In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lessons 116-117: The argument of ibn Taihan and Abu Ayyub Ansari with Abu Bakr in the mosque

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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The argument of ibn Taihan and Abu Ayyub Ansari with Abu Bakr in the mosque

The next one who stood up to lecture was Abu al-Haitham bin al-Tahiian, Allah have mercy upon him; he said:

يَا مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ! اشْهَدُوا عَلَى أنِّى أشْهَدُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله أنِّى سَمِعْتُهُ يقُولُ: مَنْ كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ فَعَلِىُّ مَوْلَاه.

'O the community of the people! Bear witness that now I am bearing witness that I heard the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, say: "Whomsoever I am Master to, so is this Ali his Master!" When the Supporters heard the statement of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, said: 'in this way, he is after the Guardianship;' and the Quraish said: 'he want a permanent Guardianship.'

The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, got to know that dispute and early morning held Ali on his hand and set out for the mosques, there, he said:

مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ! إنَّ عَلِيَّا فِيكُمْ كًالسَّمَآءِ السَّابِعَة فِى السَّماوَاتِ. وَ عَلِىُّ فِيكُم كَالشَّمْس فِى الْفَلَكَ، بِهَا تَهْتَدِى النُّجُومُ. وَ عَلِىُّ إمَامُكُمْ وَ خَليفَتِى فيكُمْ؛ بِذَلِكَ أوْصَانى جَبْرَئيلُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ عَنْ رَبِّى؛ وَ أخَذَ اللهُ ميثَاقَهُ عَلَى أهْلِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَ الْأرَضينَ مِنَ الْجِنَّ وَ الْانْسِ وَ الْمِلَائِكَة، فَمَنْ أقَرَّ بِهِ وَ آمَنَ بِهِ كَانَ مُؤمِناً [وَ هُوَ] فِى الْجَنَّة يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة، وَ مَنْ أنْكَرَهُ وَ جَحَدَهُ كَانَ كَافراً [وَ هُوَ] فِى النَّارِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة...

'O the community of the people! Surely among you, Ali is like the seventh sky in the midst of the skies! And among you, Ali is like the sun in the firmament, by that the stars find their ways and move about. And Ali is your Imam, and so is he my Successor among you. Concerning this, Gabriel informed me by my Creator. And concerning the Guardianship of Ali, Allah has taken the covenants of skies and the earth(s), the jinn and the angels to bear witness. Therefore, whoever confesses and believes in Ali, he is a faithful, and he will be in paradise on the Day to come. But whoever denies him is a disbeliever and he will be in the Fire on the Day to come…'

This is the statement of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants that the relater, Abu al-Heitham, utters it in front of Abu Bakr, Omar, all the Immigrants and the Supporters. It is the explicit statement concerning the Imamate and the Guardianship of the Holiness announced by the Messenger; it is not the statement of the hard-lined Shiite coming from Qum or Kashan – let the so-called caliph know that the truth will out!

The next one who stood up to lecture was Abu Ay‘yu:b Ansari

After praising Allah and saluting the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, he said:

يَا مَعْشَرَ النَّاسِ! أقُولُ: اتَّقُوا اللهَ فى أهْلِ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّكُمْ فَلَا تَظْلِمُوهُمْ فَقَدْ سَمِعْتُمْ مَا أعَدّ اللهُ للِظَّالِمينَ [فَإنَّهُ كَمَا قَالَ أنَّا أعْتَدْنَا لِلظَّالِمينَ‏] نَاراً أحَاطَ بِهِمْ سُرَادِقُهَا، وَ قَالَ: إنَّ الذَّيِنَ [يأكُلُوْنَ أمْوَالَ الْيَتامَى ظُلْمًا إنَّمَا] يأكُلُونَ فِى بُطُونِهِمْ نَاراً وَ سَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرا.  

'O the community of the people! Concerning how to deal with the Household of the Messenger turn to Allah and be apprehensive of Him not oppressing them. [You have heard what Allah has prepared for the oppressors; He has prepared something that He says]: We have prepare a fire whose flames, dusts and smokes encircle them from everywhere, and He has stated: Surely those who devour the properties of the orphans unjustly ingest nothing into their bellies but fire, and they will finally end up in a fierce Blaze.'

When the lecture reached at this point, the people in the mosque wept and mourned, and then they all together stood up and walked out of the mosque. Abu Bakr remained on the pulpit but confused! Therefore, Abu Obedah Jarrah went closer and took him to his house. The riots were going on for three successive days. On the third day, Othman bin Af‘fan along with a hundred men, and Moghirat bin Sho‘ba with a hundred armed men with the unsheathed swords in their hands to fight.[18]

As the writer of the book claims to be the historian he must be aware of this fact that Omar bin Khattab along with that huge group of the people took Abu Bakr on his hand and both went to the mosque threatening the gathering to pay homage; it was then Khalid bin Saeed bin Aas stood up and said:

يَا عُمَرُ! أفَبِأسْيَافِكُمْ تُهَدِّدُوُنَنَا؟ أمْ بِجَمْعِكُمْ تُفَزِّعُونَنَا؟ وَ اللهِ لَوْلَا أنِّى أعْلَمُ أنَّ طَاعَة إمَامِى أوْجَبُ مِنْ جِهَاد عَدُوِّى إذَا لَضَرَبْتُكُمْ بِسَيْفِى هَذَا.

[Khalid bin Saeed bin Aas said]: 'O Omar! Are you threatening us with your [unsheathed] swords? Or you are frightening us by your men! By Allah, if I was not aware that the obedience of my Imam was more incumbent to me than jihad I would strike you with this sword of mine!'

Then, he said: إئْذَنْ لِى يَا أمِيرَ الْمُؤمِنينَ فى جِهَادِ أعْدَآئِك 'O the Commander of the believers let me to fight your enemy!'

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Not permitting to fight with swords after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants

However, the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, did not let him carry out his will, just because of the present situation, the policy, the announcement of the authority, the death of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants. And that he was afraid of the enemy, and the mocking of the Immigrants and the Supporters caused him to sit and wait. Again, each one of those great men in the mosque stood up and said something which all have been recorded in the books.

The Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, made everyone sit, for his obedience was incumbent to them and they obeyed him and sat down.

First they believed it was their right to fight, however the so-called caliph thought it was a small accident and as it was a new religion, a group of lowly people were interfering it!

Praise be to Allah that neither Ali al-Mortaza, Upon Him be Peace, practiced dissimulation nor did Abbas, and nor the companions of the Commander of the believers.

First of all, it is a clear statement that Ali, Upon Him be Peace, is the first proof and the men of wisdom know it is not right the world to be empty such an Imam.

Secondly, it is the testimony of the Qur'an that the verses of the Qur'an have been revealed for the sake of Ali. The third one is the information of Muhammad Mustafa stated. The fourth is the rightful Shiites unanimous opinions concerning him; and all cannot be explained in this brief book. And contrary to what that stupid anti-Shiite says, his Imamate is a clear as the crystal.

First of all, in that famous sermon, he sates this sentence:

 أمَا وَ اللهِ لَقَدْ تَقَمَّصَهَا ابْنَ أبِى قُحَافَة وَ إنَّهُ لَيَعْلَمُ أنَّ مَحَلِّى مِنْهَا مَحَلُّ الْقُطْبِ مِنَ الرَّحَى‏

which means, Abu Bakr wore the shirt of the Caliphate, while he knows that I am the axis for the mill. Then, when it becomes Omar's turn, he says:

 فَيَا عَجَباً بَيْنَا هُوَ يَسْتَقيلُهَا فى حَيَاتِهِ إذْ عَقَدَهَا لِآخَرَ بَعْدَ وَفَاتِه‏

'It is very surprising that he is discharging the life, and right on the day of his death, he delivers authority to Omar!' And he rejects Omar with this statement:

 جَعَلَهَا فِى جَمَاعَة زَعَمَ أنِّى أحَدُهُمْ، فَيَا للهِ وَ لِلشُّورَى.‏

 'How wide gap is between the Council and me!'

  إلَى أنْ قَامَ ثَالِثُ الْقَوْمِ نَافِجاً حِضَنَيْه‏

Therefore, all these are about his rightfulness and denial to their choices!

It is surprising that after five hundred years, only Hal‘laj[19] and Shane-Terash got to know the fact, but Ali, Upon Him be Peace, Abbas, Salman, Buzar, the Immigrants and the Supporters did not see the case and could not realize the fact! [They logically know that it is not what they have invented, they should know that] any sessions and gatherings against Ali, Upon Him be Peace, are baseless and wrong. And any plan and event against the will of Hassan and Hussein are void! And any argument about Salman, Buzar, Miqdad, Khozaima and Abu: Ay‘yūb are considered to be doubtful. The statement:

 ألَا إنَّ الْحَقَّ مَعَ عَلِىُّ، وَ عَلِىُّ مَعَ الْحَقِّ يَدُورُ مَعَهُ حَيْثُما دَار

'Be aware that the Right is with Ali and so is Ali with the Right, and the Right always follows Ali, wherever he goes it turns to him,' proves the fact.

This is the religion of the rightful people, and the answer for that doubtful alien is as it goes! And the eminent rightful Imam after Muhammad Mustafa, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, is the Commander of the believers. He is as the manifest text by the Lord of the worlds; he is the spirit of the great messengers. [And] praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the worlds.[20]

It must be mentioned that the objection of the Immigrants and the Supporters to Abu Bakr in the Mosque of the Messenger, and their statements that we explained word by word, as well as the opinions of the great and respectable Abd-ul-Jalil, have been written by the Sunnite and Shiite in their different books.

One of them is the great Sheikh Abu: Ja‘far, Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Khalid bin Abdullah Barqi, who is from the town of Barq of Qum, he was of the chiefs of his religion, Kufi. He was died in 280, or six years before that date.[21] This great Sheikh has mentioned in his book "رجال", which is known as "رجالِ برقی", under the title of the rejecters, who are twelve men: six of them are from the Immigrants and the other six from the Supporters:

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Twelve great men of the Immigrants and the Helpers denied Abu Bakr in the mosque

The six Immigrants are: Khalid bin Saeed bin al-Aas, who was from Bani Omayyad, Abuza Gheffari, Salman Farsi, Meghdad bin Aswad, Boraida Aslami, Am‘mār Yasir. And the six Supporters are: Khozaima bin Thabit, Sahl bin Hunaif, Abu al-Haitham bin Tahyan, Ghais bin Sa‘d bin Obada Khazraji, Abi bin Ka‘b and Abu Ay‘yu:b Ansari. And then, he says: 'All these went to the mosque on Friday, and then, one after another stood up objecting Abu Bakr while he was lecturing on the pulpit.' We already mentioned their straight objections against Abu Bakr's caliphate, and confirming the Caliphate's of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace. We mentioned all their objections in details up to the last words of Abu Ay‘yu:b who said:

اتق الله[22] و ردوا الأمر الى أهل بيت نبيكم، فقد سمعتم ما سمعنا، ان القائم مقام نبينا بعده على بن أبى طالب عليه السلام، و انه لا يبلغ عنه الا هو، و لا ينصح لامته غيره‏     

'Do fear Allah,[23] turn this Caliphate to the rightful man of the Household of the Messenger! Certainly you have heard what we have heard; in fact, the rightful Successor to the Messenger of Allah is Ali bin Abī Tālib, and no one can propagate anything of the messenger's statements except Ali, and no one can advise the nation by only Ali.'

His words of objection ended and Abu Bakr descended the pulpit. It was until the following Friday, when Omar unsheathed his sword and cried: 'I am not interested to hear such words that man said in the mosque, or I shall behead him with this sword of mine!' And then, he along with Salim Mula Abu Huzaifa, Moaaz bin Jabal and Abu Obaida unsheathed their swords, set out for the house of Abu Bakr and brought him to the mosque and climbed the pulpit.[24]

The second was the great Sheikh Abu Ja‘far Muhammad bin Ali bin Hussein bin Babwiia Qummi; he is Sheikh Sadough who died in 381. This highest positioned man, quoting the great grandson of Barqi, has mentioned this narrative in his book "خصال" as: 'Related it to me Ali bin Ahmad bin Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Abi Abdullah Barqi saying: 'Related it to me Nahiki, from Abu Muhammad Khalaf bin Salim, quoting Muhammad bin Ja‘far from Shoba, and he quoting it from Othman bin Moghira, he too from Zaid bin Wahab saying that: Those people who rejected Abu Bakr's taking the position of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, and having the Caliphate in his disposal were twelve men among the Immigrants and the Supporters.' And he relates the event as it is. However when counting their names one after another, he has mentioned Ghais bin Sa‘d bin Obada instead of Abdullah bin Mas‘ōōd.[25]

The third one is the great Sheikh Abu Mansour Ahmad bin Ali bin Abī Tālib Tabarsi, who is the great scholar of the religion. He was at the start of the sixth century of the Immigration, because he was contemporary with Abu al-Fotoh Razi and fazl bin Hasam Tabarsi, the writer of "مجمع البیان", who died in the year 548; as well as Muhammad bin Ali bin Shahr Aashub, his student, who died 588. He has mentioned this book in details in the book of "احتجاج", section titled "ذكر طَرفٍ ممَّا جَرَى بَعْدَ وَفَاة رسول الله صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم من اللّجاج و الحجاج فى أمِر الخلافة". He has quoted this narrative from Aban bin Taghlib, he too from the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace. The only slight difference is in mentioning the names of the twelve men, instead of Ghais bin Sa‘d bin Obada, he has mentioned Sohail's brother, Othman bin Honaif.[26]

The fourth one is the great gentle and noble sayyid Razi ad-Din Abu al-Ghasim Ali bin Musa bin Tavous Husseini Hilli, who died in 664, lunar year. He is famous among the greatest scholars and the learned.

He has mentioned it in the book of "کشفُ اليَقين فِى اخْتِصَاصِ موْلَانَا عَلِىٍّ بِإمرة الْمُؤمِنين", which is known as: [27]"كتاب يَقين‏": 'This section is about the subjects that Ahmad bin Muhammad Tabari, known as Khalili, related them from the books of the Sunnite. In that book, he has mentioned concerning the twelve who rejected Abu Bakr after his taking the Caliphate; and he has also mentioned some of the companions who have quoted the Messenger of Allah titling Ali bin Abī Tālib as the Commander of the believers. And Muhammad bin Jarir Tabari has also related this story in his history book known as " مناقب الائمّة عليهم السّلام‏" (the virtues of the Imams, Upon them be Peace); and contrary to Tabari, some have exaggerated it in their explanations.

Then, he says: know that the Shiite has successively related this narrative; and if the narrative belonged only to Shiite we would not related it! It is because the scholars of the Shiite are condemned by the scholars of the Sunnite; thus we are just quoting them so the main writer to be responsible to it. Then he says: Ahmad bin Muhammad Tabari has related it exactly as it is. He has related the story of the twelve men who had denied Abu Bakr when sitting on the pulpit of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants. And he continues: Ahmad bin Abi Hussein Aameri related it to us, saying: "We were related by my uncle Abu Moammar Shobat Kheitham Asadi saying that, Othman A‘sha had quoted Zeid bin Wahab: then he went on telling us the story.[28]

And Allama Majlisi, may Allah be satisfied with, has related in details this story by means of three books of: "احتجاج، كشف اليقين‏ ،خصال", and then he has commented on it.[29]

And the late miraculous sign of Allah, Sheikh Abdullah Mamghani has written a chapter in "تنقيح المقال‏" about the twelve men objected Abu Bakr for usurping the caliphate; and he has added the narrative of "Khesal" from the "Behar al-Anwar" in it; and then he has mentioned the narrative of "احتجاج" in it. [30]

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From the beginning of Abu Bakr's caliphate, Ali's party called him as a usurp

Anyhow the objection of the companions of the Messenger of Allah and the followers of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace,   to the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and Omar is as clear as the sun, and there is no doubt in it in the history books. Right from the beginning, the Shiite considered the chosen caliphate to be usurper and took the caliphs as the usurpers.

Abdullah Anan Mohami says:

وَ كَانَ لِعَلىٍّ حِزبُ يُنادِى بِخِلَافَتِهِ عُقْبِ النَّبِىِّ مُبَاشَرَة، وَ يَرَى أنَّهُ هُوَ وَ بنُوهُ أحَقُّ النَّاسِ بِهَا.  

'And there had been a party for Ali bin Abī Tālib who would announce the eminent Caliphate his after the Messenger of Allah; they believed that he as well as his off spring deserve being the Caliph more than other people.' He continues the subject and then says:

وَ مِنَ الْخَطآءِ أنْ يُقَالَ: إنَّ الشِّيعَة إنّمَا ظَهَرُوا لِأوَّلِ مَرَة عِنْدَ انْشِقَاقِ الْخَوَارِجِ، وَ إنَّهُمْ سَمُّوا كَذَلِكَ لِبَقَآئِهِمْ إلَى جَانِبِ عَلِىٍّ. فَشِيعة عَلِىٍّ ظَهَروا مُنْذُوفَاة النَّبِىِّ كَمَا قَدَّمْنَا.[31]

'And it is wrong to say that in the beginning, the Shiite section came to existence when the Khawaridge were separating from the army of Ali, and then, to call them the Shiite because they are the followers of Ali, Upon Him be Peace. As we had already mentioned it, Ali's Shiite came to sight since the demise of the Messenger.

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The word of ibn Khaldoun in the beginning of the Shiite government and soon after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants

Ibn Khaldown says:

مَبْدَأ دَوْلَة الشِّيعَة: إعْلَمْ أنَّ مَبْدَأ هَذِهِ الدُّوْلَة أنَّ أهْلَ الْبَيْتِ لَمَّا تُوُفِّى رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ (و آله) وَ سلَّمْ كَانُوا يَرَوْنَ أنَّهُمْ أحَقُّ بِالْأمْرِ، وَ أنَّ الْخِلَافَة لِرِجَالِهِمْ دوُنَ مَنْ سِوَاهُمْ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ.

Know that the origin of this government was found since the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, at that state, the Household were sure that they deserved the Caliphate, and it had to be among their men but not the others as the parties of the Quraish.

Then, he says:

وَ فِى الصَّحِيحٍ أيْضاً أنَّ رَسُولَ الله صلّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم قالَ فى مَرَضِهِ الَذّى تُوْفِّى فِيِه: هَلُمُّوا أكْتُب لَكُمْ كِتاباً لَنْ تَضِلوُّا بَعْدَهُ أبَدا. فَاخْتَلَفُوا عِنْدَهُ فِى ذَلِكَ وَ تَنازَعُوا وَ لَمْ يَتِمَّ الْكِتَابُ. وَ كَانَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ يَقُولُ: الرَّزيَّة كُلُّ الرَّزيَّة مَا حَالَ بَيْنَ رَسُولِ الله صَلّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم وَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابِ لِاخْتَلَافِهِمْ وَ لَغْطَهِمْ. حَتَّى لَقَدْ ذَهَبَ كَثِيرُ مِنَ الشَيعَة إلَى أنَّ النَّبِىَّ صلّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم أوْصَى فى مَرَضِهِ ذَلِكَ لِعَلِىٍّ وَ لَمْ يَصِحَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ وَجْهٍ يُعَوقَّلُ عَلَيْهِ، وَ قَدْ أنْكَرَتْ هَذِهِ الْوَصِيَّة عَائِشَة وَ كَفَى بِإنْكَارِهَا.

Then he says:

 وَ فِى قِصَّة الشُّورَى أنَّ جَماعَة مِنَ الصَّحَابِة كَانُوا يَتَشَيَّعوُنَ لِعَلِىٍّ، وَ يَرَوْنَ اسْتِحْقَاقَهُ عَلَى غَيْرِه، وَ لَمَّا عُدِلَ بِهِ إلَى سِوَاهُ تَأفّفُوا مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَ أسِفُوا لَهُ مِثْلُ الزُّبَيْرِ وَ مَعَهُ عَمَّارُ بْنُ يَاسِرٍ وَ الْمِقْدَادُ بْنَ الْأسْوَدِ وَ غَيْرُهُمْ، إلَّا أنَّ الْقَوْمَ لِرُسُوخِ قَدَمِهِمْ فِى الدِّينِ وَ حَرْصِهِمْ عَلَى الْألُفْة لَمْ يَزيدُوا فى ذَلِكَ عَلَى الْنَّجْوَى بِالتَّأفُّفَّ وَ الْأسَف.[32]

The origin of the Shiite Government:

'It is also written in "Sahih" that: When the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was fallen ill and shortly was to die, he said to the gathering in the room: 'Come on! I am going to write my will to prevent you getting lost after me!' But they began disputing in front of the Messenger of Allah and the letter was not written.'

And ibn Abbas always said: 'Disaster! The greatest disaster was that which caused separation between the Messenger of Allah and that letter, and their disagreement and dispute in that assembly.' Even majority of the Shiites believe that, in his serious illness, the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, made his will and selected Ali as his Successor. However, it was not accepted, because Aisha denied such covenant and her sole disagreement was enough to invalid the will.[33]

In the case of the Council, a handful of the companions of the Messenger were following, they were always carrying his command. They had accepted his Shi‘ism and preferred to obey him than others. However, when the course of the Caliphate was changed, they became hopeless and was despaired – similar to Zubair, Am‘mar and Yasir who were close together. As they were sincere and loyal to Ali, the Commander of the believers, as well loved their religion Islam more than the others, (they did not used their swords to fight the enemies) they just waited to see the outcome.

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The statement of Masoudi, when backing the scholars of the Shiite, concerning the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace

The great historian Abu al-Hassan Ali bin Hussein Mas‘ōōdi who died in 346 of the Immigration Year, says:

وَ قَدْ كَانَ عَمَّارُ حِينُ بُويَع عُثْمَانُ، بَلَغَهُ قَوْلُ أبِى سُفْيَانَ: صَخْرُ بِنُ حَرْبٍ فِى دَار عُثْمانَ، عَقِيبَ الْوَقْتِ الَّذى بوُيعَ فِيِه عُثْمَانُ وَ دَخَلَ دَارَهُ وَ مَعَهُ بَنُو امَيَّة فَقَالَ أبُو سُفْيَان: أفِيكُمْ أحَدُ مِنْ غَيْرُكُمْ؟- وَ قَدْ كَانَ عَمىَ- قَالُوا: لَا! قَالَ: يَا بَنِى امَيَّة! تَلَقَّفُوهَا تَلقُّفَ الْكُرَة! فَوَالّذِى يَحْلِفُ بِهِ أبُو سُفْيَانَ مَازِلْتُ أرْجُوهَا لَكُمْ، وَ لِتَصِيَرنَّ إلَى صِبْيَانِكُمْ وِرَاثَة.! فَاْنتَهَرَه عُثْمَانُ وَ سَآءَهُ مَا قَالَ.

وَ نَمىَ هَذَا الْقَوْلَ إلَى الْمُهَاجِرينَ وَ الْأنصارِ وَ غَيْرُ ذَلِكَ الْكَلَامِ.

فَقَامَ عَمَّارُ فِى الْمَسْجِدِ فَقَالَ: يَا مَعْشَرَ قُرَيْشٍ! أمَا إذَا صَرَفْتُمْ هَذَا الْأمْرَ عَنْ أهْلِ بَيْتِ نَبِيِّكُمْ هَهُنَا مَرَّة وَ هَهُنَا مَرَّة، فَمَا أنَا بِآمِنٍ مِنْ أنْ يَنْزَعَهُ اللهُ مِنْكُمْ، فَيَضَعَهُ‏

فِى غَيْرِكُمْ كَمَا نَزَعْتُمُوهُ مِنْ أهْلِهِ وَ وَضَعْتُمُوهُ فى غَيْرِ أهْلِهِ!

 وَ قَامَ الْمِقْدَادُ فَقَالَ: مَا رَأيْتُ مِثْل مَا اوذِىَ بِهِ أهْلُ هَذَا الْبَيْتِ بَعْدَ نَبِيِّهِمْ. فَقَالَ لَهُ عَبْدُ الرّحمن بْنُ عَوْفَ: وَ مَا أنْتَ وَ ذَاكَ يَا مِقْدَادَ بْنَ عَمْروٍ؟!

فَقَالَ: إنِّى وَ اللَّهِ لَاحِبُّهُمْ لِحُبِّ رَسُولِ الله صلّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم إيَّاهُمْ؛ وَ إنَّ الْحَقَّ مَعَهُمْ وَ فيهمْ. يَا عَبْدَ الرّحمن! أعْجَبُ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ- وَ إنّمَا تُطَوِّلُهُمْ عَلَى النَّاسِ بِفَضْلِ أهْلِ هَذَا الْبَيْتِ- قَدِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى نَزْعِ سُلْطَانِ رَسُولِ الله صلّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم بِعْدَهُ مِنْ أيْديهِمْ! أمَا وَ أيْمُ اللهِ يَا عَبْدَ الرّحمن لَوْ أجِدُ عَلَى قُرَيْشٍ أنْصَاراً لَقَاتَلْتُهُمْ كِقِتَالِى إيَّاهُمْ مَعَ الَّنبِىِّ- عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاة وَ السَّلَامُ- يَوْمَ بَدْر.

وَ جَرَى بَيْنَهُمْ مِنَ الْكَلَامِ خَطْبُ طَوِيلُ قَدْ أتَيْنَا عَلَى ذِكْرِهِ فِى كِتَابِنَا «أخبار الزَّمَانِ» فى أخْبَارِ الشُّورَى وَ الدَّار.[34]

Then, later on when they swore allegiance with Othman, they together with Bani Omayyad went to his house, prior to it, Am'mar bin Yasir was informed that Abu Sofyan, whose real name was Sakhr bin Harab, had told a group of the people of Bani Omayyad: 'Is there an alien among you?' (It was because Abu Sofyan had lost his eyesight and could not see any more).[35] They answered: 'No.' Abu Sofyan had said: 'O Bani Omayyad! Keep this Caliphate and the statesmanship as a ball to play with you! Do pass it to one another! By whom now Abu Sofyan is swearing now, I always hoped you would get this Caliphate and the statesmanship. And after you it must go to your offspring!' Othman disliked this statement and put him down. Then, this expression and also other statements found way among the Immigrants and the Supporters.

Then, Am‘mar Yasir stood up in the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah and said: 'O the company of the Quraish! Be aware! You are manipulating this Caliphate of the Household, once you take it this way and the next day other way round! I am not in peace, for I am afraid that Allah may take it from you and leave it with some people other than you – as you take it away from the real owner and gave it to the alien!'

And after Am‘mar, Mighdad stood up and said: 'I have never seen anyone to suffer as much as the Household have gone through and have been annoyance!' Then, Abd-ur-Rahman Auf told him: 'What is your business interfering this case, o Mighdad bin Amru?'

Mighdad said: 'By Allah, because of Allah's affection towards them, I love them; and I am sure that the right is with them. O Abd-ur-Rahman! I am surprised at you that you have supported the Quraish and made them dominate the Household and their virtues! Know that after the demise of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, they have struggled to get the Caliphate away from the household! Be aware, O Abd-ur-Rahman! If I could find some supporters for me, I would surely fight the Quraish; I would fight them similar to that I fought alongside the Messenger of Allah in the battle of Badr on the day of Ghazva.'

There was an ugly dispute between Abd-ur-Rahman Auf and Mighdad, we have mentioned that discussion in our separate book known as [36]"اخبار آخر الزّمان". It is mostly about the position of the Council, which is a house where Othman was selected as the Caliph.

With his own documents from Omar bin Ali bin al-Hussein, ibn Asakar has related:

قَالَ مَرْوَانُ بْنُ الْحَكَمِ: مَا كَانَ فِى الْقَوْمِ أحَدُ أدْفَعَ عَنْ صَاحِبِنَا مِنْ صاحِبكُمْ- يَعْنى عَلِيّاً عَنْ عُثْمانَ- قالَ: قُلْتُ لَهُ: فَما لَكُمُ تَسُبُّونَهُ عَلَى الْمَنابِرِ؟! قالَ: لَا يَسْتَقيمُ الْأمْرُ إلَّا بِذَلِك.[37]

Marwan bin Hakam told the Holiness Imam Sajjad Ali bin al-Hussein, Upon Him be Peace: 'None of the companions of the Messenger of Allah supported our master than your master – that is Ali supported Othman,' – so I told him: 'Then, why do you curse him in your sermon in the mosques?' Marwan said: 'We do not approve the Caliphate and the Statesmanship without cursing Ali!'

Ahmad Amin Misri has said:

وَ قَدْ بَدَأ التَّشَيُّعُ مِنْ فِرْقَة مِنَ الْصَّحابَة كَانُوا مُخْلِصينَ فى حَبِّهِمْ لِعَلىٍّ يَرَوْنهُ أحَقّ بِالْخِلافَة لِصِفاتٍ رَأوْهَا فيهِ؛ مِنْ أشْهَرِهِمْ سَلْمَانُ الْفَارْسِىُّ وَ أبُو ذَرٍّ الْغَفَارِىُّ وَ الْمِقْدادُ بْنُ الْأسْوَدٍ. وَ تَكَاثَرَتْ شِيعَتُهُ لَمَّا نَقَمَ النَّاسُ عَلَى عُثْمانَ فِى السَّنَواتِ الْأخيرَة مِنْ خِلَافَتِهِ ثُمَّ لَمّا وَلِىَ الْخَلَافَة.[38]

'In the beginning of the Shi‘ism, there grew a group of the people among the companions of the Messenger of Allah who were known as the sincere lovers of Ali. They got to know some real attributes of the Holiness and thought it was right to take him as the Caliph. The most sincere among them were Salman Farsi, Abuzar Ghaffari and Mighdad bin Aswad. Because in the earlier years, as Othman was hated for his unsociable manner and the people did not like him, day by day the followers of Ali increased; and later on, when Ali took his right and became the Caliph, his followers even got larger.'

Osamat bin Zaid objected Othman's caliphate, and he wrote a letter to him saying that where he brought such a position.

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Omar and Abu Bakr were under the banner of Osama, and Osama was their Emir

Ibn Abi al-Hadid says: 'As the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was seriously ill, he called Osama bin Zaid bin Haritha to him and said: "Set out for the land where your father is killed within; attack them with the horses! I have chosen you the commander of this army. And if Allah gave you a chance and you become victorious over them, do not delay more; set up your spies everywhere there to get to know the situation of the enemy. And send the news of the enemy to me as soon as possible, and let the news-carrier march in the front line of the army. And the Messenger did not ignore any of the Immigrants and the Supporters but he joined them in that army – and Abu Bakr and Omar were included.

Some of them objected saying: 'He has chosen this young Immigrant as the commander of the army!' As the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, heard their remarks, he became furious. He left his house for the mosque, and there, he climbed the pulpit while wrapping up his head with a piece of cloth and having a robe with him. Then, he said:

فَقَالَ: أيُّهَا النَّاسُ! مَا مَقَالَة بلَغَتْنِى عَنْ بَعْضِكُمْ فِى تَأمِيرى اسَامَة، لَئِنْ طَعَنْتُم فِى تَأمِيرى اسَامَة فَقَدْ طَعَنْتُمْ فِى تَأمِيرِى أبَاهُ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ. وَ أيْمُ اللهِ أنْ كَانَ لَخَلِيقاً بِالْإمَارَة، وَ ابْنُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ لَخَلِيقُ بِهَا، وَ إنَّهُمَا لَمِنْ أحَبِّ النَّاسِ إلَىَّ! فَاسْتَوْصُوا بِهِ خَيْراً فَإنَّهُ مِنْ خِيَارِكُم.

'And he said, 'O people! What nonsense you say about my choosing Osama as the Emir of the army? By Allah, if you are now mocking me for my choosing him as the Emir, you were also already mocking me for choosing his father as the Emir. By Allah, his father, Zaid bin Haritha, was a competent man for the statesmanship, and his son is also competent for the same position. These two are the most beloved persons for me. So take my word and advice as a sign of kindness concerning him, because Osama is of your close friends.'

Then, the Messenger descended the pulpit and went to his house. Since then, the Muslims, one after another, went to the Messenger and while bidding him farewell they joined to Osama's army.

The Messenger's indisposition was deteriorating day by day, and he was trying to join the famous men of the Quraish to the army of Osama:

وَ قَالَ: اغْدْ عَلَى بَرَكَة اللهِ! وَ جَعَلَ يَقُولُ: انْفُذُوا بَعْثَ اسَامَة! وَ يُكَرِّرُ ذَلِكَ. فَوَدَّعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم وَ خَرَجَ وَ مَعَهُ أبُو بَكْرٍ وَ عُمَر.[39]

He said [to Osama]: 'With the help and blessing of Allah, next day morning, get ready to set out!' And, in the mean time, he was advising the people to join his army; and he insisted in his command. Osama bid farewell with the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and moved on; Abu Bakr and Omar were also in his army and under his command.

Before moving the army ahead, Osama said to the Messenger of Allah: 'O Messenger! May my father and mother be made your sacrifice! Would you please let me stay in Medina and witness you are recovering?! If I leave you at this situation, I will always feel a great agony inside me!'

The Messenger of Allah stated: 'O Osama, move on to where I have commanded you, because it is not permissible to sit and delay the jihad!'[40]

Here, we clearly see that the Messenger of Allah has joined the greatest men, such as: Abu Bakr, Omar, Abu Obaida Jarrah, Moghirat bin Sho‘ba, Othman bin Affan, Moaaz bin Jabal, and also the other famous men of the Immigrants and the Supporters to the army of Osama and all are under his control. However, the successive narrative by the Shiite and the Sunnite have related that at that time the Commander of the believers, Ali, Upon Him be Peace, was not in the army of Osama; the Messenger of Allah had not commanded him to join that army.

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The objection of Osamat bin Zaid and Abu Ghahafa to his son Abu Bakr while a Caliph

Among the people who objected the Caliphate of Abu Bakr was Osama, he said: 'The Messenger of Allah assigned me as the Emir upon you!'

The great Sheikh Abd-ul-Jalil Ghazvini says: As in the beginning of his Caliphate, Abu Bakr Abu Ghah'hafa writes a letter to Osama under the title of: مِنْ أبى بَكرٍ خَليفَهِ رَسُولِ اللهِ إلَى اسَامَة بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ عَتيق (from Abu Bakr, the Caliphate of the Messenger of Allah to Osama, the son of Zaid, whose father was freed by the Messenger of Allah) has denied him and answering him:

مِنَ الْأمِيرِ اسَامَة بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ عَتيقٍ إلَى ابْنِ أبى قُحَافَة: أمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإذَا أتَاكَ كِتَابِى فَالْحَقْ بِمَكَانِكَ، فَإنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم بَعَثَنَى أميراً وَ بَعثَك أنْتَ وَ صَاحِبَكَ فِى الْخَيْل؛ وَ أنَا أمِيرُ عَلَيْكُمَا أمَّرنَى رَسُولُ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم.[41]

'From the Emir, son of Zaid, the freed one by the Messenger of Allah to the son of Abu Ghah'hafa: but then, when my letter reaches you, do sit where you are at your position! Because the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, has nominated me as an Emir upon you; and remember who has directed you and your friend to march forward among the horses and the horsemen! Thus, I am the Emir of you two, and this government and the statesmanship is from the Messenger of Allah to me.'

And it is related in the 'Ihtijaj' of Tabari that when Abu Bakr was chosen as the Caliph, his father, Abu Ghah'hafa was at Taeef then. Abu Bakr wrote a letter to his father as:

مِنْ خَليِفَة رَسُولِ اللهِ إلَى أبِى قُحَافَة: أمَّا بَعْدُ، فَإنَّ النَّاسَ قَدْ تَرَاضَوْا بِى؛ فَإنِّى الْيَوْمَ خَلِيفَة اللهِ! فَلَوْ قَدِمْتَ عَلَيْنَا كَانَ أقَرَّ لِعَيْنِك!

From the Caliph of the Messenger of Allah to Abu Ghah'hafa: 'And now, almost everyone is satisfied with my government, therefore, from now on, I am the Caliph by Allah! If you come to us, it will be delightful to see and our eyes will be illuminated by seeing you.'

When Abu Ghah'hafa read the letter, he asked the apostle what was the matter that they had not assigned Ali to be as the Caliph. The apostle said: 'He was too young, and his killing exceeded among the Quraish and even none Quraish; however, Abu Bakr if older than he is.'

Abu Ghah'hafa said: 'If the question of the Caliphate is the 'age', I more deserve it for I am his father. They did injustice against Ali by usurping his right; and the Messenger commanded us to pay homage to Ali.'

Then, he wrote a letter under this title: From Abu Ghah'hafa to his son: And then, know that I received your letter! I found it weird as one part rejected the other part. Once you have said: 'The Caliph, Messenger of Allah,' and next you say: 'The Caliph of Allah;' and finally say: 'The people are satisfied with m!'

'This is an affair decorated by you! Do not involve in an affair that has difficult ending, its consequence, on the Day of Resurrection, to be regression, and reproaching at the station of reckoning! There must be an entrance for every affair and a door to leave it. Do you know who is rightful person and has privilege in the Caliphate? Be so careful of Allah that as if you always see Him! And do not leave the right owner of the Caliphate on his own – know that it is much better and easy for you to leave the Caliphate today!' [42] 

Now, it is time we brought up the discussion about the Caliphate of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, with a related narrative. Tabari has related a narrative from Zeiad bin Matraf that:

 سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم يَقُولُ: مَنْ أحَبَّ أنْ يَحْيَى حَياتِى، وَ يَمُوتَ ميتَتى، وَ يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّة الَتى وَعَدَنى رَبِّى قَضْباً مِنْ قُضْبَانِهَا غَرَسَهَا فِى‏ جنّة الْخُلْدِ، فَلْيَتَوَلَّ عَلِىَّ بْنَ أبيطَالبٍ وَ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ، فَإنَّهُمْ لَنْ يُخْرِجُوهُمْ مِنْ بابِ هُدًى، وَ لَنْ يُدْخِلُوهُمْ فِى بَابِ ضَلَالَة.[43]

'Zeiad bin Matraf said: 'I heard the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, say: "Whoever likes to live as I do, and to die how I will die, and to enter the paradise that my Creator has promised me that: He will plant a tall tree with a huge foliage and boughs, and hanging branches in paradise, and that must be under the control of Ali bin Abī Tālib and his progeny after him; because they never mislead the nations out of the path of guidance, and they do not lead them to perversion."'

And in "مستدرك‏", Hakim has paraphrased it as Matraf bin Zeiah has quoted Zeid bin Argham saying:

قالَ: رَسوُلُ اللهِ صلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم: مَنْ يُريُد أنْ يَحْيَى حَيَاتى و يَمُوتَ مَوْتى، وَ يَسْكُنَ جَنَّة الْخُلْدِ الَّتى وَعَدَنى رَبَّى، فَلَيَتَوَلَّ عَلِىَّ بْنَ أبى طالبٍ فَإنَّهُ لَنْ يُخْرِجَكُمْ مِنْ هُدًى، وَ لَنْ يُدْخَلِكُمْ فى ضَلَالَة.[44]

'The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, stated: "Whoever wants to live alike my life and die similar to my death, and then abide in the eternity paradise that my Creator has promised me, must have and follow the Guardianship of Ali bin Abī Tālib. For indeed, he never takes you away from the guidance track, nor does he enter you into the perversion."'

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[18] And according to the related narratives in “احتجاج‏” Sheikh Tabarsi, volume 1, page 104, Khalid bin Walid came along with a thousand men, as well as Salim Mula abi Hozaifa with a thousand men; and so di Moaaz bin Jabal with a thousand. Then, one after another arrive until they were four thousand altogether.
[19] The cotton-beatter

[20] The book of “نَقْض‏”, which is known as: “بَعْض مَثَالِبِ النَّواصِب فى نَقْضِ بَعْضِ فَضَائح الرَوافِض‏”, from the page 654 to 669.

[21] “الذَّريعة إلى تَصانيف الشِّيعة” Al’lama Sheikh Aagha Bozorg Tehrani, volume 2, page 122; and the very great man is the author of the book “مَحاسن‏” which is considered of the fundamental books of the Shiite. As Kolaini’s death was in the year of 328 or 329 anno Hejira, in some way, he explains of him. In fact he is of the Sheikhs of Kolaini.
[22] Abu Ay’yub’s addressing to Abu Bakr begins with “اتَّقِ الله‏”, and his addressing to all others busy at Saghifa is with the phrase: “رُدُّوا الْأمْر”.
[23] Same source.
[24] “رجال برقى‏” pages 63-66. In this narrative, the case of those twelve Immigrants and the Supporters have been beautifully related, refer to it.
[25] ”خصال‏”of Sadough, printed in “مطبعه حيدرى‏” section one to twelve, pages 461 to 465 under the title of

الذين انكروا على ابى بكر جُلُوسَه فى الخلافة و تَقَّدُمَه على علىّ بن أبى طالب عليه السَّلام اثنا عشر.”

[26] “احتجاج‏” volume 1, pages 97 to 105.
[27] “الذَّريعة”, volume 18, page 69, number 720. He also says: the book of “كشف اليقين‏” ibn Tavous, has been compiled to accompany “بحار الأنوار”, and he has assigned its secrets codes as “شَف‏” however, Majlisi has thought that book is the “كشف اليقين‏” of Al’lama Hilli, and he attributed it to Al’lama; though Al’lama’s “كشف اليقين‏” that has been printed, its printed narratives are not those printed inبحار الأنوار . Al’lama Hilli has a book called: “كشف اليقين فى فضائل أمير المؤمنين‏” which is numbered 721 and recorded in “الذَّريعة”.
[28] “بحار الأنوار”, page 8, of Kompany’s publication, the section: “كيفيّة غَصْب لصوص الخلَافَة و أهلِ الجلافَة”, pages 42 and 43.
[29] “بحار الأنوار”, volume 8, pages 38 to 44.
[30] “تنقيح المقال‏”, volume 1, الفائدة الثانية عشرة pages 198 to 200.
[31] “تاريخ الجمعيّات السِّرية، و الحركات الهدّامة”, page 26.
[32] The history of Ibn Khaldown, volume 3, pages 170 & 171.
[33] There is no doubt about the testament of the Messenger of Allah to the Commander of the believers, upon them be peace, at the time of his death, the greatest scholars and the historians have mentioned and recorded it. However, as Aisha, the daughter of the chosen Caliph is the first opponent to Ali, she has rejected it! This rejection of hers has made ibn Khaldoun, who is a Sunnite and praised Aisha too much, follow her opinion. Then, according to Aisha’s verdict he has ignored the fact, many narratives of the Messenger of Allah as well as his Household, and on top, his daughter, the Highness Siddigha Zahra, Fatima, peace be upon her.
[34] ”مُرَوج الذَّهَب‏”, printed in ‘دار الاندلس‏’, Beirut, volume 2, pages 342 and 343, and the publication of “مطبعه سعادت مصر”,1367, volume 2, pages 351 and 352.
[35] It means that Abu Sofyan wanted to say it in the Bani Omayyad’s gathering, but not any of the Bani Hashim to be present there; he wanted to keep it secret. And we have explained Abu Sofyan’s direct statements in different way in lessons 91 to 93 of “Knowing the Imams”, page 41, volume seven.
And in volume 2 of “شرح نَهْج البلاغه‏” (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha)”, page 44, ibn Abi-al-Hahid has related of Ahmad bin Abd-ul-Aziz that:

إنَّ أبا سفيان، قال لمّا بويع عُثْمان: كان هذا الأمر فى تَيْم، و أنىَّ لتَيْم هذا الأمر؟ ثمَّ صار إلى عَدّى، فأبعد و أبعد، ثمّ رجعتْ إلى منازلها و استقرَّ الأمر قراره، فتلقّفوها تلقف الكرة

That means, ‘When the people swore allegiance with Othman, Abu Sofyan said: Fist, this affair of the Caliphate came to action in the Tribe of Taim; what does it do with Taim? And then, it started in Tribe of Adia, so it went further away. Then, it turned round to the same districts of its. So do hold it as a ball for your game! Kick it to the next one and carry on your game.’ And in page 45, ibn abi-al-Hadid wuoted Ahmad bin Abd-ul-Aziz that:

إنَّ أبا سفيان قال لعُثْمان: بأبى أنت أنفق و لا تكن كأبى حجر! و تداولوها يا بنى اميّة تداول الولدان الكرة! فو الله ما من جنّة و لا نارٍ. و كان الزبير حاضراً، فقال عُثْمان لأبى سفيان: اعزب! فقال: يا بنىّ ههنا أحد؟! قال الزبير: نعم و الله لا كتمتها عليك!

Abu Sofyan said to Othman: ‘Give me the property altogether, be not like him whose actions were banned! And o Omayyad, like a child, who takes away the ball from his opponent, you take the government for your own and then shoot it to the next one! By Allah, there is neither heaven nor fire!’ Zubair was present in that session; and Othman told Abu Sofyan: ‘Get lost!’ Abu Sofyan said: ‘O my sons, what! Is there anyone here?’ Zubair said: ‘Yes, I swear by Allah that I do not hide this story.’
The narrator of this story, Moghira bin Muhammad says: ‘As I put foreword this story with Ismaeel bin Ishaq Ghazi, he said: ‘This narrative is not right.’ I said, ‘why?’ He answered: ‘I do not reject this word of Abu Sofyan, but I reject Othman’s hearing this word and beheading him!’ (That is: if Abu Sofyan had said so, Othman would behead him).
[36] It has been recorded in the book of “كشف الظّنون‏”, that the statement: “أخبار الزمان و من أباده الحَدَثان‏”, in the history, is the composition of إمام أبى الحسن علىّ بن محمّد بن الحسين (علىّ بن الحسين بن علىّ) مسعودى‏ , died in the year 346 anno Hejira, and it is a great history including the quality of the earth , towns and cities, mountains, the rivers and the mines, great news and reports, genesis and the generation of Adam, the nations who passed and lost and the different geographical territories. Then, he has explained the old kings and the ancient people and their stories. He has mentioned everything in details – year after year. He has explained the events until the time “مُروج الذَّهب‏” was printed in the year 332 anno Hejira. And after printing the book of “أخبار الزمان‏” he has written another book but shorter that that one. And that book, which is called, “اوْسَط”, he has written in brief whatever was in “أخبار الزمان‏”. By doing so, he has written a small book ; and he has arranged the book of “أخبار الزمان‏” in thirty sections.
[37] ”تاريخ دمشق‏”,(The History of Damascus), the translation of الإمام علىّ بن أبى طالب‏ , volume 3, page 98.
[38] “ضحى الإسلام‏”, volume 3, page 209.
[39] "شرح نَهْج البلاغه‏", (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha), volume 1, pages 159 and 160; and “احتجاج طبرسى‏”, volume 1, page 90.
[40] “احتجاج‏”, volume 1, page 90.
[41] “كتاب نقض‏”, page 32; and he has put this letter and respond to it in details in“احتجاج طبرسى‏”, volume 1, page 114.
“احتجاج طبرسى‏”, volume 1, page 115.
[43] “مُنْتَخَبَ ذَيْل المْذَيَّل‏”, page 57.
[44] "مُسْتَدرك حاكم‏", volume 3, page 128; and at the end of the narrative he says: 'This narrative is authentic and not extracted from the documents of the Sheikhs.

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