the security, the Guardianship, and being capable praying for the satisfaction of Allah – worshipping the Monotheism without ascribing anything to Him; as He states: " يعْبُدونَنِى لَا يشْرِكُونَ بِى شَيئا" So to worship Me without ascribing anything to Me. It is similar to the statement: وَ مَن كَفَرَ بَعْد ذَلِكَ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الفَسِقُون‏ ' And whoso disbelieves after that – they are indeed the ungodly, which means the same. Nevertheless, it is clearly notices in these clauses: الْيوْمَ يئِس، و اليوْمَ أكْمَلْتُ، وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيكُم، وَ رَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإسْلَمُ دِينًا that all these are due to the promise given. And the rightist promise of all will be the advent of the Holiness Existing of the Offspring of Muhammad the Proof, Son of al-Hassan al-Askari, May our souls be sacrificed to him.

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The meaning of الْيَوْمَ in the verse of الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُم is the Day of Ghadir
Thus, by whatever has been discussed so far, it becomes clear that the adverb of time which is specified for the completion of the religion and perfecting the divine blessing cannot be any day except the Day of Ghadi-e-Khum. This is taken from the exact meaning of the verse without any alteration. And we mentioned that those narratives of the Sunnites are mostly related by Omar who claims that the meaning of "
الیوم" is the Day of Arafa; however, as the text is against the Book, they are invalid. And Bukhari and Moslim's recording those narratives in their books does not mean they are right; as we already said, Bukhari and Moslim have not recorded the event of Ghadir. Thus, it can be understood how valueless these two books are; by knowing such a historical event they both have avoided putting them in their books. So, think of the so called rightfulness of these two books with the scholars of the Sunnite who have been referring to those since the Caliphate of Bani al-Abbas and even now – they derive the necessary laws and commands from those two books.
Apart from all these discussions, the narratives concerning the verse of
اليَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ which is about the Guardianship of Ali, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and have been recorded in more than twenty narratives by the Shiite and the Sunnite are all related to the verse of:

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

‘… O Prophet, announce what has been revealed to you by your Lord; for if you do not do so you have not conveyed His message. Allah protects you from people: surely Allah does not guide the disbelieving people, (Qur’an: 5/67).’

And that event exceeds twenty-five narratives by the Shiite and Sunnite; and all these narratives are related to the event of Ghadir: مَن كُنتُ مَوْلاهُ فَعَلِى مَوْلاه‏'Whomsoever I am Master, so is Ali his Master.' And as we already understood, the event of Ghadir has been successively related a hundred and ten times by the companions, quoting the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants. Besides the Shiite's scholars, great many of the Sunnite's scholars have confessed it and related them in their books.
All of them unanimously believe that: the event of Ghadir happened when the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was returning from Mecca to Medina, and it was nine days after the Day of Arafa. And similar to the friendship, this Guardianship and immunity, which the Qur'an has enjoined its importance and necessity in different occasions, is a religious duty among the other duties. Thus, it is not permitted its rule to be after the verse
اليوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ‏ لَكُمْ دِينَكُم‏. Therefore, the perfection verse has absolutely been revealed after the assignment of the Guardianship, and it cannot be on the Day of Arafa. And for this reason, the other similar narratives too lose their authentic and are not of most importance.

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The revelation of the verse of the completion of religion may be on the Day of Arafa but its propagation be on the Day of Ghadir

However, there is a point that it must be taken into the consideration, and it is: closely investigating the two verses, that is the verse:

يأايهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيك مِن رَبِّك و إِنْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رَسالَتَهُ،

And then the verse:

الْيوْمَ أكمَلْتُ لَكمْ دِينَكمْ وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيكمْ نِعْمَتى، وَ رَضِيتُ لَكمُ الْإسْلَمُ دِينًا.

Along investigating these two verses, exploring the other narratives concerning these verses commented by both the Shiite and the Sunnite. And then, looking into the successive narratives of the Ghadir, and also investigating to know the history and the condition of the Islamic society at the end of the life of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants. Deep and attentive investigation on these narratives and the history of Islam reveals the fact and makes one understand that the revelation of the verse was just few days before the Ghadir, but the Messenger was afraid of the people's disagreement and not accepting it. And then not only disagreeing with him but doubting about his Messenger-hood. It was the only reason he delayed to announce it until the Day of Ghadir the verse: يا أيهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيك was revealed and ended the Messenger's expectation. Therefore, is it permissible that Allah, the Honorable and Exalted, to reveal the great part of the Chapter of Maeeda, which includes: الْيوْمَ أكمَلْتُ لَكمْ دِينَكمْ along with the command of the Guardianship on the Day of Arafa, and then, the Generous Messenger, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, to delay announcing it until the Day of Ghadir! And the, to recited the Perfection Verse on the Day of Arafa!
But according to some of the narratives, it is likely that that the Perfection Verse was revealed on the Day of Ghadir, which means the revelation of the chapter was along with the Messenger's announcement of the Guardianship, because the perfection verse is about the Guardianship. Thus, the conjunction of these two groups of narratives – the narratives concerning the revelation of the perfection verse on the Day of Arafa, and the narratives about the revelation of the verse on the Day of Ghadir – wipes away the contradiction; for the negation is that the revelation of the verse is on the both: Arafa and Ghadir Days! However, there is no contradiction on its revelation on the Day of Arafa and its announcement of the Day of Ghadir. But that which has been written in the narratives of the Day of Arafa, that the verse refers to the perfection of the religion and laws and commands about the rites of Hajj and so on, are all the opinion of the writer but not the statements of the Messenger of Allah.
Anyhow, a witness on our way of grouping the narratives is another narrative that Ay'yashi quotes Ja‘far bin Muhammad bin Muhammad Khozaee, who is quoting his father relating it from the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, stating:

لَمَّا نَزَّلَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عَلَيه وَ آلِه وَ سَلَّمَ عَرَفاتٍ يوْمَ الْجُمُعَة أتَاهُ جَبْرَئيلِ فَقَالَ لَهُ: إنَّ اللهَ يقْرِئُك السَّلامُ وَ يقُولُ لَك: قُلْ لِامَّتِك: الْيوْمَ أَكمَلْتُ لَكمْ دِينَكمْ بِوَلاية عَلِى بْنِ أَبِى طالبِ؛ و أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيكم نِعْمَتِى وَ رَضِيتُ لَكمُ الْإسَلامَ دِينًا، وَ لَسْتُ أنْزِلُ عَلَيكمْ بَعْدَ هَذَا. قَدْ أَنزَلْتَ عَلَيكمْ الصَّلاة وَ الزَّكاة وَ الصَّوْمَ وَ الْحَجَّ، وَ هِى الْخَامِسَة، وَ لَسْتُ أقبَلُ هَذِهِ الأربَعَة إلا بِهَا.[80]

'When the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, reached the land of Arafat on Friday, Gabriel approached the Holiness and said: "Allah greets you and states: Announce it to your nation that: Today, by assigning Ali bin Abī Tālib as the Guardian, I have perfected your religion for you, and I have fulfilled My blessing for you, and I am pleased and satisfied that Islam to be your religion. And after this, I will not send you any command. I have sent you the rules and commands of prayer, fast, Zakat and Hajj, and this fifth one is also among them. Therefore, since now on, I will not accept any of those four from you without adding this fifth, the Guardianship to it."'

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The Jews' statement that: if the completion verse had revealed to us, we would calibrate on that day

Apart from these, there is another complexity in Omar's claiming that: 'this verse has been revealed on the Day of Arafa'. Because it has been written in all these narratives that Ka‘b[81] said to Omar:

إنَّ فى القُرآنِ آية لَوْ نَزَلَتْ مِثْلُهَا عَلَينَا مَعْشَر اليهُودِ لاتَّخَذنا اليوْمَ الَّذى نَزَلَتْ فيهِ عَيداً- و هِى قَولُهُ: اليوْمَ أَكمَلْتُ لَكم دِينَكم (الاية)- فقالَ عُمَر: و اللهِ إنِّى لاعْلَمُ اليوْمَ، وَ هُوَ يوْمُ عَرَفَهُ مِن حِجَّة الودَاع.[82]

'There is a verse in the Qur'an that if it had revealed to us, the Jews, we would celebrate the same day of its revelation, and that verse is: الْيوْمَ أكمَلْتُ لَكمْ دِينَكم.'
Omar said: 'By Allah, I know the same day it revealed on the Day of Arafa for the Farewell Pilgrimage.'
Then, ibn Rahweia and Abn bin Hamid have related it in the same style from Abu-al-Aaleia that: they were with Omar and their discussion continued up to this verse, a certain educated man said: 'If we knew on what day this verse has been revealed we would celebrate on that day.' Omar said:

الْحَمد للهِ الَّذى جَعَلَهُ لَنَا عِيداً وَ الْيوْمَ الثّانى، نَزَلَتْ يومَ عَرَفَة، وَ يَوْمُ الثَّانِى النَّحْرُ فَأكمَلَ لَنَا الْأمرَ فَعَلِمْنَا أنَّ الْأمْرَ بَعْدَ ذَلِك فِى انتقَاص.‏[83]

'Praise be to Allah that He assigned it as a festival to us – as well the second day.' This verse was revealed on the Day of Arafa, and the day after was the Feast of Sacrifice. Allah completed the affairs for us, and we knew that since then the command was declining. And in the book of "Ad-durr-al-Manthor", at the bottom of this verse, Siyu:ti has written it in different style from Abi Sheibat and ibn Jarir quoting Antara that: when the verse of الْيوْمَ أكمَلْتُ لَكمْ دِينَكم was revealed, it was the season for the Greater Hajj, the Day of the Festival for Sacrifice, and Omar cried. The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, asked: 'Why are you crying?'

قَالَ: أبكانِى أنَّا كنَّا فِى زِيادَة مِنْ دِينِنِا فَأمَّا إذْ كمُلَ فَإنَّهُ لَمْ يكمُل شَى‏ءٌ قَطُّ إلا نَقَصَ. قَالَ: صَدَقْت‏.[84]

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Rejecting the statements of the Sheikhs saying: the completion of the religion requires deficiency of the religion

Omar said: 'The cause of my cry is that up till now, we were always after abundance, but when the religion was perfected – nothing is being perfected without any decrease in it. Stated he: You are right!
And he also relates the same story, but in other style, in "Ad-durr-al-Manthor" from Ahmad bin Hanbal quoting Alghama bin Abdullah Moszni that he has said: 'A man told me: I was in the session of Omar Khattab and he said to a man from his tribe: 'How did you hear the Messenger of Allah explaining that?"'
The man answered:

سَمِعْتُ رَسولَ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم يقولُ: إنَّ الإسْلَامَ بَدَأ [85] جَدَعاً ثُمَّ ثَنِياً ثُمَّ رَبَاعِيا ثُمَّ سَدَسِيا ثُمَّ بَازلًا. قَالَ عُمَرُ: فَمَا بَعْدَ البُزُولِ إلّا النُقصان.[86]

'I heard the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, saying: 'In the beginning, Islam came to existence like a young animal, so young that it had no teeth in the mouth, then it grew up as the young of an animal having four teeth in the mouth. It still grew until it had, as a young animal four more teeth in the mouths; it still grew and was a young animal getting its maturity, then it grew and became as the animal – full with teeth in the mouth, perfect and without defection.'
Omar said: 'There is nothing after an animal becomes grown up and strong except it begins getting weaker and weaker.'
And in some of the Sunnite's narratives, it has been recorded that: When the verse for the perfection of the religion was revealed, Abu Bakr cried, and when they asked him the reason of his crying, he said: "Perfection is the sign of deteriorating!'

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The completion of the religion and all blessing are not perishable

Anyhow, the collection of these narratives proves that the meaning of the revelation of the verse on the Day of Arafa was an important event with Omar and Abu Bakr, as well as the people who had observed the advent of Islam and the greatness of the Hajj in Mecca; and had considered the comment of the perfection of the religion and fulfilling the blessing to be the pleasantness for the Muslims on the Day. It was because they had no religion before to be like Islam to live in peace and without being frightened of the disbelievers, to perform their Hajj rites.
In other words, the meaning of the perfection of the religion and fulfilling the whole blessing are the ideal thing they had achieved and were enjoying and putting them into practice. They did it without panicking the enemies; the enemies did not disturb them in practicing their religion, and the Muslims were not obliged to practice their old but false religion.
In short, for them the meaning of the religion was what they witnessed of the glory and the strength of Islam; it is this meaning that receives excessiveness and defection.
However, the whole rules, commands and the legislated laws that are send down by Allah have no excessiveness and defection. It is because that excessiveness and defection that has been mentioned:
إنَّهُ لَم يكمَلُ شَى‏ءٌ قَطُّ إلا نَقَص‏ is the natural and innovated tradition that naturally occurs in life. But the religion has nothing to do with such events; and the laws and rules of the religion never see alteration by that, except for those who say: Similar to other social laws and traditions, the religion is also variable.
Now that this subject is understood, it becomes clear that there are two difficulties in this method of thought.
The first one is: that which they have taking as the meaning of the religion, is not the real meaning of it; the statement of Allah, the Highest:
اليوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ‏ لَكُمْ دِينَكُم does not mean that.
And secondly, how can Allah call an uncompleted religion to be completed! And present it to the creatures? Whereas the surface of the earth is wiped out of the disbelievers and the Muslims can, without panic practice their religion, though there are still some Muslims among the people whose damage is even more than the disbelievers. This group is the hypocrites who always found their ways into the community of the Muslims by tricks and deceits. They constantly tried to create doubts among the Muslims and make them desperate in their new religion.
The hypocrites have many strange stories and they are put in many verses of the Qur'an as: the chapter of cow, the women, the heavenly food, the spoils, the repentance and the parties and in some others.
We know not how their community terminated, and they went out! How their tricks stopped! By the way, by the hypocrites being present, how Allah can remind His creatures of a favour of His on them by perfecting the religion and fulfilling His blessing for them? And above all, to be satisfied with the apparent of Islam while the enemies pushing out the Muslims from Mecca! We know that, by the witness of the Qur'an and the history, the hypocrites were more dangerous than the disbelievers to the Muslims and their religion. Allah's statement to His Messenger:

 هُمُ الْعَدُوُّ فَأحْذَرْهُم [88]

 'They, only they are the enemies, so beware of them,' proves our claim!.

How can you imagine that Allah's reminding His creatures of a favour by the appearance of His religion to be perfect but its Kernel void? Or He explains His blessing perfect while is not fulfilled yet. Or He declares His satisfaction however the fact is something else. While He states:

وَ مَا كنْتُ مُتَّخِذَّ المُضّلِّينَ عَضُدًا.[89]

'… I did not adopt those who lead others astray to be My supporters, (Qur'an: 18/51).' And concerning the hypocrites, their religion and behavior, He states:

فَإِنْ تَرَاضَوْا عَنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ اللَهَ لَا يرْضَى عَنِ الْقَوْمِ الْفَسِقِين[90]

'… [o Muslims,] even if you are pleased with them, Allah will never be pleased with the ungodly, (Qur'an: 9/96).' Also states He:

سَوَآءٌ عَليهِمْ أسْتَغْفَرْتَ لَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ لَنْ يغْفِرَ اللَهُ لَهُمْ إِنَّ اللَهَ لا يهْدِى الْقَوْمَ الْفَسِقِين[91]

'…it is all the same for them, whether you plead forgiveness for them or do not plead forgiveness for them, Allah will never forgive them! Surely Allah does not guide the ungodly, (Qur'an: 63/6).'

And He also states:

إسْتَغْفِر لَهُمْ أوْ لَا تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ إِنْ تَستْغْفِر لَهُم سَبْعِينَ مَرَّة فَلَنْ يغْفِرَ اللَهُ لَهُم [92]

'…whether you ask forgiveness for them or you not ask it for them [it is the same, even if] you ask forgiveness for them seventy times over, Allah would never forgive them, (Qur'an: 9/80).'

And besides, the verse gives way to the completion of the religion, the fulfillment of blessing and it binds the satisfaction of Allah to Islam in some way or another; for example, apart from inwardly, it does apparently; and does not do that other than the real meaning.
And as we already mentioned it, the verse of 'completion of the religion' is drawn from the verse:
وَعَدَ اللَهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا مِنكمْ وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَات‏, and in that verse the main addressees are the whole Muslims whose inward and outward actions are in harmony; their apparent actions are whatever the real Islam commands and are the same religious laws and commands that Allah has legislated.
Therefore, the meaning of the 'completion of the religion' with them is the completed facts of the religion, legislated by Allah His Own, then after putting it in the shape of 'Religious Legislation' He has send it down altogether so that to settle in the hearts of the believers, and enable them to worship Allah after their fright and despair from the disbelievers has waded away.
And this is the same meaning that we already mentioned: the meaning of the perfection of the religion is its completion by the Precept of Allah, and that there remains no more religious duty after its revelation, nor is there any change in the Muslims fulfilled religious duties. In short and simple explanation, the meaning of the 'completion of the religion' is its gradual improving, so in this way, there remains no defection in the perfection.

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The occurring of the completion verse, among the prohibited verses, is a strange thing taking place

And the surprising discussion in the glorious verse of:

الْيوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كفَرُوا مِن دِينِكمْ وَ الْيوْمَ أكمَلْتُ لَكمْ دِينَكم،

'…today those who disbelieve are despair of your religion, and today I perfected your religion,' up to the sentence of:

وَ رَضِيتُ لَكمُ الإِسْلَمُ دِينًا.

'…and I am satisfied the Islam to be your religion,' is that although we had enough discussion on this verse, and its relation with the Guardian became quite clear, how this is put in the middle of the verse of the prohibition of food; for the beginning of the verse says:

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيكمُ الْمَيتَة وَ الدَّمُ وَ لَحْمُ الْخِنزِيرِ وَ مَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيرِ اللهِ بِهِ وَ المُنخَنِقَةُ وَ المَوْقُوذَةُ وَ الْمُتَرديةُ وَ النَّطِيحَةُ وَ مَا أَكلَ السَّبُعُ إِلا مَا ذَكَّيْتُم وَ مَا ذُبِحَ عَلَى النُّصُبِ وَ أَنْ تَسْتَقْسِمُوا بِالأزْلام ذَلِكمْ فِسق

'…forbidden to you are: carrion, and blood and pork, and whatever has been dedicated to something apart from Allah, And whatever has been strangled, beaten to death, trapped in a pit, gored, and what some beast of prey has commenced to eat, unless you [find it alive and] give it the final blow; and [also] what has been slaughtered before the idols, or what you divide up in a raffle; that is transgressing, (Qur'an: 5/3).'
And then, He has explained the verse in this way that:

الْيوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم، فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَ اخْشَوْنِ،
اليَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَ أَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيكُم نِعْمَتِى وَ رَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإسْلَمَ دِينًا.

'…today, those who disbelieve are despair of [dividing] your religion, but do not fear them, just fear Me. Today, I have perfected your religion for you, and completed My favour upon you, and have granted Islam as a religion for you – a commitment to live in peace, (Qur'an: 5/3).' And after this verse, He has stated the exceptions concerning the prohibition of eating by this sentence:

فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِي‌ مَخْمَصَةٍ غَيْرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ لاء‌ثْمٍ فَإِنَّ اللَهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ [94]

'…however, one who is really starving provided not deliberately sinning, [can appease hunger], for Allah is the Merciful Forgiving, (Qur'an: 2/173).' ‏

By close concentration in the beginning and the end of the verse, that is: "حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيكمُ الْمَيتَة" and: " فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ فِى مَخْمَصَة ", is understood that this announcement is a complete statement and never is related to the sentence: الْيوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم up to the end of the verse: وَ رَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإسْلَمَ دِينًا.
And in conveying the meaning is similar to the verses in the chapters of the Cow, the Cattle and the Bee; and the prohibition of the food has been clearly explained.
The verse in the chapter of the Cow is as:
إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيكمُ الْمَيتَة وَ الدَّمَ وَ لَحْمَ الْخِنزِيرِ وَ مَا أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيرِ اللَه‏ '…He has forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and the flesh of pig, and anything that has been consecrated to something apart from Allah; and the exception to it is:

فَلا إثْمَ عَلَيهِ إِنَّ اللَهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيم.ٍ[95]

'…however, one who is really starving provided not deliberately sinning, [can appease hunger], for Allah is the Merciful Forgiving, (Qur'an: 2/173).' ‏ The verse, in the chapter of the Cattle, is:

قُلْ لَا أَجِدُ فِى مَا أَوحِى إِلَى مُحَرَّمًا عَلَى طَاعِمٍ يطْعَمُهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يكونَ مَيتَة أَوْ دَمًا مَسْفُوحًا أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنْزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيرِ اللَهِ بِه،‏

'…say, ‘I do not find, in what has been revealed to me, anything forbidden for one needing to eat, unless it is something that has died; or the blood outpoured, or pork that is so filthy: or a sinful offering that has been consecrated to something apart from Allah; And the exception to it is that:

فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيرَ بَاغٍ وَ لا عَادٍ فَإنَّ رَبَّك غَفُورٌ رَحِيم.‏

'…however, one who is really starving provided not deliberately sinning, [can appease hunger], for Allah is the Merciful Forgiving, (Qur'an: 6/145).' ‏

And in the chapter of Bee it appears as:

إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيكمُ المَيتَة وَ الدَّمَ وَ لَحْمَ الْخِنزِيرِ وَ مَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيرِ اللَهِ بِه

'…He has forbidden you only carrion, blood, and pork. As well as anything, that has been consecrated to something apart from Allah;

And the exception to it is that:

فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيرَ بَاعٍ وَ لا عَادٍ فَإِنَّ اللَهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيم.‏ [96]

'…however, one who is really starving provided not deliberately sinning, [can appease hunger], for Allah is the Merciful Forgiving, (Qur'an: 16/115).' ‏

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The verse of perfection of the religion and the fulfillment of blessing have their own independent meaning and containing

In these entire four chapters, (the Heavenly Food, the Cow, the Cattle and the Bee) we see that Allah has stated the prohibitions of food in the same style, and He also has stated the permission of eating in the case of necessity. That which has upset the style and has created gaps between the prohibition of eating and the permission for eating it are the verses of: الْيوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم '…today, those who disbelieve are despair of [dividing] your religion, up to the part: وَ رَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإسْلَمَ دِينًا. '…and have granted Islam as a religion for you – a commitment to live in peace, (Qur'an: 5/3),' which is in the verse of the Heavenly Food which forming the exception sentence between the food prohibitions; it has made a separation between two sentences which both explain one idea – however, these two sentences have nothing to do with this parenthetical sentence.
They have put gap between these two sentences so that not to be taken them as: the meaning of that day when the disbelievers were despair of the Muslims' religion, the Muslims should not be afraid of them, but fear Allah; and the day which Allah has perfected, and fulfilled His blessing on the same day that therein the command of: an animal falling down the cliff and dies, or dies by beating to death, has been issued. They have commented on this less important 'animals' death' so that to wipe out the main meaning of the sentence which is about the Guardianship; to distract the attentions of the people from that important part. They have tried to stop people searching for the real meaning of the sentence, and to imagine that the perfection verse and the fulfillment of the blessing, which are the completion of the Islam, and Allah is pleased by that, are all common problems such as: discussion with the disbelievers, and their food being permissible for the Muslims to eat, and similar less important problems.
And our main discussion is that: this opposing statement
الْيوْمَ يئِسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن دِينِكُم is a parenthetical sentence in the middle of the verse. The verse, by its own, has the full meaning and needs nothing to add to its meaning. It makes no difference whether you say: it is in the middle of the verse, and it has been there between from the beginning to separate the two parts of the prohibition verse, or you say: the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, has ordered those the writers of the revelations to put that parenthetical sentence in between the two parts of the verse. In either case, it does not make any difference; the parenthetical statement is considered redundant and has nothing to do with the main verse.
In any case, the sentence of …
الْيوْمَ يئِسَ is an independent statement , and by close consideration, it becomes clear that it stands by its own, and its appearance in the verse does not change the meaning.
Abd bin Hamid has extracted it from Sha‘bi that this verse …
اليَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, in Arafa; and whenever a verse seemed to be more surprising to the Messenger, he placed it in the beginning of a certain chapter – and Gabriel instructed him how to fulfill the Hajj rites. [97]
However, it might be that after the demise of the Messenger, those who were arranging the Qur'an, to put it where it is; especially the narratives that have been related by the Sunnite concerning the revelation of the verse of …
اليَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُم, on the Day of Arafa, as we already said, was done by Omar, Mua‘wiyah,[98] Samorat bin Jondab and Ali bin Abī Tālib; and among them, the situation of Samorat bin Jondab is clear! And in this case, mentioning Ali bin Abī Tālib among the narrators is proving their claim! Peace be upon you O Aba -al-Hassan, and May Allah's peace and blessing be upon you!

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The elegy of Molla Ali attributing the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace
Now, at the final part of our discussion, it is time we brought a selected elegy of the sage, highly respected Molla Ali Khoee Hzarbaijani, which has been composed on the attribution of the Master Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, – it is composed according to the style and the natural disposition of the men of wisdom:

1. ها عَلِى بَشَرُّ كيفُ بَشَرْ             رَبُّهُ فِيهِ تَجَلَّى وَ ظَهَرْ
2. مَا هُوَ اللهُ وَ لَكنْ مَثَلًا             مَعَهُ اللهُ كنَارٍ وَ حَجَرْ
3. عَلَّة الكوْنِ وَ لَوْلاه لَمَا             كانَ لِلْعَالَمِ عَينٌ وَ أثَر
4. وَ لَهُ أبْدِعَ مَا تَعْقِلُهُ             مِنْ عَقُولٍ وَ نُفُوسٍ وَ صُوَرْ
5. فَلَك فِى فَلَك فِيهِ نُجُومْ             صَدَفٌ فِى صَدَفٍ فِيهِ دُرَرْ
6. جِنسُ الأجناس عَلِى وَ بَنُوهُ             نَوْعٌ الانواعِ إلى الحَادِى عَشَرْ
7. كلُّ مَن مَاتَ وَ لَمْ يعْرِفُهُمُ             مَوْتُهُ مَوتُ حِمَارٍ وَ بَقَرْ
8. لَيسَ مَنْ أذْنَبَ يوماً بِإمَامْ             كيفَ مَن أشرَك دَهْراً وَ كفَرْ
9. قَوْسُهُ قَوْسُ نُزُولِ وَ عُرُوجْ             سَهْمُهُ سَهْمُ قَضَاءِ وَ قَدَرْ
10. أيهَا الخَصْمُ تَذَكرْ سَنَداً             مَتْنُهُ صَحَّ بِنَصِّ وَ خَبَرْ
11. إذ أتَى أحْمَدُ فِى خُمِّ غَدِيرْ             بِعَلِى وَ عَلَى الرَّحْلِ نَبَرْ
12. قَالَ: مَنْ كنْتُ أَنَا مَوْلاهُ             فَعَلِى لَهُ مَوْلى وَ مَفَرّ
13. أسَدُ اللهِ إذَا صَالَ وَ صَاحْ             أبو الايتَامِ إذَا جَادَ وَ بَرّ
14. حُبُّهُ مَبْدَأ خُلْدٍ وَ نَعِيمْ             بُغْضُهُ مَنشأُ نَارٍ وَ سَقَرْ
15. مَن لَهُ صَاحِبَة كالزَّهْرآءْ             وَ سَلِيلُ كشُبَيرٍ وَ شَبَرْ
16. عَنْهُ دِيانُ عُلُومٍ وَ حِكمْ             فِيهِ طُومارُ عِظاة وَ عِبَرْ
17. بُوتُرابٍ وَ كنوزُ الْعَالَم             عِندَهُ نَحْوُ تُرابٍ وَ مَدَرْ
18. ظَلَّ مَا عَاشَ بِجُوعٍ وَ صِيامْ             بزاتَ مَا حَى بِدَمْعٍ وَ سَهَرْ
19. كلَّمَا أحْزَنَهُ الدَّهْرُ سَلَ             أينَمَا اسْتَضْعَفَهُ اليومَ صَبَرْ
20. نَاقَة اللَهِ فِيا شُقْوَة مَنْ             مَا رَعَاهَا فَتَعَاطَى فَعَقَرْ [99]

1- 'Yes, Ali is a man, human, but how great of human,
Within him is his Lord, though a man is but Ali!
2- He isn't that Creator, but is instance of Allah,
Within him, like glow in rock, is Allah.
3- The truth of genesis sprouted just for Ali
Guardian was he, so was he the true sign of Allah.
4- Whatever you meditate, let's say it is: Jinn, man,
And a thing, not a doubt, is created for Ali!
5- He's a firmament within a firmament full of stars
A pearl, within the Mother Pearl, is placed Ali.
6- Genuine basis is he; sons of his are limbs of father
Up to the last one, the Existing, the eleventh son of Ali;
7- He who dies but never knows those, innocents,
His death is as the death of donkey dying in a valley.
8- One cannot be an Imam if he commits sins in a day
Then, one who does ever sins can be Imam for the ally?
9- His bow is high flying one so is it down-come a bow,
The arrow shot away is mishap, and is known misery,
10- O opponent, present you a proof that to be like
As the text of the Messenger, as well as text of Allah;
11- He whom Ahmad represented in Ghadie-e-Khum Caliph
Was cousin of his, the righteous and the most sincere: Ali!
12- Whoever I am the Master to, let him know later on
Master of his, and the rest, is my beloved, this Ali.
13- In battlefield, in his anger, he appears as lion to "Him"
For an orphan is father, kind and the most generous Ali.
14- His affection is the main source of Heaven,
Hell is up there by the wrath, and sharp anger of Ali!
15- Who on earth can have his wife as?
And to have sons as Hussein and Hassan, except that Ali!
16- The book of facts, knowledge, wisdom and all:
Sermons, advice, lessons, admonitions are by Ali.
17- Though he was called: 'son of dust' doweling on dust but,
The riches of universe meant nothing in his sight.
18- He ran his life in hunger, prayer, always fast,
Sat awake in middle of nights, weeping hard Ali;
19- When evil world saddened him, he remained in silence,
When the world subdued him, then tolerated it Ali.
20- She-camel-like to Allah was he, then, o you the wretched Mistreated you camel not, maltreated you Ali!

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The poems of Abu Bakr ibn Ghoraia about the afflictions of the Holiness Master of the martyrs, upon Him be Peace, happened him on the Day of Saghifa

And how nice and meaningful has Abu Bakr Ghoraiee composed some elegies concerning the unveiling of the secrets and treacheries of the Caliphs; and he has stated the consequence of that by showing that if they had not stood against the innocent Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, the arrow of Hamale would not touch the trout of Ali Asghar on the Day of Aashura. Ali bin Isa Erbili has brought this nice elegy in his book: [100]

1. يا مَن يسَائِلُ دَائِباً عَنْ كلِّ مُعْضَلَة سَخيفَة             لا تَكشِفَنَّ مُغَطَّئاً فَلَرُبَّمَا كشَفْتَ جِيفَة
2. وَ لَرُبَّ مَسْتُورٍ بَدَا كاطَّبْلُ مِنْ تَحْتِ الْقَطِيفَة             إنَّ الْجَوابَ لَحَاضِرٌ لَكنَّنِى أخْفِيهِ خِيفَة
3. لَوْ لَا اعْتِدَاءُ رَعِية ألْقَى سِياسَتَهَا الخَلِيفَةْ             وَ سُيوفٌ أعْدَاءِ بِهَا هَامَاتِنَا أبْدَا نَقِية
4. لَنَشْرْتُ مِنْ أسْرارِ آل مُحَمَّدٍ جُمَلًا طِريفَة             تُغْنيكمُ عَمَّا رَوَاهُ مَالِك وَ أبوُ حَنِيفَة
5. وَ أرَيتُكمْ أنَّ الْحُسَينَ اصِيبَ فِى يوْمِ السَّقِيفَة             وَ لأى حَالٍ لُحِّدَتْ بِاللَّيلِ فَاطِمَة الشَّرِيفَة
6. وَ لِمَا حَمَتْ شَيخَيكمُ عَنْ وَطْى حُجُرَتِهَا المُنِيفَة             أوَّه لِبِنَتِ مُحَمَّدٍ مَاتَتْ بُغْصَّتِهَا أسِيفَة [101]

1- O you who are always asking of any tiring and complicated problems, try not to unveil this hidden secret, for if you do so, then you are unveiling an old rotten carrion!
2- How often a thing is veiled, just like the sound of a drum covered with a peach of cloth so that only the covering is seen. In fact, the answer to your question is with me; however, I fear to reveal it.
3- If there were no aggressions on the a peasant who is under the control by the Caliph, and if there weren't the unsheathed swords over us;
4- I would surely reveal some unrevealed secrets about the offspring of Muhammad; the things that would wipe out whatever Malik and Abu Hanifa have said to you so far.
5- And I would show you, (I would make it crystal clear to you), that Hussein was cut into pieces with the swords, on the Day of Saghifa. For what reason they buried Fatima in the pitch darkness of that night!
6- And for what reason Fatima avoided those two Sheikhs of yours (Abu Bakr and Omar) to enter her lofty room to visit her? Alas be on the daughter of Muhammad who passed away in sorrow!
It is recorded in Sahih Bokhari that Ali buried Fatima in the middle of the night, he performed the last prayer over her corpse without letting Abu Bakr know it.
And Ali bin Borhan-ad-Din Hussein Shafiee says:

وَ قَالَ الوَاقِدِى: وَ ثَبَتَ عِنْدَنَا أنَّ عَلِيا- كرَّمَ اللهُ وَجْهَهُ- دَفَنَهَا- رَضِى اللهُ عَنْهَا- لَيلًا وَ صَلَّى عَلَيهَا وَ مَعَهُ العَبَّاسُ وَ الْفَضْلُ- رَضِى اللهُ عَنْهُمْ- وَ لَمْ يعْلَمُوا بِهَا أَحَدا.[103]

WAa‘ghedi says: it has become clear to us that Ali, Upon Him be Peace, buried Fatima in the middle of the night, and he himself prayed over her corpse. Abbas and his son, Fazl, May Allah be pleased with them, were also with Ali; they did not invite anyone for the burial of Fatima.
And in "Rijal", Sheikh Hurr Aamoli has quoted Zerarat, and has quoted his father, Abu Ja‘far, quoting his grandfather who has related Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, saying:

ضَاقَتِ الْأرْضُ بِسَبْعَة بهِمْ تُرْزَقُونَ وَ بِهِم تُنْصَرُونَ وَ بِهِمْ تُمْطَرُونَ؛ مِنْهُمْ سَلْمَانُ وَ المِقْدَادُ وَ أبُو ذَرٍّ وَ عَمَّارٌ وَ حُذَيفَة- رَحْمَة اللهِ عَلَيهِمْ- وَ أَنا إمَامُهُمْ. وَ هُمُ الَّذِينَ صَلُّوا عَلَى فَاطِمَة.[104]

'There are seven great and majesty people that the earth is too weak and unable to accept them, and it is because of them that the earth brings forth nourishment for you! And it receives assistance! And it rains upon you! They are: Salman, Mighdad, Abizar, Ammar and Hozaifa, May Allah bless them all, all of them prayed over the corpse of Fatima; and I am your Imam.'

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[53] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 69.
[54] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 109.
[55] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 217.
[56] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 100.
[57] Surah 61, "صف", Verses 9 & 10.
[58] Surah 40. "غافر", Verse 14.
[59] Surah 38, "ص", Verse 6.
[60] Surah 68, "قلم", Verse 9.
[61] Surah 17, "اسراء", Verse 74.
Surah 108, "کوثر", Verse 3.
Surah 8, "انفال", Verse 53.
[64] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 211.
Surah 16, "نحل", Verse 112.
[66] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 187.
Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 115.
[68] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 196.
Surah 14, "ابراهیم", Verse 34.
[70] Surah 31, "لقمان", Verse 20.
Surah 29, "عنکبوت", Verse 64.
[72] Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 197.
Surah 51, "ذاریات", Verse 56.
[74] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 257.
[75] Surah 47, "محمد", Verse 11.
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 65.
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 59.
[78] Surah 5, "مائده", Verse 55.
[79] Pages 199 - 265.
[80] “تفسير عياشى‏”, volume 1, page 293. And this narrative has been put in “تفسير برهان‏”, volume 1, page 444; and in “بحار الأنوار”, Kompany’s publication, volume 9, page 306.
[81] “الدُّرُّ المنثور”, volume 2, page 258.

[82] “الدُّرُّ المنثور”, volume 2, page 258. And “تفسير المنار”, volume 6, page 155. In his commentary book, printed by Mozaf’fari, Abu-al-Fotoh Razi relates the narrative in volume 2, page 98 as: ‘They have narrated from Tarigh bin Shahab saying: “A Jew went to Omar bi al-Khat’tab and said: a verse was sent down to your Messenger that if it had been sent to us, we would celebrate that day.’ Omar asked what day it was. He said: It was الْيوْمَ أَكمَلْتُ لَكمْ دِينَكم‏. Omar said: ‘I know when and where this verse was sent. We were in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, bless be to him and his Descendants, and it was a festival, and will remain the same until the Day of Resurrection!’ Therefore, the narrative is not for the day of Arafa, it is most probable that the festival was for the very Day of Ghadir-e-Khum.
[83] “الدُّرُّ المنثور”, volume 2, page 258. And “تفسير المنار”, volume 6, page 155. In his commentary book, printed by Mozaf’fari, Abu-al-Fotoh Razi relates the narrative in volume 2, page 98 as: ‘They have narrated from Tarigh bin Shahab saying: “A Jew went to Omar bi al-Khat’tab and said: a verse was sent down to your Messenger that if it had been sent to us, we would celebrate that day.’ Omar asked what day it was. He said: It was الْيوْمَ أَكمَلْتُ لَكمْ دِينَكم‏. Omar said: ‘I know when and where this verse was sent. We were in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, bless be to him and his Descendants, and it was a festival, and will remain the same until the Day of Resurrection!’ Therefore, the narrative is not for the day of Arafa, it is most probable that the festival was for the very Day of Ghadir-e-Khum.
[84] “الدّرُّ المنثور”, volume 2, page 258, “تفسير ابن كثير”, volume 2, page 489, and “تفسير طبرى‏”, volume 6, page 80.

[85] These “بَدَأ، يبْدَأ” have been used in transitive. Johari in “صحاح اللغة” says: بَدَأتُ بِالشَّى‏ء بَدْءاً: ابْتَدَأتُ بِه‏. And ibn Athir has explained it in “نهايه‏”: ‘And within is the narrative of Ali, May Allah be pleases with’; و منه حديث على- رضى الله عنه- وَ اللَهِ لَقَدْ سَمِعْتُهُ يقُول: لَيضْرِبُنَّكمْ عَلَى الدِّين عَوْداً كما ضَرَبْتُمُوهُ عَلَيهِ بَدْءاً. أى اوّلا. (By Allah, the Tribe of the alien to you will attack you with the swords for the sake of religion, as you did with them in the beginning. It is included in the narrative… وَعدْتُمْ مِن حَيثُ بَدَأتم‏.

[86] “الدّر المنثور”, volume 3, pages 145 and 146.

[87] "تفسیر طنطاوی", volume 3, pages 145 & 146.

[88] Surah 63, "منافقون", Verse 4.

[89] Surah 18, "کهف", Verse 51.

[90] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 96.

[91] Surah 63, "منافقون", Verse 6.

[92] Surah 9, "توبه", Verse 80.

[93] In the commentary of al-Minar, volume 6, page 167, is said: ‘The statement of ibn Abbas: “Allah has perfected the religion and He never leave it half-done” is more stable and correct than what Omar says: ‘Nothing is after perfection but only defect!’

[94] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 173.

[95] Surah 6, "انعام", Verse 145.

[96] Surah 16, "نحل", Verse 115

[97] "الدرّ المنثور", volume 2, page 258.

[98] "الدرّ المنثور", volume 2, page 258.

[99] It is an allusion to verse 29 of chapter 54, The Moon: “فَنَادَوْا صَاحِبَهُمْ فَتَعاطَى فَعَقَر” ‘The Tribe of Thamoud called their chief and he got ready and hamstringed the Camel of Salih.

[100] “کشف الغمّة”, page 151 from ibn al[Ghoraiah, the same Ghoraiah, has brought it.

[101] In “سفية البحار”, in the subject of ‘قَرَع‏ ‘(volume 2, page 425) it is said: “ابن القُريَعَة قاضى أبو بكر محمّد بن عبد الرحمن‏” is from Baghdad, and he was a judge in Sendiiah, and Sendiiah is a village between Baghdad and Anbar. He was a fair, delicate good humor man. Then he goes on saying: He has some elegies concerning the innocence of Fatima, upon her be peace which are put in “بحار الأنوار”, volume 10, section 7, page 54, as: يا مَن يسَائِل دَائِباً عَن كلِّ مَسألة سَخِيفَة to the end. And then, he has stated in “سفينه‏”: Ghazi Abu Bakr ibn al-Ghoraiiah died in 367 anno Hejira; and Ghoraiiah represents his great grandfather…
And I would say: therefore, they call him Ghoraiee; and these poems are not for Abu Bakr Baghlani, because, according to what “سفينة البحار”, volume 1, page 91 says he died in 403 anno Hejira. And Ghoraiee’s name was Muhammad bin And-ur-Rahman, and Baghlani’s name was Muhammad bin Tayyib. And because of the similarity of these two names, most Persian translators have made mistakes and related these poems to Baghalani – these mistakes are quite clear. Anyhow, the Late Mohaddith Ghomi has also jot down these poems in “بيت الأحزان‏”.

[102] “صحيح بخارى‏”, volume 3, page 55, the section of “غزوة الخيبر”.

[103] “السيرة الحلبية”, published in 1382 anno Hejira, page 399.

[104] “رسالة فى معرفة الصّحابة”, page 54 on the condition of “حذيفة بن يمان‏”; and in “رجال كشّى‏”, he has not mentioned the seven person, therefore, he has not mentioned Sheikh Horr. And similar to this narrative, there has been mentioned in “اختصاص‏” of Sheikh Mofid by his documents from Zerarah quoting the Holiness Abu Ja’far, upon him be peace.

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