In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lessons 110-115: The Commander of the believers is the specific tile for Ali bin Abī Tālib

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The Commander of the believers is the specific tile for Ali bin Abī Tālib

Ibn Asakar ha quoted Abu-al-Mohasin Abd-ur-Razzaq bin Muhammad that by the means of his documents has related A'la bin Mosayyib, quoting Abu Dawood and Barida Aslami in his book that:

قَالَ: أمَرْنَا رَسُولُ اللهِ (ص) أنْ نُسَلَمَ عَلَىٍ عَلِىٍّ بِإمْرَة الْمُؤمِنينَ؛ وَ نَحْنُ سَبْعَة وَ أنَا أصْغَرُ اْلقَوْمِ يَوْمَئِذ. [63]

'[Boraida Aslami] said that: the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, commanded us to salute Ali bin Abī Tālib by the title of 'the Commander of the believers'; we were seven altogether, and at time I was the smallest one among them all.'

Muhammad bin Ali bin Shahr Aashub has been related by the Sunnite, in the book "Manaqib" saying in the commentary of Mojahid: 'Whatever يا ايها الذين آمنوا is put in the Glorious Qur'an refers to Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, because he has priority in embracing Islam. Above all, Allah has called him as 'the Commander of the believers and the Master of the orators until the Day of Judgement' in eighty-nine different occasions. And then, he says: 'That piece of news that comprising the command of saluting the Holiness with the title of 'the Commander of the believers' is a successive case with the Shiite; and most of the Sunnites have related it in different ways. We have never come across any Sunnites to object its document, or to reject this statement of the Messenger of Allah:. سَلَمْ عَلَى أميرالْمُؤمِنين Their scholars have related this fact by means of their documents left by Boraida Aslami.

And also Yusof bin Kolaib Masoodi, by means of his documents from Abu Dawood Sabiee, has related it; and Abbad bin Ya‘qub Asadi, by means of his documents from Abu Dawood Sabiee has quoted Abu Boraida saying that: 'Abu Bakr went in the presence of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and the Messenger of Allah told him:

إذْهَبَ فَسَلَمْ عَلَى أميرالْمُؤمِنينَ! فَقَالَ: يَا رَسوُلَ اللهِ وَ أنْتَ حَىُّ؟ قال: وَ أنَا حَىُّ! ثُمَّ جَاءَ عُمَرُ فَقَالَ لَهُ مِثْلَ ذَلِلك.‏

"Go to the Commander of the believers and salute him!" Abu Bakr said: 'Even now that you are alive?' The Messenger of Allah stated: "Yes!" Then, Omar entered the room, and the Messenger of Allah told him in the same way that he had commanded Abu Bakr.

And in Sabiee's narrative it has been related that: Omar asked the Messenger of Allah: 'Who is the Commander of the believers?' The Messenger of said: "He is Ali bin Abī Tālib." Omar asked: 'Is it by the Command of Allah and His Messenger?' The Messenger of Allah answered: "Yes, it is."

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The objection of Barida Aslami concerning the Caliphate of Abu Bakr

And Ibrahim Thaghafi has quoted Abdullah bin Jabala Kanani, and he Zoraih Moharebi, and he Thomali and he too has quoted the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, that Boraida had been to Sham, therefore, he was in Medina at the time of 'Swearing Allegiance' to Abu Bakr; when he returned Medina, the people had already paid homage to Abu Bakr. Boraida went to the Session of Abu Bakr and said:

 يَا أبا بَكرٍ! هَلْ نَسِيتَ تَسْليمَنَا عَلَى عَلَى بِإمْرَة الْمُؤمِنينَ وَاجِبَة مِنَ اللهِ وَ رَسُولِه؟‏

O Abu Bakr! Have you forgotten that 'salutation' we paid Ali as: 'the Commander of the believers' which was the command of Allah as our duty to him?'

 قَالَ: يَا بُرَيْدَة إنَكَ غِبْتَ وَ شَهِدْنَا، وَ إنَّ اللهِ يُحْدِثُ اْلأمْرِ بَعْدَ الْأمْرِ، وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ اللهُ لِيَجْمَعَ لِأهْلِ الْبَيْتِ النُّبُوَّة وَ الْمُلْك.‏

'[Abu Bakr] said: 'O Boraida! You were absent then but we were present! By the way, Allah brings forth new event after the old one, and never does Allah bring the Prophet-hood and the Government together for this Household.'

And both Ibrahim Thaghafi and Serri bin Abdullah have quoted Imran Hasin and Abu Boraida saying that they had told Abu Bakr:

قَدْ كُنْتُ أنْتَ يومئذٍ فَمَنْ سَلَّمَ عَلَى عَلَى بِإمْرَة الْمُؤْمِنيَن، فَهَلْ تَذْكُرُ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ أمْ نَسِيَتهُ؟! قَالَ: بَلْ أذْكُرُهُ! فَقَالَ بُرَيْدَة: فَهَلْ يَنْبَغى لِأحَدٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ أنْ يَتَأَمَّرَ عَلَى أميرالْمُؤمِنين؟

فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: انَّ النُّبُوَّة وَ الْإمَامة لا تُجْمَعُ فى بَيْتٍ وَ احِدٍ. فَقَالَ لَهُ بُريْدَة: قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالَى: «أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلى ما آتاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ فَقَدْ آتَيْنا آلَ إِبْراهِيمَ الْكِتابَ وَ الْحِكْمَة وَ آتَيْناهُمْ مُلْكاً عَظِيماً.[64] فَقَدْ جَمَعَ بَيْنَ النُّبُوَّة وَ الْمُلْكِ. قَالَ: فَغَضِبَ عُمَرُ، وَ مَازِلْنَا نَعْرِفُ فى وَجْهِهِ الْغَضَبَ حَتَّى مَات‏.[65]

'You were among those people who saluted Ali by his given title as: The Commander of the believers!' Now, do you remember that day or you have forgotten it?' Abu Bakr said: 'Perhaps I remember it, then what?' Boraida said: 'Is it possible that one of the Muslims to offer the statesmanship only to one person?'

Omar said: 'The Prophet-hood and the Imamate cannot be happened only in one single house!' Boraida said: 'Allah, the Exalted has stated:

 أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلى ما آتاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ فَقَدْ آتَيْنا آلَ إِبْراهِيمَ الْكِتابَ وَ الْحِكْمَة وَ آتَيْناهُمْ مُلْكاً عَظِيماً.

'…We have certainly given Abraham’s family the Book and wisdom, and We have also given them a mighty sovereignty, (Qur'an: 4/54).'

And Boraida says: 'This expression irritated Omar and until his death we would clearly see anger and hatred on his face.'

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He is the manager, the trainer, the caretaker, and the custodian of the people, he is kind to all, he never rests and is not neglected, even for a moment, of the welfare of the people.

Both the Messenger of Allah and the Commander of the believers, peace be upon them both, were the father s of the nation. As the Messenger of Allah said: أنَا وَ عَلِىُّ أَبُوا هَذِهِ الْامِّة 'Both Ali and I' are the fathers of the nation.' And in the same way that the Holy Qur'an has related, the Messenger was eager to protect the people and direct them to the Unity and establish justice in the land, Ali bin Abī Tālib to is greedy to govern the nation in the best was only because he is the Minister, brother and the Successor of the Messenger so cannot sit idle and impartial.

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Every nation that trusts his affairs to the non-learned one falls

Solaim bin Ghais Hilali points to some subjects concerning the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, which had happened before the Battle of Siffin, one of them is, as he says, the Holiness Commander of the believers said:

إنَّ الْعَجَبَ كُلَّ الْعَجَبِ مِنْ جُهَّالِ هَذِهِ الْامَّة وَ ضُلّالِهَا وَ قَادَتِها وَ سَاقَتِهَا إلَى النَّار إنَّهُمْ قَدْ سَمِعُوا رَسُولَ اللهِ (ص) يَقُولُ عَوْداً وَ بَدْءاً: مَا وَلَّتْ امَّة رَجُلًا قَطُّ أمْرَهَا وَ فِيهِمْ أعْلَمُ مِنْهُ إلَّا لَمْ يَزَلْ أمْرُهُمْ يَذْهَبُ سَفَالًا حَتَّى يَرْجِعُوا إلَى مَا تَرَكُوا.

فَوَلوَّا أمْرَهُمْ قَبْلى ثَلَاثَه رَهْطٍ مَا مِنْهُمْ رَجُلُ جَمَعَ الْقُرْآنَ، وَ لَا يَدَّعى أنَّ لَهُ عِلْماً بِكِتابِ اللهِ وَ لَا سُنَّة نَبِيَّهِ (ص) وَ قَدْ عَلِمُوا إنْى أعْلَمُهُمْ بِكِتَابَ اللهِ وَ سُنَّة نَبِيِّهِ (ص) وَ أفْقَهُهُمْ وَ أقْرَأهُمْ لِكِتَابِ اللهَ وَ أقْضَاهُمْ بِحُكْمِ الله...[66]   

'The condition of the ignorance among this nation is very surprising, and so is their off track, the pioneers as well their followers all are heading into the hell-fire, and even some blindly are following them to the fire of hell. They are doing so after hearing what the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, say: 'Never has a nation trusted its affairs to a man less wiser than among the people; while among the people are wiser and more knowledgeable than he is; unless the situation of a people has deteriorated and fallen into a bad condition, and they unwillingly referred such a man! 

And before me, this nation trusted its affairs to three persons while none of them had done anything in the collection of the Qur'an, nor had any of them claimed to know the Book of Allah or the laws and traditions of His Messenger. They knew that I was the wisest among the nation to be familiar with the Book of Allah, the laws and traditions of the Messenger of Allah, and the best in the jurisprudence, and the most aware among them in the recitation of the Qur'an and also the most knowledgeable of them in judging according to the Command of Allah – and so on.[67]

Anyhow, we have never seen in the verses of the Qur'an or any reports among the narratives of the Messenger of Allah that the youthfulness of a man of thirty-year-old to be kept away from the Caliphate and the government-ship. According to the Book of Allah and the laws and traditions of the Messenger, those which are the standard measure and necessary for receiving the position of a statesmanship are knowledge, piety, insight and the ability, as well the expressed statement; all those are what the Commander of the believers has been honored.

 وَ إنَّهُ بِذَلِكَ لَخَليقُ وَ بِهِ حَقِيقُ. صلّى الله عليك يا أبا الحسن و رحمه الله و بركاته‏

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The Commander of the believers, like the Messenger of Allah, was interested in guiding the nation

However, another difficulty that they created for the Holiness was that they claimed: 'Ali is fond of Imamate and Caliphate!'' And this kind of gossip is seen in Omar's statements. When Omar was struck with the sword of Abu-Lo‘lo and he was in the death-bed, they asked him to nominate a Caliph after him. Omar assigned a council of six men so that to choose one as the Caliph from among the group. The members of the council were: Ali bin Abī Tālib, Othman bin Af‘fan, Talhat bin Obaidullah, Zobair bin Aw‘wam, Sa‘d bin Abi Waq‘qas and Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf.

Then, they asked Omar: 'Now, you give your opinion that which of these six men is more suitable for the position of the Caliphate, let us know him and follow your opinion.'

Of those six men of the council, five were present in the session but only Talha was absent. Omar counted out the deficiency on them one by one, and he said:

وَ اللهِ مَا يَمْنَعُنِى أنْ أسْتَخَلِفَكَ يَا سَعْدُ إلَّا شِدَّتُكَ وَ غِلْظَتُكَ مَعَ أنَّكَ رَجُلُ حَرْبُ وَ مَا يَمْنَعُنى مِنْكَ يَا عَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ إلَّا أنَّكَ فِرْعَوْنُ هَذِهِ الْامَّة وَ مَا يَمْنَعُنِى مِنْكَ يَا زُبَيْرُ إلَّا أنّكَ مُؤْمِنُ الرِّضَا كافر الغضب. و ما يمنعنى من طلحه الا نخوته و كبره، و لو وليها وضع خاتمه فى اصبع امرأته، و ما يمنعنى منك يا عثمان الا عصبيتك و حبك قومك و اهلك، و ما يمنعنى منك يا على الا حرصك عليها، و انك احرى القوم ان وليتها ان تقيم على الحق المبين و الصراط المستقيم.[68]  

'By Allah, O Sa‘d! My reluctant in choosing you as my Successor is not for my sake, but it is because of your harshness – though you are a brave warlike man! And You, O Abd-ur-Rahman! My reluctant in choosing you as my Successor is not for my sake, but you are like Pharaoh upon this nation! And O Zubair! My reluctant in choosing you as my Successor is not for my sake, but, in the state of consent, soon you become soft and gentle; on the other hand, when you are in anger, you get beyond control! And concerning Talha, my reluctant in choosing you as my Successor is not for my sake, but his excessive haughtiness. So, if he takes the affairs of the Muslims in his hand, he lets his wife wear his ring [by having authority]! And you O Othman! My reluctant in choosing you as my Successor is not for my sake, but your excessive affection towards your relatives and family! But you O Ali! My reluctant in choosing you as my Successor is not for my sake, but your greediness and desirous for the Imamate and statesmanship; in fact, you are more capable than the others, and if get the authority of the Muslims you can direct them into the straight and the best way.'

Here, we see that Omar has counted a few unpleasant attributes to either of the six in the council but except Ali bin Abī Tālib, and are such attributes that a chief must truly keep away from them. However, concerning the efficiency of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, in directing people to the straight path, as Omar is mentioning, he is avoided to take the Guardianship for his desire and greediness for the Imamate! But the question is that Ali's greediness for the Caliphate is unpleasant, as Omar imagines, or it is pleasant, which we are going to explain it? It is a subject to be investigated. And for explaining this fact we are to say: The greediness for getting the position of the Chieftainship is two kinds:

The first one is that taking the Chieftainship as a 'subject', trying to achieve it only for the sake of the position then governing the poor nation – commanding them and directing them to known or unknown destinations! Trying to impose the slaves of Allah your own desires and when they are carrying your orders, you become satisfied with. You become joyous by seeing them carrying your orders.

This kind of Chieftainship is due to the chief's sense of aggression and haughtiness which creates a veil between his Creator and him. This kind of behavior is enough to act as Pharaoh and create aggression and oppression: oppressing the people as well as oneself. In other words, it is the state of forsaking the moral attitude and the sense of the humanity, over passing the limitation that Allah has given to a man.

The second one is achieving the Chieftainship but for the sake of the creatures of Allah, getting their right in the society, strengthening the commands and laws of Allah among the nations, and bringing justice on the surface of the earth, seeing to the problems of the people, crushing down the oppressors, stopping the fornication and unlawful acts in the earth. And then, helping the nation to achieve their pleasant freedom, directing them to pray Allah sincerely, and letting the people enjoy the whole divine blessings: physically and spiritually, of this world and the Hereafter, the apparent ones or the secrets. It must be in such a way that all the people to live under one banner, the banner of the Monotheism, the banner of peace and serenity and enjoy living together in harmony until they pass away to their eternal abodes.

This kind of Chairmanship – but in case there is found no better man to see the problems of the people – is very good and pleasant. It is the praiseworthy attribute, and it a God given nature that takes man from the terrestrial affairs to the highest point, the Divine; because the necessity of this kind of Chairmanship is leaving all kinds of desires and joining to the Names of the Attributes of Allah.

It is similar to the favor of a father towards his child's training, and for his child's security, he struggles and goes through any kind of dangers. For the progress of his child, he is extravagant and is not mean spending his asset for his comfort. If he does not behave this way, he practically digs a well in his way and creates obstacles for him; then, he becomes responsible for his unpleasant act towards his child and sees the consequence for that.

So is the Imamate and the Chairmanship over the creatures of Allah; he is the father of the people.

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The generous Prophet, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was eager in guiding the people

And concerning the Messenger, Allah, the Exalted, says to the people:

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ. 

'…now there has come to you a Messenger from among yourselves who takes your suffering seriously, he is anxious about you, a merciful compas­sionate towards all the believers, (Qur'an: 9/128).'

How can greediness lead a people without their participant and obeying the commands? Is it possible that they would follow and obey without the chairmanship? And it was on this basis that the disbelievers and the idolaters began to hurt the feeling of the Messenger of Allah and mocked him wherever they came across to him. It is because the necessity of the Messenger-hood is the Chairmanship; however, they considered that his Chairmanship was just troublesome. Therefore, for the security of their own religion, which was greatly different from the religion of the Messenger, they rejected him and his prophet-hood, until they took the government away from him.

However, the merciful Messenger of Allah was always after taking them out of their gloomy thoughts and the ignorance' opinions – and he was against their involuntary behavior and customs. All the time he tried; no matter whether he was hungry or thirsty, he would tie up a big rock on his stomach and then go to the battlefield, and he was always in the most front line close to the enemy. Because of torture of the enemies he fled to Taeef, nor did they accept him there so, he returned to Mecca in fear. And there was no one in Mecca to give a shelter to him, everyone was his enemy and wanted to shed his blood. He, against his will, took refuge with a disbeliever; he, along with the Children of Hashim and some other Muslims were imprisoned for three years within the tribe of Abī Tālib. They had prohibited them eating enough food, marrying and dealing with the people. At nights, the cries of the hungry Muslim children were heard in Mecca coming from among the tribe, where the disbelievers would listen to. It was until he decided to immigrate to Medina, that is, he escaped from Mecca. First, he stayed in the Cave of Thaur for three days, so that to mislead the disbelievers to find the way. And the Commander of the believers, who was the sole brave lover of Islam and the sincere companion of the Messenger, asked for the permission of the Holiness to lie in his bed.

It is clear that all those difficulties and tortures were that they invite the people to the straight path of Allah; it was not to be after the ruler-ship and to make the poor people live as the slaves; as it is said: 'The gap between the passions and patience is a thousand miles!'          

His Excellency, Omar! Who was trying to find fault with the eagerness of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, to get the Chairmanship, had in his mind the gloomy Chairmanship of his. He was comparing it with his own ruler-ship that he had ignored all the commands, wills and the verses of the Qur'an when governing! He ignored all for the price of receiving the Chairmanship! However, in the sight of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, Chairmanship was something other than Omar thought; its horizon was vast and the opinions and the verdicts of the people had nothing to do with it. As the poet says:

'Do not analogize that the affairs of the good are similar to yours, though apparently "lion and milk" are written 'SHIR', [in Farsi]!'

If the Commander of the believes, Upon Him be Peace, were after the statesman-ship and ungodly guardianship, he would receive it by the means of sword from the very beginning of the demise of the messenger of Allah – he had enough power to do so! However, as he sensed that by his action Islam would be in danger, he ignored it, he tolerated it; he practiced patience although he was choked with anger and was too depressed.

Ibn Abi-al-Hadid has written that when the Immigrants swore allegiance with Abu Bakr, Abu Sofian went to Medina and kept saying there:

أمَا وَ اللهِ إنِّى لَأرَى عَجَاجَة لَا يُطْفِئَهَا إلَّا الدَّمُ؛ يَا لَعَبْدِ مَنَافٍ! فِيمَ أبوُبَكْر مِنْ أمْركُمْ؟! أيْنَ الْمُستَضْعَفَانِ؟ أيْنَ ألْأذَلَّانِ؟ أينَ الْأذَلَّانِ؟ يَعْنى عَلِياً وَ الْعَبَاسَ- مَا بَالُ هَذَا فِى أقَلِّ حَىِّ مِنْ قُرَيْش.‏

'By Allah, I notice a gloomy state; I see as if the sky covered with dust! Nothing can clear it up but only blood-shedding. O the family of Abd Manaf! What is Abu Bakr's business in your affairs? So, where are those two who are considered to be weak! Where are those two who have been put aside and humiliated?' – He meant Ali and Abbas by mentioning the two – 'Now, what has happened that the government is in the disposal of the lowly tribes of the Quraish!'

Then, Abu Sofian said to the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace:

ابْسُطْ يَدَكَ ابَايِعْكَ، فَوَ اللهَ إنَ شِئْتَ لَأمْلَأَنَّها عَلَى أبى فُضَيْلٍ- يَعْنِى أبَا بَكْرٍ- خَيْلًا وَ رَجِلًا! فَامْتَنَعَ عَلَيْهِ عَلِىُّ (ع) فَلَمَّا يَئِسَ مِنْهُ قَامَ عَنْهُ وَ هُوَ يُنْشِدُ شِعْرَ الْمُتَلَمِّسِ:

وَ لَا يُقيمُ عَلَى ضَيْمِ يُرَادُ بِهِ             إلَّا الْأذَلَّانِ عَيْرُ الْحَىِّ وَ الْوَتَدُ

هَذَا عَلَى الْخَسْفِ مَرْبُوطُ بِرُمَّتهٍ        وَ ذَا يُشَجُّ فَلَا يُرْثى لَهُ أحَد [69]

'[O Ali,] reach out your hand so that I swear allegiance with you; by Allah, if you want it, I can equipped great many fighters and fill the entire town with army to fight Abu Bakr!'

The Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, avoided Abu Sofian's with his request, and then, when Abu Soian was disappointed with Ali, he stood up while reciting the elegy of 'Motalam‘mis'.

'No one resist the oppression that befalling on him, except two obedience and the humiliated ones: one is the donkey in the tribe and the other one is a peg that the bridle of the animal is tied to it.

However, this donkey is tied up with a rope for the excessive shortcoming of its, and they have tied the rope on its neck! And the wooden peg has broken because of too much hammering it; however, no one cries or mourns over it!'

Tabari and ibn Athir have related that the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, rejected and disappointed Abu Sofian, then, he was informed that:

انَّكَ وَ اللهِ مَا أرَدْتَ بِهَذَا إلَّا الْفِتْنَهَ! وَ انَّكَ وَ اللهِ طَالمَا بَغِيت لِلإسْلَامِ شَرًّا! لَا حَاجَة لَنَا فِى نَصِيحَتِك![70]

'By Allah, by this proposal of yours, you have nothing in mind except creating corrupts and causing seditions! And it was a long time that you were trying to practice your evil act against Islam, we need no any advice of yours!'

Apart from Abu Sofian, Abbas, the cousin of the Messenger of Allah also went to the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and said: 'I have come to swear allegiance with you; and from now on, they will say: the uncle of the Messenger of Allah has paid homage to the cousin of the Messenger of Allah, and then, there would remain no two persons to oppose each other.'

Ibn Ghotaiba Dinvari has written that:

قَالَ الْعَبَّاسُ لِعَلِىُّ بْنِ أبيطَالِبٍ- كَرَّمَ اللهُ وَجْهَهُ-: ابْسُطْ يَدَكَ ابَايِعْكَ، فَيُقَالُ: عَمُّ رَسُولِ اللهِ بَايَعَ ابْنَ عَمَّ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّىِ اللهُ عَلَيه (و آله) وَ سَلَّمَ، وَ يُبَايِعُكَ أهْلُ بَيْتِكَ فَإنَّ هَذَا الْأمْرَ إذَا كَانَ لَمْ يُقَلْ.

فَقَالَ لَهُ عَلِىُّ- كَرَّمَ اللهُ وَجْهَهُ-: وَ مَنْ يَطْلُبُ هَذَا الْأمْرَ غَيْرُنَا؟![71]

The Holiness said to him: 'What! Is there anyone besides us to claim the Imamate?'

Although the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, knew that Caliphate and the Chairmanship was his right but no one else, he did not claim it for the sake of Allah and the will of the Messenger of Allah; he knew that it would bring disarray among the people and then would damage the newly established Islam – he ignored his absolute right.

So, this is the real meaning of the generosity, devotion and the servitude. So is this the meaning of bravery, courage, gentleness and forgiveness; this is the meaning of the Guardianship and the Chairmanship; and this is the fact of the liberty.

Ibn Ghotaiba says: 'When they took Ali to the mosque to pay allegiance, he was saying:

أنَا أحَقَّ بِهَذَا الْأمْرِ مِنْكُمْ! لَا أبَايِعُكُمْ وَ أنْتُمْ أوْلَى بِالْبَيْعَة لى! أخَذْتُمْ هَذَا الْأمْرَ مِنَ الْأنْصَارِ؛ وَ احْتَجَجْتُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِالْقَرَابَة مِنَ النَّبِىِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ (و آله) وَ سَلَّمَ وَ تَأخُذُونَهُ مِنّا أهْلَ الْبَيْتِ غَصْباً.

أ لَسْتُمْ زَعَمْتُمْ لِلْأنْصَارِ أنَّكُمْ أوْلَى بِهَذَا الْأمْرِ مِنْهُمْ، لِمَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدُ مِنْكُمْ؛ فَأعْطَوْكُمُ الْمَقَادَة، وَ سَلَّمُوا إلَيْكُمُ الْإمَارَة؟ وَ أنَا أحْتَجُّ عَلَيْكُمْ بِمِثْلِ مَا احْتَجَجْتُمْ بِهِ عَلَى الْأنْصَارِ. نَحْنُ أوْلَى بِرَسُولِ اللهِ حَيَّا وَ مَيِّتاً؛ فَانْصِفُونَا إنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤمِنُونَ؛ وَ إِلّا فَبُوُءوا بالظّلْمِ وَ أنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُون.

فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: إنَّكَ لَسْتَ مَتْرُوكاً حَتَّى تُبَايِعَ! فَقَالَ لَهُ عَلِىُّ: احْلُبْ حَلْبَا لَكَ شَطْرُهُ! وَ اشْدَدْ لَهُ الْيَوْمَ أمْرَهُ يَرْدَدهُ عَلَيْكَ غَداً. ثُمَّ قَالَ: وَ اللهِ يَا عَمْر! لَا أقْبَلَ قَوْلَكَ وَلَا ابَايِعُهُ. فَقَالَ أبو بكر: فَإنْ لَمْ تُبَايِعْ فَلَا أُكْرِهَك![72]

'I am the slave of Allah and the brother of the Messenger!' They told him to swear allegiance with Abu Bakr! He said: 'I deserve the Caliphate and the Statesmanship more than you do, so, I will not pay homage to Abu Bakr! It is you who are going to swear allegiance with me! You took away the Caliphate and the Statesmanship from the Helpers, and the only excuse of you was that you were of the relatives of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, but in truth, you usurped the Caliphate from us the Household!

Did you not pretend to the Helpers that you were more liable to the Caliphate than they were – just because Muhammad belonged to your tribe?! And did he trust the authority to you only for this reason and put everything in your disposal?! And now, I'll discuss you as you did with the Helpers, and I discuss you in the same way you did with me. Anyhow, either in the life time of the Messenger, or after his demise we are more deserve in his sight than you are! So if you believe, judge with fairness; if you do not judge with fairness, you will be considered being the oppressor!'

At that situation, Omar said: 'They will not let you go until you pay homage!' The Holiness answered: 'O Omar! You are trying to suck such a breast that you benefit something out of! Now, try strengthening the Caliphate and the Statesmanship of Abu Bakr for you are going to take it in the future!' And then, he added: 'O Omar, by Allah, I do not accept your word and I do not swear allegiance with Abu Bakr!' Hearing what the Holiness say, Abu Bakr said: 'In that case, if you do not swear allegiance, I will force you to do it.' 

Anyhow, it is quite clear to the historians and the narrators that if the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, had accepted the allegiances of both Abbas and Abu Sofian, and then, together with those the Helpers, Immigrants and Bani Hashim who had joined him had opposed against Saghifa, and struggled to take the government, it would have not been easy and would have ended with blood-shedding. In that case the opposite side would also rise against them, war would start and then, those who had memorized the Qur'an to secure it, would have been killed. Therefore, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, gave up his absolute right only for the sake of Allah. He volunteered to give up the temporary honour for the sake of Allah and His religion, though Fatima was tortured and passed away, and also the little children became orphans. He did so to save the Messenger's twenty-three-year-old toil to save Islam.

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The sermon of the Commander of the believers, after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, in the response of Abbas and Abu Sofyan

By the sermon of the Holiness which he delivered at the very moment that the Messenger of Allah was passing away, to answer Abu Sofian and Abbas advising him to pay homage, his aim becomes quite clear:

أيُّهَا النَّاسُ! شُقّوا أمْوَاجَ الْفِتَنْ بِسفُنِ النَّجَاة! وَ عَرِّجُوا عَنْ طَرِيقِ الْمَنَافَرَة! وَضَعُوا عَنْ تيجَانِ الْمُفَاخَرَة! أفْلَحَ مَنْ نَهَضَ بِجِنَاحٍ، أوِ اسْتَسْلَمَ فَأرَاحَ! هَذَا مَآءُ آجِنُ وَ لَقْمَة يَغَصُّ بِهَا آكِلُهَا! وَ مُجْتَنِى الثَّمَرَة لِغَيْرِ وَقْتِ إينَاعِهَا كَالزَّرِاعِ بِغَيْرِ أرْضِهِ.

فَإنْ أقُلْ يَقُولُوا: حَرَصَ عَلَى الْمُلْكُ؛ وَ إنْ أسْكُتْ يَقُولُوا جَزَعَ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ؛ هَيْهَاتَ بَعْدَ التَّيّا وَ التَّى؛ وَ اللهِ لَابْنُ أبى طَالِبٍ آنَسُ بِالْمَوْتِ مِنَ الطِّفْلِ بِثَدْىِ امِّهِ؛ بَلِ‏ انْدَ مَجْتَ عَلَى مَكْنُونِ عِلْمٍ لَوْ بُحْتُ بِهِ لَاضُطَرَبْتُمْ اضْطِرَابَ الْأرْشِيَة فِى الطَّوىِّ الْبَعيدَة.[73]

'O people! Break apart the waves of the seditions by the saving boats in the wavy sea! And divert your direction to the straight path from the path of sedition, haughtiness and pride. Take off and throw away the pride crowns belonging to the oppressors. Salvation and victory comes to one who either rises up by the help of his supporters who wide open their wings to protect him, or he keeps quiet to settle the dispute and bring peace.

This breakable and momentary Caliphate and Chairmanship that you are inviting me to is like stinky water losing its real taste and smell, so, it is not pleasant for someone who drinks it. It looks like a morsel of food which sticks the throat of one who eats it and kills him. The agents taking this kind of Caliphate are like those who pick the green fruits which are not bitter to eat, or they are like the farmers who plant in the alien land which, it is clear that, they cannot benefit it.

Therefore, if I say a single word and demand the Caliphate, they will say: 'There! His intention by asking for the Caliphate proves his greediness for the statesmanship!' And if I close my mouth and say nothing, they would say: 'He is timid; he is afraid of death!'

Far be it from me! By facing so many troubles and suffering the hardships, these kinds of accusations are far away from me; (similar to a man who has married a bad tempered short wife, and when she spoiled his pleasure, he divorced her and married another even much bad tempered tall woman, and she too spoiled his pleasure even more; he divorced her either – that is, he divorced both). By Allah, the son of Abī Tālib is more interested in the death than a child is for the breast of its mother! I have been wrapped up in those facts; if I open my mouth to state something, you will be disturbed like a rope is let fall down into the well.'

Here, we see that the Holiness, by possessing such vast Divine knowledge, points to the greediness for the Guardianship, contrary what the short-minded, without seeing the fact, accuse him.

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The sermon of Shaghshagheiia of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, at the time of his Caliphate

He, in the Sermon of the Shigh‘sheghei‘iah, relates the event more clearly: 'He mentions, by Allah, Who is the Splitter of the seed and grain, the Restorer of spirit; he remembers that the acceptance of the Caliphate is only to to stop the oppressions of the aggressors against the innocent people and getting their rights. It is understood be the text that the sermon was after the event of the three Caliphates.

أمَا وَ اللهِ لَقَدْ تَقَمَّصَهَا ابْنَ أبِى قَحَافَة وَ إنَّهُ لَيَعْلَمُ أنَّ مَحَلِّى مِنْهَا مَحَلُّ الْقُطْبِ مِنَ الرَّحىَ؛ يَنْحِدَرُ عَنىِّ السَّيْلُ، وَ لَا يَرْقَى إلَىَ الطَّيْرُ. فَسَدَلْتُ دُوَنَهَا ثُوْبًا وَ طَوِيْتُ عَنْهَا كَشْحاً، وَ طَفِقْتُ أرْتَأى بَيْنَ أنْ أصُولَ بِيَدٍ جَدَّاءَ أوْ أصْبَرَ عَلَى طِخْبَة عَمْيَآءَ يَهْرَمُ فيهَا الْكَبيرُ، وَ يَشِيبُ فيهَا الصَّغِيرُ، وَ يَكْدَحُ فيها مؤمِنُ حَتَّى يَلْقَى رَبَّهُ؛ فَرَأيْتُ أنَّ الصَّبْرَ عَلَى هَاتَا أحْجَى؛ فَصَبَرْتُ وَ فِى الْعَيْنِ قَذىً وَ فِى الْحَلْقِ شَجًى. أرىَ تُرَاثى نَهُباً. حَتّى مَضَى الْأوَّلُ لِسَبِيِلِهِ، فَأدْلَى بِهَا الَى ابْنِ الخَطّابِ بَعْدَهُ

 (ثُمَّ تَمَثَّلَ بِقَوْلِ الْأعْشَى):

شَتَّانَ مَا يَوْمى عَلَى كُوِرِهَا             وَ يَوْمُ حَيَّانَ أخِى جَابِرِ

 فَيَا عَجَباً بَيْنَا هُوَ يَسْتَقيِلُهَا فى حَيَاتِهِ إذْ عَقَدَهَا لِآخَرَ بَعْدَ وَ فَإنِه- لَشَدَّ مَا تَشَطَّرَا ضَرْعَيْهَا- فَصَيَّرَهَا فى حَوْزَة خَشْنَآءَ يَغْلُظُ كَلَامُهَا، وَ يَخْشُنُ مَسُّهَا، وَ يَكْثُرُ الِعْثَارُ فيهَا وَ الُاعْتِذَارُ مِنْهَا. فَصَاحِبُهَا كَرَاكِبِ الصَّعْبَة إنْ أشْنَقَ لَهَا خَرَمَ، وَ إنْ أسْلَسَ لَهَا تَقحَّمَ فَمُنِىَ النَّاسُ الَعَمْرُ اللهِ بِخَبْطٍ وَ شِمَاسٍ وَ تَلَوّنٍ وَ اعْتِرَاضٍ.

فَصَبَرْتُ عَلَى طُولِ الْمُدَّة وَ شِدَّة الْمِحْنَة حَتىَّ إذَا مَضَى لِسَبيله، جَعَلَهَا فى جَمَاعَة زَعَمَ أنِّى أحَدُهُمْ. فَيَا للهِ وَ لِلشُّورَى! مَتَى اعْتَرَضَ الرَّيْبُ فِىَّ مَعَ الْأوَّلِ مِنْهُمْ حَتَّى صِرْتُ اقْرَنُ الَى هَذِهِ النَّظَائِرِ، لَكِنِّى أسْفَفْتُ إذَا أسَفُّوا وَ طَرْتُ إذَا طَارُوا.

فَصَغَى رَجُلُ مِنْهُمْ لِضِغْنِهِ، وَ مَالَ الْأخَرُ لِصِهْرِه، مَعَ هَنٍ وَهَنٍ. إلَى أنْ قَامَ ثَالِثُ الْقَوْمِ نَافِجاً حِضْنَيْهِ بَيْنَ نَثِيلِهِ وَ مُعْتَلَفِهِ؛ وَ قَامَ مَعَهُ بِنُو أبِيِه يَخْضِمُونَ مَالَ اللهِ خَضْمَة الْابِلِ‏ نِبْيَة الرَّبيعِ. إلَى أنِ انْتَكَثَ فَتْلُهُ، وَ أجْهَزَ عَلَيْهِ عَمَلُهُ، وَ كَبَتْ بِهِ بِطْنَتُهُ. فَمَا رَاعَنِى إلَّا وَ النَّاسُ كَعُرْفِ الضَّبُعِ إلَىَّ، يَنْثَالُونَ عَلَىَّ مِنْ كُلِّ جَانِبٍ، حَتَّى لَقَدْ وُطِئَ الْحَسَنَانِ، وَ شُقَّ عِطْفَاىَ، مُجْتَمِعِينَ حَوْلى كَرَبيضَه الْغنَم. فَلَمَّا نَهَضْتُ بِالْأمْرِ نَكَثَتْ طَآئِفَة وَ مَرَقَتْ اخْرى وَ قَسَطَ آخَرُونَ؛ كَأنَهُّمْ لَمْ يَسْمَعُوا كَلَامَ اللهِ حَيْثُ يَقُولُ:

تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَة نَجْعَلُها لِلَّذِينَ لا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِى الْأَرْضِ وَ لا فَساداً وَ الْعاقِبَة لِلْمُتَّقِينَ.[74]

بَلَى وَ الله لَقَدْ سَمِعُوهَا وَ وَعَوْهَا وَ لَكِنَّهُمْ حَلِيَتِ الدُّنْيَا فِى أعْيُنِهِمْ و رَاقَهُمْ زِبْرِجُهَا. أمَّا وَ الذَّى فَلَقَ الْحَبَّة وَ بَرَأَ النّسَمَة لَوْلَا حُضُورُ الْحَاضِرِ، وَ قِيَامُ الْحُجَّة بِوُجُودِ النَّاصِرِ، وَ مَا أخَذَ اللهُ عَلَى الْعُلَمَآءِ أنْ لَا يُقَارُّوا عَلىَ كَظَّة ظَالِمٍ وَ لَا سَغَبِ مَظْلُومِ لَألْقَيْتُ حَبْلَهَا عَلَى غَارِبِهَا، وَ لَسَقَيْتُ آخِرَهَا بِكَأْسِ أوَّلَهِا، وَ لَألْفَيْتُمْ دُنْيَاكُمْ هَذِهِ أزْهَدَ عِنْدى مِنْ عَفْطَة عَنْزٍ!

 (قَالُوا) وَ قَامَ إلَيْهِ رَجُلُ مِنْ أهْلِ السَّوَادِ عِنْدَ بُلُوغِهِ إلَى هَذَا الْمَوْضِعِ مِنْ خُطْبَتِهِ فَنَاوَلَهُ كِتَاباً فَأقْبَلَ يَنْظُرُ فيِه.

قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ- رَضِىَ اللهُ عَنْهُمَا-: يَا أمِيرَ الْمُؤمِنينَ لَو اطَّرَدْتَ خُطْبَتَكَ مِنْ حَيْثُ أفْضَيْتَ! فَقَالَ: هَيْهَاتَ يَا بْنَ عَبَّاسٍ! تِلْكَ شِقْشِقَة هَدْرَتْ ثُمَ قَرَّت!

قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ: فَو اللهِ مَا أسِفْتُ عَلَى كَلَامٍ قَطُّ كَأسِفِى عَلىَ هَذَا الْكَلَامُ أنْ لَا يَكُونَ أميرُ الْمُؤْمِنينَ (ع) بَلَغَ مِنْهُ حَيْثُ أرَاد. [75]

Beware! By Allah the son of Abu Quhafah (Abu Bakr) dressed himself with it (the caliphate) and he certainly knew that my position in relation to it was the same as the position of the axis in relation to the hand-mill. The flood water flows down from me and the bird cannot fly up to me. I put a curtain against the caliphate and kept myself detached from it.

Then I began to think whether I should assault or endure calmly the blinding darkness of tribulations wherein the grown up are made feeble and the young grow old and the true believer acts under strain till he meets Allah (on his death). I found that endurance thereon was wiser. So I adopted patience although there was pricking in the eye and suffocation (of mortification) in the throat. I watched the plundering of my inheritance till the first one went his way but handed over the Caliphate to Ibn al-Khat‘tab after himself.

(Then he quoted al-A`sha's verse).

My days are now passed on the camel's back (in difficulty) while there were days (of ease) when I enjoyed the company of Jabir's brother Hay'yan.

It is strange that during his lifetime he wished to be released from the caliphate,

 وَ اقِيلُونى اقِيلُونى فَلَسْتُ بِخَيْرِكُمْ وَ عَلِىُّ فيكُم‏ [76]

But he confirmed it for the other one after his death. No doubt these two shared its udders strictly among themselves. This one put the Caliphate in a tough enclosure where the utterance was haughty and the touch was rough. Mistakes were in plenty and so also the excuses therefore. One in contact with it was like the rider of an unruly camel. If he pulled up its rein the very nostril would be slit, but if he let it loose he would be thrown. Consequently, by Allah people got involved in recklessness, wickedness, unsteadiness and deviation.

Nevertheless, I remained patient despite length of period and stiffness of trial, till when he went his way (of death) he put the matter (of Caliphate) in a group and regarded me to be one of them. But good Heavens! What had I to do with this "consultation"? Where was any doubt about me with regard to the first of them that I was now considered akin to these ones? But I remained low when they were low and flew high when they flew high. One of them turned against me because of his hatred and the other got inclined the other way due to his in-law relationship and this thing and that thing, till the third man of these people stood up with heaving breasts between his dung and fodder. With him his children of his grand-father, (Omayyad) also stood up swallowing up Allah's wealth like a camel devouring the foliage of spring, till his rope broke down, his actions finished him and his gluttony brought him down prostrate.

At that moment, nothing took me by surprise, but the crowd of people rushing to me. It advanced towards me from every side like the mane of the hyena so much so that Hassan and Hussein were getting crushed and both the ends of my shoulder garment were torn. They collected around me like the herd of sheep and goats. When I took up the reins of government one party broke away and another turned disobedient while the rest began acting wrongfully as if they had not heard the word of Allah saying:

'…this is the Last Abode; We grant it to those who do not desire to intimidate upon the earth, nor spread corruption. Thus, the [happy] outcome belongs to those who do their Divine duties, (Qur'an: 28/83).'

Yes, by Allah, they had heard it and understood it but the world appeared glittering in their eyes and its embellishments seduced them. Behold, by Him who split the grain (to grow) and created living beings, if people had not come to me and supporters had not exhausted the argument and if there had been no pledge of Allah with the learned to the effect that they should not acquiesce in the gluttony of the oppressor and the hunger of the oppressed I would have cast the rope of Caliphate on its own shoulders, and would have given the last one the same treatment as to the first one. Then you would have seen that in my view this world of yours is no better than the sneezing of a goat.

(It is said that when the Commander of the believers reached this point of his sermon a man of Iraq stood up and handed him over a writing, and the Commander of the believers began looking at it, when Ibn-e-Abbas said, "O' the Commander of the believers, I wish you resumed your Sermon from where you broke it." Thereupon he replied, "O' Ibn-e-Abbas, it was like the foam of a Camel which gushed out but subsided.[77]" Ibn-e-Abbas says that he never grieved over any utterance as he did over this one because the Commander of the believers could not finish it as he wished to.'

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The statement of Omar at the Saghifa Bani Saeeda on the necessity of the unity of the prophet-hood and Caliphate in one occasion

One of the excuses that they always made against the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, was that: the Caliphate and the Prophet-hood wouldn't go in a single family. Therefore, as both the Messenger of Allah and the Commander of the believers, Peace be Upon Them Both, were of a single family, they couldn't possess the position of the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate in the same time. In other words, as the Prophet-hood was the Messenger absolute right, Ali bin Abī Tālib couldn't have the position of the Caliphate.

Ibn Abi-al-Hadid says: 'Another tribe has also given their reason for the lack of the Caliphate of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace; they have said it is not fair because the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate in a single family brings self-importance forward against the people.' [78]

After investigating the history books and the narratives, we found the origin of this claim and utterance with Abu Bakr and Omar. They are the first persons who have uttered this assert. While, to overcome the Helpers, they had already claimed to be the close relatives of the Messenger in the Saghifa-e-Bani Saeeda, in answering the sermon of the Hobab bin Monza when he was talking about the nobility and priority of the Helpers, and said: 'On the whole it is not fair the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate to be shared within two families; wherever the Prophet-hood is, the Caliphate must be there as well. In Saghifa, in the presence of some of the Helpers, Abu Bakr, Abu Obeidah Jarrah, Moaaz bin Jabal, and great many of the Helpers, such as: Sa‘d bin Obada, the Chief of the Aus' Tribe, and Bashir Sa‘d one of the great men among the Khazraj Tribe, who spoke about the priorities of the helpers and then, delivered a sermon saying:

 فَأنْتُمْ أعْظَمُ النَّاسِ نَصيباً فى هَذَا الْأمْرِ، وَ إنْ أبَى الْقَوْمَ فَمِنَّا أمِيُر وَ مِنْهُمْ أمِير

'So you deserve more in the affair of the Caliphate. But if the Quraish and the Sheikhs among the Helpers refuse it, then let there be an Emir from us and another Emir from the Immigrant.'

فَقَامَ عُمَرُ فَقَالَ: هَيْهَاتَ لَا يَجْتَمِعُ سَيْفَانِ فى عِمْدٍ وَاحِدٍ، وَ إنَّهُ وَ اللهِ لَا يَرْضَى الْعَرَبُ أنْ تُؤَمِّرَكُمْ وَ نَبِيُّهَا مِنْ غَيْرِكُمْ؛ وَ لَكِنَّ الْعَرَبَ لَا يُنْبَغَى أنْ تَوَلّى هَذَا الْأمْرَ إلَّا مَنْ كَانَتِ النُّبُوَّة فِيهِمْ وَ اولُوا الْأمْرِ مِنْهُم.

لَنَا بِذَلِكَ عَلَى مَنْ خَالَفَنَا مِنَ الْعَرَبِ الِحُجَّة الظَّاهِرَة وَ السُّلْطَانُ الْمُبِينُ. مَنْ يُنَازِعُنَا سُلْطَانِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَ مِيَراثَهُ- وَ نَحْنُ أوْلِيَاؤُهُ وَ عَشيرَتُهُ- إلَّا مُدْلٍ بِبَاطِلٍ، أوْ مُتَجَانِفٍ لِاثْمٍ، أوْ مُتَوَرَّطٍ فَى هَلَكَة؟![79]

So, Omar stood up and said: 'Far be it from you! It is rare, for two swords cannot be placed in one sheath! By Allah, the Arabs are not pleased to have Emir from among you while their Messenger is from another tribe. That is true, the Arabs do not approve to see the Caliphate and Imamate belong to one tribe unless the Prophet-hood is also among them – and also those in authorities and the government to be among them but not the others.

There are in our discussion and what we say absolute excuses and clear proofs for the opposing Arabs who are against us to discuss about and argue with us. Who one earth dares to fight us concerning our power, government and Sultan Muhammad while we are of his relatives and are within his tribe? Only ones who has a false proof dares it, or one who has ignored the justice and is after crime, or one who has fallen in the stinky lagoon of the destruction!'

In the presence of Abu Bakr and with his written and signed permission, Omar expressed so and drew the attentions of the Helpers to pay homage with Quraish whom, he thought, Abu Bakr and he himself belong to. Then, we see that the very Omar and the same Abu Bakr when are condemned by the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, that: You are betrayers, you reasoned to be the close relatives to the Messenger, you have distorted the fact, you have secretly and cunningly drew the attentions of the people to you to vote for you. In fact, we are the fruits of this tree but not you, and we are the Household of the Messenger of Allah and Allah has sent down the Verse of Purification for us and our house; and the Qur'an has been sent down for our sake.' Then, you see that they answer: 'The Prophet-hood and the Caliphate cannot join together, and it is unpleasant to the Arabs bring them together!'

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The statement of Abu Bakr that the Prophet-hood and Caliphate cannot be in a single household

Abu Bakr has also invented a fake narrative from the Messenger of Allah, and Omar, as well as companions, Abu Obaidah, Salim Mowali Hozaifa and Maaz are bearing witness to it; he says the Messenger of Allah said:

افِّ لَكُمْ وَ لِمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ، وَ افٍّ لَكُمْ وَ لِمَا تَكْذِبُونَ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ مُتَعَمِّداً؛ وَ قَد قَالَ (ص): مَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَىَّ مُتَعَمِّداً فَلْيُتَبَوَّءْ مَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ النَّار.[80]

'Woe upon you for what you are worshipping besides Allah, and woe upon you for whatever lies you are deliberately telling against the Messenger of Allah;' and he, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, did say: 'Whoever lies against me, let his bottom be burnt in the fire!'

Sayyid Hashim Bahrani relates it by the book of "Solaim bin Ghais Hilali", which is of the famous and reliable books; and the other too by the history books which are the basis of the history. In the mean time, he has related a long and detailed event about how they took the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, to the mosque to pay homage to Abu Bakr, but how Ali argued with them. He relates:

'Then, Ali opened his mouth and uttered: 'O the companies of the Muslims and the Helpers and the, and Immigrants, I take you for an oath to Allah: 'Did you hear what the Messenger of say on the Day of Ghadir? And also did you hear what he said at the Ghazwah Tabouk?'

 Ali, Upon Him be Peace, transferred all the statements of the Messenger of Allah to the people one by one, and whatever the Messenger had told him he expressed to the nation. And almost all of them said, 'Yes.' In the mean time, as Abu Bakr was afraid that the people might break their covenant with him and then would help Ali, the Commander of the believers, he took the lead and said: 'All which you said, is correct, with these ears of us we heard the Messenger of Allah and well understood. His sayings captured our hearts, however, I myself later on heard the Messenger of Allah say:

إنّا أهْلُ بَيْتٍ اصْطَفَانَا الله تعالى وَ اخْتَارَ لَنَا اْلآخِرَة عَلَى الدُّنيَا؛ فَإنَّ اللهِ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيَجْمَعَ لَنَا أهْلَ الْبَيْتَ النُّبُوَّة وَ الْخِلَافَة.  

'Indeed we are the same Household that Allah, the Honorable and Exalted, has chosen us, and He has assigned the Hereafter for us and preferred it to us then this world; of course Allah has not appointed the both Prophet-hood and the Caliphate to be for us together.'

The Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, told Abu Bakr: 'Do you bear witness this narrative to be from the Messenger and your companion hearing it as well?' Omar said: 'The Caliph of the Messenger of Allah is right, I too heard the Messenger of Allah say so.' And Abu Obeidah and Salim, the step son of Hodaifa and Moaaz bin Jabal also said: "We too have heard it from the Messenger of Allah.' The Holiness answered: 'Thus, you have remained loyal to the paper you have written and signed in Mecca that "If Muhammad passes away or is killed we will not let the Caliphate to run in his family!'[81]

One of the fake narratives that they would always refer at the time of their conviction is:

 نَحْنُ مَعَاشِرَ الْأنبِيَاءِ لَا نُوَرِّثُ دِرْهَماً وَ لَا دِينَاراً؛ مَا تَرَكْنَاهُ فَهُوَ صَدَقَة [82]

'We the company of the prophets do not inherit even one Dirham; what we leave behind is for the charity!' The relater of this narrative is no one but Abu Bakr who usurped the FADAK from Fatima, peace be upon her, and there is no partner to him.

And the other one is:

أصحابي‌ كَالنُجُومِ بِأيَّهُمْ اقْتَدَيْتُمْ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ

which means: 'My companions are as stars, everyone one of them guides you if you refer to,' which is merely lying, and so is its relation to the Messenger of Allah.[83]

And the clearest evidence of that is this fake narrative of 'the lack of reunion of the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate in the Household, which is clear that it has been invented and then, against the commands of the Holy Qur'an and the authentic narratives, they have attributed it to the Messenger of Allah.

In the events of the twenty-third of the Immigrant Year, Tabari has written about the nature of Omar: 'On a journey that Omar was taking to Sham, he took some of great men from among the companions of the messenger of Allah as well as a few well-known persons, such as Abdullah bin Abbas, with him. However, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, rejected his invitation and denied accompanying him. Then, a man quotes one of the sons of Talha saying, ibn Abbas has said: 'Most of the time, I accompanied Omar on the journeys he used to take; one night, when we were heading forward, my camel and his were going side by side, then he gently whipped the camel on his hump and went on humming this poem:

1. كذَبْتُمْ وَ بَيتَ اللهِ يقْتَلُ أحْمَدُ          وَ لَمَّا نُطاعِنْ دُونَهُ وَ نُنَاضِل

2. وَ نُسْلِمُهُ حَتَّى نُصرَّعَ حَوْلَهُ         وَ نَذْهَلَ عَن أبنائِنَا وَ الْحَلَائِل

'I swear by the Sanctity House of Allah that you are lying [by saying] that: Muhammad dies without our throwing spears to one another, and that for his safety not avoiding spears' throwing!

And you are lying that: 'We are to hand over Muhammad to you but without sacrificing our souls and being killed and fallen on the ground close to him, and also casting to oblivion our women and children!'

(This piece of the poetry is by the Holiness Abu: Tālib, the grandfather of the Holiness Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon them both  be Peace, who has composed it against the will of the disbelieving Quraish who had in their minds to kill the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants.)

After reciting these two lines of poem, he declared: استَغْفِرُ الله 'I seek the forgiveness of Allah' and then, continued his way. He kept silent for a while and then went on reciting:

1. وَ مَا حَمَلَتْ مِنْ نَاقَة فَوْقَ رَحْلِهَا       أبَرَّ وَ أوفَى ذِمَّة مِن مُحَمَد

2. وَ أكسَى لِبُرْدِ الْخَالِ[84] قَبُولَ ابْتِذَالِهِ       وَ أعطَى لِرَأْسِ السَّابِقِ الْمُتَجَرَّد

'Never has a camel carried on his saddle a man better, more generous, and faithful to his promises than Muhammad; [nor has he carried] one wearing the Yemen Garb, the garb that prior to wearing out was a good covering, and to be volunteer giving away the speedy horse of his which always won the race.'

And then, he declared: استَغْفِرُ الله 'I seek the forgiveness of Allah', o son of Abbas! What prevented Ali to travel with us?' 'I know nothing about,' I answered. He said: 'Your father, Abbas, is the uncle of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and you are the Messenger's cousin, so why then your relative avoided you having the Caliphate?' 'I don't know,' I answered. He said: 'But I know that; your relative, the Quraish, disliked your Chairmanship over them.' I asked: 'so, what is the reason for their doing so, in their sight, we are the main basis for them?' He said:

اللَّهُمَّ غَفْراً، يكرَهُونَ أن تَجْتَمِعَ فِيكمُ النُّبُوَّة وَ الخِلافَة فَيكونَ بَجَحاً بَجَحا.[85]

'O my Creator! I ask for Your forgiveness; the Quraish disliked seeing the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate to be yours at the same time and to be the cause of pride and haughtiness for you!'

'And you may say Abu Bakr was the main cause of this event. But I say: 'No, by Allah, Abu Baker did his best in this way; he acted the most pleasant way in this affair. And if he had transferred the Chairmanship and the Caliphate to you, even with your closeness, it would not benefit you. Now, do recite this poem of Zohair, the poet, who says:

إذَا ابْتَدَرَتْ قَيسُ بنُ عَيلانَ غَاية      مِنَ المَجْدِ مَن يسْبِقْ إلَيهَا يسَوَّد

'When Ghais bin Ai‘lan wants to achieve the most extreme greatness and nobility in the race, then one who sooner gets that extreme receives the prize of that lordship and the mastership.'

Ibn Abbas says: 'I read this elegy to him and then the sun rose, and he told me: ''Do recite me the Chapter of The Event (ăl-wāghe’ă), and I did it; then, he dismounted the camel and said the morning prayer while reciting the Chapter of Event in his prayer.'[86]

And Tabari has related Ikrama and ibn Abbas that: 'When Omar bin Khat‘tab and some his companions had discussion over poems, some of them kept saying: 'Such and such is the talented poet among all the poets;' and some of them said: 'Perhaps the other guy is better.' In the mean time, I entered the room and Omar said: 'This newly arriving man might be better than all the poets.'

Omar asked him: 'O Abbas, who is the best poet among the poets?' I answered: 'Zohair bin Abi Solma.' Omar said: 'Recite a bit of him poem for us to see if you are telling the truth!' Ibn Abbas says: 'In the poem, which I was going to read then, Zohair was praising a tribe of Bani Abdullah bin Ghatfan; so I started reciting it as:

1. لَوْ كانَ يقْعُدُ فَوقَ الشَّمسِ مِن كرَمٍ          قَوْمٌ بِأوَّلِهِم أوْ مَجْدِهِم فَعَدُوا

2. قَوْمٌ أبوهُمْ سَنَانٌ حِينَ تَنسُبُهُمْ           طَأبوا وَ طَابَ مِنَ الاولادِ مَا وَلَدُوا

3. إنسٌ إذَا آمِنُوا جِنُّ إذَا فَزَعُوا            مُرَزَّونَ بِهَا ليلٌ إذَا حَشَدُوا

4. مُحَسَّدُونَ عَلَى مَا كانَ مِنْ نِعَمٍ          لا ينزِغُ اللَهُ مِنْهُم مَا لَهُ حُسِدُوا

1- 'If one, through the generosity, could sit on the sun, [then, he would be alike] the tribe of Ghat'fan, for they are such a tribe that for their taproot and the original nobility are the first ones sitting on the sun.

2- They make such a tribe that if you want to find their pedigree, their father is Sanan: whose offspring, as well the whole people in the tribe are pure and honest.

3- At the time of peace, they become friendly and familiar, while they are in fright; they remain in the shelters. When they called for an affair they respond at once – they act with the generosity and like the Masters and Sayyids they haste for the good-doing.

4- Because of their affluence and God-bestowing blessings, they are envied; may Allah not take away that which makes the people jealous of them!'

When Omar heard this poem he said: 'He has composed it beautifully; I do not see anyone to deserve it except this group of Bani Hashim. And it is not but by the priority and the virtue of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, as well as the closeness of this group with the Messenger of Allah.'

Ibn Abbas says, I said: 'O the Emir of the faithful! You were agreeable with this peace and I hope you be successful forever!' Omar said: 'O the son of Abbas! Do you know why, after Muhammad, your tribe banned you from the Caliphate?' Ibn Abbas says: 'I thought it was unpleasant to answer him, therefore, I said: 'I expect the Emir of the faithful, Omar, will let me know it.'

فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: كرِهُوا أن يجْمَعُوا لَكمُ النُّبُوَة وَ الْخِلافَة فَتَبَجَّحُوا عَلَى قَوْمِكمْ بَجَحاً بَجَحاً؛ فَاختَارَتْ قُرَيشُ لِأنفُسِهَا؛ فَأصَابَتْ وَ وُفِّقَت.

So Omar said: 'Your tribe did not like to see both, the Prophet-hood and the Caliphate, to be within your family at the same time and to bring you proud; therefore, the Quraish took the lead and chose a Caliph and succeeded in what they were after.'

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[63] “تاريخ دمشق‏”, volume 2, pages 259 & 260.
Surah 4, "نساء", Verse 54.
[65] “مناقب ابن شهرآشوب‏”, volume 1, pages 546 and 547; and “غاية المرام‏”, first part, page 21, narrative fortieth.
[66] The Book of Solaim bin Ghais, page 148. And we will explain it in lesson 16 that of the disputes of Salman to Abu Bakr is that: While being so scholars among the nation how have taken the position of chairmanship? And what is your excuse concerning it?! And to this event and the similar cases the most learned can command and judge. And so is it in the sermon of the Holiness Imam Hassan, upon him be peace, in the presence of Muawiiah where this fact has been revealed, “امالى طوسى‏”, volume 2, page 172,, and in “غاية المرام‏”, page 298, narrative 26 and 27.
[67] It is mentioned in “مناقب‏” of ibn Shahr Aashub, volume 1, pages 547 and 548 that it is related from ibn Abbas that Ali bin Abi Talib said to the Messenger of Allah: “السلام عليك يا رسول الله”, The Holiness Messenger replied him: “و عليك السلام يا أمير المؤمنين و رحمه الله و بركاته‏” Ali had the honor to say: ‘Why! You are still alive but calling me the Commander of the believers! The Messenger stated: ‘Yes! By the command of Allah, Gabriel has nominated you to this title while I am alive. O Ali, yesterday, when I was conversing with Gabriel and you passed me, you did not salute me! Then, Gabriel said: ‘Why did the Commander of the believers not salute us?’ By Allah, if he salutes us we will be very pleased and we will reply him with pleasure.’
And our companions like not to give the title of ‘The Commander of the Believers’ to any of the Imams. Once, a man went to the Holiness Imam Sadiq, upon him be peace, and said: “O the Commander of the believers!...’ The Holiness stopped him by saying, be quiet! No one is pleased with this title except one who is involved in the tricks of Abu Jahl!
In the History of Tabary, the “دار المعارف مصر” publication, in volume 4, page 208 Abu Ja’far has said: ‘The first man whom people called the Commander of the believers was Omar bin al-Khattab. And this title was current and up till now the caliphs are using it.
Ahmad bin Abd-us-Samad related to me of Umm Amrou quoting the daughter of Hissan Kofi that his father had said: When Omar took the authority in hand, they told him: يا خليفه خليفه رسول الله ‘Omar said: ‘This title is too lengthy for people to call the caliphs one after another: يا خليفه خليفه خليفه رسول الله‏!however, you are the believers and I am your Master. Thus, since then, they called his as the Commander of the believers.
[68] “الإمامة و السياسة”, of ibn Ghotaiba Dinvary, Egypt publication, in 1328 anno Hejira, pages 23 and 24.

[69] “شرح نَهْج البلاغه‏” (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha), the publication of ‘دار إحياء الكتب العربيه‏’volume 1, pages 221 and 222, interim of the explanation of sermon five.
[70] History of Tabary, the “دار المعارف مصر” publication, volume 3, page 209; and “تاريخ الكامل‏”,Beirut publication, 1385 anno Hejira, volume 3, page 326. And in these two books, مَعْكوسٌ بِرُمَّتِه‏ has been put in the second line, which is opposite the phrase of the neck of an animal is tied to one of its legs.
[71] “الإمامة و السِّياسة” page 6. And شرح نَهْج البلاغه‏” (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha) of ibn Abi al-Hadid, the publication of ‘دار إحياء الكتب العربية’ volume 1, pages 160 and 161.
[72] “الامامه و السِّياسة”, page 12.
[73] “نَهْج البلاغه‏”, the fifth sermon.
Surah 28, "قصص", Verse 83.
[75] “نَهْج البلاغه‏”, Sermon three. And this sermon has been well mentioned by the Master and Sheikh Razi, Sheikh Mofid wholly and completely in “ارشاد”, lithography printing, pages 159 and 160; also the late Sadough has mentioned it in “معانى الأخبار”, pages 360 to 362.
[76] It is Abu Bakr’s statement that he mentioned during the hardships and difficulties that: ‘Cut your allegiance with me, cut your allegiance with me! I am not the best among you while Ali is among you.’
[77] When a camel gets excited, it bring up something out something from its mouth called ‘شِقْشِقَه‏’ in Arabic, it is so that some people thing it is its tongue. And still more, when the camel brings it out of its mouth, it makes a loud voice called ‘هدير’ (hadir); and the phrase: ‘هَدَر البَعير’ means that, when the camel brought out شِقْشِقَه it made hadir. And in the statement of the Holiness: ‘تلك شِقشِقة هَدَرت‏’, he has attributed it to شِقشِقة; infact, his statement was تلك شقشقة هَدْر البعيرُ 
[78] شرح نَهْج البلاغه"‏", (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha) of ibn Abi al-Hadid, Mohammad Abulfazl Ibrahim's research, volume 11, page 113.
[79] “الإمامة و السِّياسة”, page 9.
[80] the sentence of “فَلْيُتَبَوَّءْ مَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ النّار”, can be read in passive voice, which means: His bottom rests on the fire!’ And it may be read in active case, as the doer, which means: He must rest his bottom on the fire.’
[81] “غاية المرام‏”, the second part, page 552, the first narrative from the section fifty-four.

[82] All we the messengers do not leave a single penny as the heritage; that which we leave behind from us is charity for all the Muslims.
[83] ‘My followers are like the stars in the sky, whomever you refer to he will guide you to the straight path.’ It is obvious that all the stars are not there to guide, but only few of them like: the pole star and Venus are guide. So, whoever expects guidance from any star he wishes, he gets astray.
[84] It is put in “معجم البلدان‏” that: ‘الخال أيضاً موضعٌ فى شِقٍّ اليمَن‏’; ‘خال‏’ is also a pace in Yemen. Therefore, as the best quality of material was made there so in the poem it has been mentioned.

[85] Ibn Abi al-Hadid explains this case as: this is quoted of ibn Abbas saying:

 تفرّق الناس ليلة الجَابية عَن عُمَر؛ فسار كلّ واحدٍ مع إلفه؛ ثمّ صادفتُ عُمَر تلك اللّيلة فى مسيرنا، فحادثته؛ فشكى الى تخلّف على عنه. فقلت ألم يعتذر اليك؟ قال: بلى. فقلت: هو ما اعتذر به؟ فقال: يا بن عبّاس انّ اوّل مَن رَبيكم عن هذا الأمر أبو بكر؛ أنّ قومكم كرهوا أن يجمعوا لكم الخلافة و النّبوّة! قلت: لم ذاك يا أمير المؤمنين؟! ألم تنلهم خيراً؟ قال: بلى، و لكنّهم لو فعلوا لكنتم عليهم جَحْفاً جَحْفا. 

‘The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha’, volume 2, page 57 and 58.

[86] The History of Tabari, published in "Dar-ul-Moaarif Misr", the investigation by Muhammad Abu-al-Fazl Ibrahim, volume 4, page 222, and the publication of "Matbaab Istighamat Ghahera", volume 3, page 288.

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