In the Name of Allah the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful

Imamology, Lessons 118-120

Collected Works of The Muslim Shiite Scholar and Thinker: Allāma Hājj Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Husaynī Tihrānī


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Lessons 118 - 120: To Obtain the Greatest Wishes, All People Must Struggle for the Chairmanship of the Commander of the Believers


In the Name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful

And bless be upon Muhammad and his pure Household, and may Allah's curse be on his enemies from now until the Day of Resurrection! And there is no power or strength except for the Lofty Glorious Allah.

The Wise Allah has stated in His Glorious Book:


قُلۡ هَلۡ نُنَبِّئُكُم بِٱلۡأَخۡسَرِينَ أَعۡمَـٰلاً ﴿102ٱلَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعۡيُہُمۡ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَهُمۡ يَحۡسَبُونَ أَنَّہُمۡ يُحۡسِنُونَ صُنۡعًا﴿103 أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ رَبِّهِمۡ وَلِقَآٮِٕهِۦ فَحَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَـٰلُهُمۡ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ وَزۡنً۬ا ﴿104 ذَٲلِكَ جَزَآؤُهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُ بِمَا كَفَرُواْ وَٱتَّخَذُوٓاْ ءَايَـٰتِى وَرُسُلِى هُزُوًا﴿105 [1]


‘... announce it: ‘Shall We inform you about those who have lost the most through actions?’ 

They are those whose efforts led them astray during the life of this world, while they reckoned they were doing something fine.

They are those who have disbelieved in their Lord’s signs and about meeting Him; their actions will prove to be useless, and We shall set up no weighing for them on Doomsday.

That is their reward: the Hell, because they have disbelieved and taken My signs and My messengers for a laughingstock, (Qur’an: 18/102-105).’

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Leaving the affairs with the most learned and the clear-sighted people is necessary

A man must be careful and rely on Allah when the devil and carnal soul come to him in disguise and try to deviate him from the straight path and take him under their commands and controls. He must take his own guard that they constantly whispear in his ear to help the religion and the people, his responsibility towards society and announcing him the lack of capable ones, the necessity of his opinion and instruction, helping and training the weak, seeing the affairs of the needy and the orphans, his great need to enjoin good behavior in the society and forbedding the disapproved; and they invited him to do many more like these things. They allure him to the position of chairmanship – not that of spiritual mand of Divinity but superficial worldy chairmanship. They get use of his ignorance and make him follow not only his passions and desires but follow theirs, and do what they command; whereas, there are many better, wiser, more knowledgeeable, braver and cleverer and more expert men to see the affairs of the people and the society. Finally, after so much conflict, his natural attributes, and God-given nature, his modesty and his reluctant to this world but desiring for the next, and his high passion for the position of Gnostic and meeting Allah do not let him involve in such trifle affairs accepting what seems to be not more than carcase of the current world – the carcase that allures and charms him!

Here, his innate and wise duty is not to accept the position of the chairmanship, and reject all those illuminating and pompous, and in the shape of religious which are all the reflection of the mirror affairs! He must be careful against his desires and passions to dominate his intellect and sense of logical thinking. In that state, he must go to visit an interdicted man that, because of his carelessness to the unaware and improvident public, is secluded in his single room pondering about the fact behind his faked life! While, hunestly he is much better in knowledge and wisdom than those false learned in the public. And then, to try to bring him out of the corner of the room, make him master of his and under direct his command, try to help him in his divine ruling – for paving his own path towards the eternal happiness. In short, he must leave the superficial chairmanship and validity, and sacrifice his passions and desires in satisfaction of wisdom, nature and the religion, and as he is one of the public to become under the directorship of the chairmanship!

And Allah knows that because of this rising up and acting how great and successive blessings pour down from the heaveans. And how much people enjoy the abundant blessings! And on their way to reach Allah how strong they become, and how they cover the long distance in a very short time. However, the opposit is that if he takes his own affairs in hand – while ther are many wiser and learned men around – he not only go backward and always challenges with devil and the lust and passions of his own, but he creates trouble for the society just for his dull and opaque idea!

The harm of these kinds of people is more than anyone, as it is said:

ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِى الْحَيَوة الدُّنْيَا وَ هُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أنَّهُمْ يَحْسِنُونَ صُنْعا”  

All their worldly struggle ends up to animal strength and devilish thoughts, and they poor think that are doing their best and helping their people and society! The believe that they are active in welfare and charity affairs: they make schools and do many similar things but only in their imaginations – they think all are accepted by Divine!

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Omar disguised his innovations with the religious coloring

The first chosen Caliphs, after the Messenger of Allah, were the same. The two Sheikhs did the same ugly things in the name of the religion and immagining that were supporting the Islam. Disguised as the holy ones and considering it to be right, they closed the fron door of Allah’ Guardian, the Commander of the believers, they broke it and burnt down; and in the name of protecting, they took away the public treasury, and the least property of the Messenger of Allah and needy of the Fadak. They used to establish mass prayers and the Friday prayer, and they climbed the pulpit of the Messenger of Allah and presented sermons and said: “The only purpose of us is to guide the people, and in the mean time, they equipped the people and sent them to Jihad. And they were harsh to the people and condomned the opponants of the government in the towns and villages, those who rejected paying the due welfare taxes only because they prevented its going to the right Caliph to spend it in the right place. In the name of Jihad, they fought with the backsliders though they were Muslims, they prayed and were loyal to the rules and commands of the Islam. It was just because they did not recognize their Caliphate, and said: “Our obligation is not fulfilled unless we pay the due wefare taxes to the right person, but in the name of protecting the religion, and getting the due welfare taxes forcefully, they branded their actions as disbelief and called them to be the unbelievers, then they fought them.

For attracting the people, and on top, the Arabs to tem, they assumed a certain previlage to themselves and gave the Arabs more previlages than the others in the share of the public treasuries, marriages, in nominating them for the Imams of Friday prayers and in many occasions. Thus, by coloring their activities and giving them as the commands of the religion, first they made them as traditions and then gradually added them to the religion! Omar absolutely prevented the temporary marrige in the enjoyment Hajj, so did he with enjoying women between the Greater Hajj and the Minor one; it went on until became a part of the tradition. Omar commanded to pray in mass the supererogatory prayers of Ramadhan which is unlawful to pray in mass. This became a tradition and still they pray one thousand supererogatory mass prayers in Ramadhan at nights.

Anyhow, if we want to to mention the altaratins that the Sheikhs made in the main rule of the religion, specially the second Sheikh, it will exactly make a separate huge book; and the Holiness Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, has explained them in brief in the sermon of [2]فِتَن  and  بِدَع‏”.

These changes and renovations were on the ground of the religion and objection to them were as objecting the commands of the religion, because Omar and Othman would give their invented punishment commands concerning it. In a sermon of his, Omar said:

"وَ إنَّهُمَا كَانَتَا مُتْعَتَيْنِ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم، وَ أنَا أنْهَى عَنْهُمَا وَ اعَاقِبَ عَلَيْهِمَا إحْدَيهُمَا مُتْعَة النِّسَاءِ، وَ لَا- أقْدِرُ عَلَى رَجُلٍ تَزَوَّجَ امْرأة إلَى أجَلِ إلَّا غَيَّبْتُهُ بِالْحِجَارَة، وَ الْاخْرَى مُتْعَة الْحَج‏".[3]

‘There used to be two enjoyments from the women at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and now I prohibbit them, and whoever continues it, I will severly punish him. One of those two is having enjoyment from the women, I will not delay stoning to death and buried a man who has temporary marriage with a woman, and another one is marrying women on the Hajj Pilgrimage.’

And similar to this rule and command would be issued in his court and the Islamic nation at his time and under his control had to carry out his commands and bear his punishments. And gradually these renovations were fixed and confirmed and as the customs and traditions of the Sheikhs they veiled the Mohammedan's commands, that is, the pure Divine Religion was dominated by the renovated rules and commands. These customs became the main parts of the religion and after Omar, at the time of Othman were also put in practice.

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Omar sketched the plan of the council in a way that Caliphate received the Caliphate

In a council that Omar set up to choose a Caliph, he played his rule in a way that Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, would not be chosen as the Caliph, the appointed time of the council ended and  after three days that Omar had fixed to be the duration of the council, Abd-ur-Rahman Auf, who was the son-in-law of Othman, and as he knew that Ali bin Abī Tālib would take no notice of the Sheikhs renovations, to deviate the course of the Caliphate from the Holiness, he put forward the condition of practicing the commands of the Sheikhs and said to Ali, Upon Him be Peace: ‘Do you promise to act upon the Book of Allah, the traditions of the Messenger as well as the rules and traditions of the Sheikhs?’ The Holiness stated: ‘I shall act upon the Book of Allah, the traditions of the Messenger and whatever my exegesis of divine law on matters of theology and law command me!’

Abd-ur-Rahman, who knew the condition of Othman well, turned to his saying: ‘Do you promise to act upon the Book of Allah, the traditions of the Messenger as well as the rules and traditions of the Sheikhs?’ Othman answered: ‘Yes, I do.’ Then, Abd-ur-Rahman told him: ‘Let me take your hand,’ and in this way, he swore allegiance with him.

Ali, Upon Him be Peace, said to Abd-ur-Rahman: Did you freely put this affair with him!

This is not the first time that you, the Tribe of Ghuraish, helping each other against us:

 فَصَبْرٌ جَمِيلٌ وَ اللَّهُ الْمُسْتَعانُ عَلى ما تَصِفُون‏ [4]

‘ [now,] fine patience [is] better [for me], and Allah’s support is ever there to ask for against what you describe, (Qur’an: 12/18).’

‘By Allah, you chose Othman as the Caliph hoping that he would deliver the Caliphate to you; let it be known that Allah has a rule and a command for every single day:

وَ اللهُ كُلَّ يَوْمِ هُوَ فِى شَأن‏ [5]

‘...everyday He is in some [specific’ task, (Qur’an: 55/ 29).’

Abd-ur-Rahman told Ali, Upon Him be Peace, ‘O Ali, swear allegiance, and leave not open the gate of fighting and killing to you! I have thought of what I am saying and consulted with different people about it[6] ; in the end, I gathered that they knew no one better than Othman for the Caliphate.’ Ali left the session and said:

سَيَبْلُغُ الْكِتَابُ أجْلَه‏ [7]

that is, (whatever is predestinated will approach soon).

Miqdad said: ‘O Abd-ur-Rahman:

اى عبد الرّحمن أمّا وَ الله لَقَدْ تَرَكْتَهُ مِنَ الذَّيِنَ يَقْضُونَ بِالْحَقِّ وَ بِهِ يَعْدِلُونَ. مَا رَأيْتُ مِثْلَ مَا اوتَى إلَى أهْلِ هَذَا الْبَيْتِ بَعْدَ نَبِيِّهِمْ؛ إنِّى لَأعْجَبُ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ إنَّهُمْ تَرَكُوا رَجُلًا مَا أقُولُ: إنَّ أحَداً أعْلَمُ وَ لَا أقْضى مِنْهُ بِالْعَدْلِ. أمَا وَ اللهِ لَوْ أجِدُ عَلَيْهِ أعْوَاناً. فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ: يَا مِقْدَادُ اتَّقِ اللهِ فَإنِّى خَائِفُ عَلَيْكَ الْفِتْنَة.[8]

By Allah you abandoned the Guardianship and ignored it leaving it in the hands of those have tendency to right! I have never seen like this disaster to happen to the Household after the demise of the Messenger, nor have I seen it happen to the nation! I am very surprised what the Ghuraish did, they ignored a man that there is no man wiser than him among all people; and he is so wise and stable in judgment. I swear and asked from Allah to have some supporters to rise for his help.' Abd-ur-Rahman said: 'O Mighdad do fear Allah! I fear there will rise a sedition by what you say!'

The Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, avoided swearing allegiance with Othman. And-ur-Rahman said:

فَلَا تَجْعَلْ يَا عَلِىُّ سَبيلًا إلَى نَفْسِكَ فَإنَّهُ السَّيْفُ لَا غَيْر.[9]

'O Ali! Do not agitate us to slain you; if you do not pay homage, then you deserve the sword, but not else.' He said so because according to the testimony of Othman, whoever did not swear allegiance had to be killed. Tabary says:

وَ تَلَكَّاً عَلىُّ، فَقَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ: فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإنَّمَا يَنْكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسِه.‏[10] & [11]

'Ali rejected paying homage and And-ur-Rahman said: 'Whoever does not pay homage, he give way for his loss!'

With no doubt, Omar's purpose of setting up the six-bodies council: Ali, Othman, Sa'd Wagh'ghas, And-ur-Rahman bin Auf, Talha and Zubair were assigning Othman as the Caliph. Tabary has related that Omar wrote his testimony that: 'If I die, hold a session to discuss [about choosing the Caliph] for three days, and during those three days, let Sohaif lead the mass prayer, and before the fourth day approaches you must have chosen your leader. And invited Abdullah, the son of Omar in the session of the council to see what goes on, however, he has no right in the Guardianship. And Talha is your partner in this affair so invite him if he is back from the journey when the session is going to start.

But if he does not come on the right time, you carry on the discussion about the Caliphate and bring it up!' Then, he said: Who is one among you to present Talha here right now?'

Sa'd said: 'I will bring him to you and I hope he will not oppose – God willing. By the way, I believe one of these two men: Ali or Othman will get the position of the Caliphate; if Othman gets the position, he is a man of soft-natured, and if Ali gets it, he is some witty nature! He deserves it to lead the people to righteous path.

And if they Choose Sa'd for the position he is not bad for the governorship, and if he did not choose for the Guardianship, he must be benefited in somewhere else, and you must ask for his help in different ways. I have never dismissed him for his sluggishness or treachery. And Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf is also a thoughtful person, he is braved and well-organized in his affairs, he is supported by Allah and lesson what he says.'

Omar said to Abu Talha Ansary: 'O Abu Taha, how long Allah supported you and honored Islam because of you! Now you choose fifty men from the Tribe of Ansar to save this session and behead anyone who opposes the verdict of this council! These people must be chosen among these, so encourage them to select one among themselves!' And Omar said to Mighdad ben Aswad: 'When you lay me inside my grave gather these people in a certain house so that select one among themselves.'

Then, Omar said to Sohaib: "You must be the mass prayer's Imam for three days, and let Ali, Othman, Zubair, Sa'd Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf, as well as Talha – if he returns from the journey – be present in the house, and invite Abdullah, the son of Omar as well, but know that he has no share in the Guardianship – do control them.

If five of them agree on the verdict, and they choose a certain one as the Caliph, but one of them objected, then do behead him at one! However, if four among the six agreed choosing one as the Caliph but two objected it, then behead two of them! And if three of them agreed on one but three of them had opinions on another one, in that case call Abdullah, the son of Omar as the orbiter.

Then, anyone Abdullah chooses between those two parties, the rest should follow his choice. However, if they were not satisfied with Abdullah's opinion, then be on the side of that part that Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf is in it. Then, without hesitation, kill all of them even the whole people turn away!

All of them left Omar. Ali said to his companion, Bani Hashim: 'If they obeyed me, you would never be under their control! Later, Abbas bin Abd-ul-Mottalib saw Ali. Ali told him: 'They turned away the Guardianship from us.' Abbas asked: 'How do you know?'

Ali said: 'Omar matched with Othman and said: 'Stand with the majority; and above all, if two men vote for a certain man and two for another one, you keep the side of one Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf with them.'

Sa'd Wagh'ghas will not oppose his cousin, Abd-ur-Rahman, and above all, Abd-ur-Rahman is Othman's son-in-law, and they do not oppose one another. Anyhow, either Abd-ur-Rahman will give the Caliphate to Othman, or Othman will give it to Abd-ur-Rahman.

Supposing that those two Taha and Zubair were me it would not benefit me anything. Let me say my final word that I am certain the Caliphate is for one of these two men.[12]

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With such conditions that Omar set up, the Caliphate would never turn to the Commander of the believers' benefit

With a little consideration on the meaning of what we related from Tabary, it becomes clear that Omar's intention of setting up the session for council was Othman getting the power.

Because by Othman influence and personality among the children of Omayyad, specially twice becoming the son-in-law of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, and therefore, he was called [13] " ذو النُّوَرَيْن" Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf cannot be a strong partner in this politics, and we have a good excuse for our claim:

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At the time of Omar it was obvious that Othman would become a Caliph

First of all, during his ten-year-old of ruler-ship, Omar was so close friend of Othman and he gave him such a highest respect and position, and referring to him in all problems and his difficulties that people gathered that he was going to be their third Caliph. In other words, as the Persian says: they considered him to be the second after the first one, Omar!

Tabary, in his History, says:

وَ كَانَ عُثْمَانُ يُدْعَى فِى إمَارَة عُمَرَ رَدِيفاً. قَالُوا: وَ الرَّديِفُ بِلِسَانِ الْعَرَبِ الَّذِى بَعْدَ الرَّجُلِ. وَ الْعرَبُ تَقُولُ ذَلِكَ لِلْرَّجُلِ الَّذِى يَرْجُوَنَهُ بَعْدَ رَئيسِهِم. [14]

That is to say, at the time of Omar's ruler-ship, Othman was also at his rank and position. And in Arabic, it is said that the phrase 'at the same and position' is said to one who has the the whole public affairs in his hand. And the Arabs give this title to one whom they believe is going to take the authority in hand after the demise of the previous one.

The second is that: Othman used to deal with the affairs of the government since Abu Bakr taking the authority in his hand, right from the beginning he approved Abu Bakr's Caliphate and paid homage to him. And during the ruler-ship of Abu Bake, he was the closest one to him. And once, when Abu Bakr asked him about the situation of Omar, he answered: 'I know his heart better than his outward! There is no one among us similar to him!' It was even Othman who wrote the treaty of Abu Bakr's Caliphate for Omar.

Tabary, as well as the other historians have recorded that Abu Bakr, on the point of his death, called Othman to him and said, 'Write:

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحيمِ. هَذَا مَا عَهِدَ أبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أبى قُحَافَة إلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ: أمَّا بَعْدُ، قَالَ .. ثُمَّ اغْمِىَ عَلَيْهِ فَذَهَبَ عَنْهُ فَكَتَبَ عُثْمَانُ: أمّا بَعْدُ، فَإنِّى قَد اسْتَخْلَفْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ وَ لَمْ آلْكُمْ خَيْراً مِنْهُ.

ثُمَّ أفَاقَ أبُو بَكْرٍ فَقَالَ: اقْرَأ عَلَىَّ! فَقَرَأَ عَلَيْه. فَكَبَّرَ أبُو بَكْرٍ وَ قَالَ: أرَاكَ خِفَتْ أنْ يَخْتَلِفَ النَّاسُ إنِ افْتَلَتَتْ نَفْسِى فِى غَشْيَتى؟! قَالَ: نَعَمْ. قَالَ: جَزَاكَ اللهُ خَيْراً عَنِ الْإسْلَامِ وَ أهْلِهِ. وَ أقَرَّهَا أبُو بَكْرٍ- رَضِىَ اللهُ تَعَالىَ عَنْهُ- مِنْ هَذَا الْمَوْضِع.[15]

'In the name of Allah, the most Compassionate, the most Merciful. This is the treaty and testament that Abu Bakr, the son of Ghah'hafa, is making for the Muslims,' but right then, he became unconscious and he missed the point. So Othman wrote by himself: 'And now, I, Omar bin Khattab, have assigned a Caliph for you; I was not negligent in choosing the best one for you.'

Then, Abu Bakr became conscious and said to Othman, 'Read it ro me!' Othman read whatever he had written by himself. Abu Bakr praised him and chanted "Allah is the greatest" and then said: 'I gather that you were afraid that if I had died in my unconsciousness then people would oppose in the affair of the Caliphate!' Othman answered: 'Yes, that is right!' Abu Bakr said: 'May Allah bestow goodness of Islam to you, and reward you the best reward!' Therefore, Abu Bakr accepted whatever Othman had written by himself and he left him on his own.'

In this way, Othman held Omar indebted to him and by this means, he supported his own Caliphat. Omar too for Abu Bakr's good service, and his own desire, assigned him as the Caliph and imposed Bani Omayyad, who were the greatest hurdle on the way of Bani Hashim, upon the Muslims for more than a century.

Abu-al-Abbas[16] Ahmad, known as Mohibb Tabary, has related Abdullah, the son of Omar, saying that:

لمّا طُعِنَ عُمَر قُلْتُ: يَا أمِيرَ الْمُؤمِنينَ لَو اجْتَهَدْتَ بِنَفْسِكَ وَ أمَّرْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ رَجُلًا؟! قَالَ: أقْعِدُونى. قَالَ عَبْدُ اللهِ: فَتَمَنَّيْتُ لَوْ أنَّ بَيْنى وَ بيْنَهُ عَرْضَ الْمَدينَة فَرَقاً مِنْهُ حِينَ قَالَ: أقْعِدْنى. ثُمَّ قَالَ: وَ الَّذِى نَفْسِى بِيَدِهِ لَأرُدَّنَّهَا إلَى الّذِى دَفَعَهَا إلَىَّ أوَّلَ مَرَّة. خَرَّجَهُ أبُو زُرْعَة فى كِتَابِ الْعِلَل.[17]

When Omar was stabbed with a dagger, I told him: 'O the commander of the faithful! I wish you, with that great thoughtfulness of yours, you would chould choose and Emir for the nation after your death.' Omar said: 'Do help me sit,' when he was seated, he said: 'I swear by Whom the my soul is in His disposal, I will return the Caliphate to one who in the first place prepared it for me!'

Thus, by means of this narrative, we come to the fact that the cause of transferring the Caliphate was Abu Bakr.

And similarly, Mohibb-ad-Din Tabary, according to the explanation of the narrative of Khaithamat bin Soleiman in the book of "فضائل الصّحابة" of Hozaifa has related that:

قِيلَ لِعُمَر وَ هُوَ بِالْمَوْقِفِ: مَنِ الْخَليفَة بَعْدَكَ؟! قَالَ: عُثْمانُ بْنُ عَفَّان.[18]

'When Omar was at the Station of Arafat, he was asked: 'Who is the Caliph after you?' He answered: 'He is Othman bin Af‘fan.'

Mohibb-ad-Din Tabary has also quoted Harithat bin Mazreb saying:

حَجَجْتُ مَعَ عُمَرَ فَكَانَ الْحَادِى يَحْدُو: إنَّ الْأمِيرَ بَعْدَهُ عُثْمان.[19]

[He said]: 'I was on the Hajj pilgrimage with Omar and the herald was announcing with the pleasant voice of his that, after him, the Emir was going to be Othman.'

And in "كنز العمّال‏", Mulla Taghi says: 'When in Medina they asked Aba Hafas Omar who was the Caliph after him, he said he was going to be Othman.[20]

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Omar strengthened Bani Omayyad against Bani Hashim

The third point is that Omar strictly hated the Caliphate of Bani Hashim. His hatred is clearly understood through the subjects we have written in this book. It is quite clear through the discussions that he had with ibn Abbas, and with his other different statements such as that the Ghuraish would not care what the Bani Hashim say! However, he always utter his statements through the next parties but lays the sin at the Guraish's door! As on the Day of Saghifa he said to the Supporters:

وَ اللهِ لَا تَرْضَى الْعَرَبُ أنْ يُؤمَّرُوكُمْ وَ نَبِيُّهَا مِنْ غَيْرِكُم.[21]

'By Allah, the Arabs are not pleased to choose you as the Emir and then their Messenger to be from [a tribe] other than yours!'

His aim and desire, by saying 'Arab', was he himself; because if the Guraish had cooperation with the Supporters, then there was no blame on the Arabs. As Omar was well aware that there was no one alike him in plan and policy to stay against them, it was why he approved the most notorious tribe, opponent to Bani Hashim, that is, Mua‘wiyah, whose dignity and chairmanship had been damaged by the advent of Islam, and they were all sorrowful and had strong hatred against Ali bin Abī Tālib as well as his Household; so Mua‘wiyah was his most desirous one for the job. So he watered up that curse tree and took care of him for a needy day, when the Bani Hashim wanted to get their rights back. On that occasion, the only hurdle on their way would be Omar's stubborn ally, Mua‘wiyah.

After Yazid bin Abi Sofyan, who was the governor of Sham, Omar appointed his brother, Mua‘wiyah bin Abi Sofyan for the governor of that land, Sham,[22] and for his encouragement, Omar too took a trip to Sham and encouraged the people to obey Mua‘wiyah and to be alert for a day of sedition – the very sedition that Omar expected would happen because of Mua‘wiyah – the day he had to stop the Commander of the believers, Ali bin Abī Tālib, his Household and companions when they wanted to ask for their rights.

While mentioning and counting the virtues of Mua‘wiyah, Ibn Hajar Heitami says:

وَ مِنْهَا أنّ عُمَر حَضَّ النَّاسَ عَلىَ اتِّبَاعِ مُعَاوِيَة وَ الْهِجْرَة إلَيْه إلَى الشَّام إذَا وَقَعَتْ فُرْقَة. أخْرَجَ ابْنُ أبِى الدُّنْيَا بِسَنَدِهِ: أنَّ عُمَرَ قَالَ: إيَّاكُمْ وَ الْفُرْقَة بَعْدِى فَإنْ فَعَلْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أنَّ مُعَاوِيَة بالشَّامِ. فَإذَا وُكِلْتُمْ إلَى رَأيِكُمْ كَيْفَ يَسْتَبِزُّهَا مِنْكُم.[23]

 Some virtues of Mua‘wiyah's are that: Omar bin Khat'tab has encouraged the people to follow Mua‘wiyah and to immigrate to Sham and stay with him, and then, if erupted any dispute among the people to refer to him and follow his verdicts and commands. Ibn Abi-ad-Donya has extracted it from his documents that: Omar said: Let there be not any differences, disputes and separation among you! And if there is so, then know that Mua‘wiyah is there, in Sham. You must obey his advice and follow his commands. Otherwise, if you try to keep your affairs and problems with you, then how can he solve your difficulties! However, this thought alone has caused separation among the people.'   

And we see that the very supported Mua‘wiyah, with respecting the Immigrants and the former Muslims, right at that time that people used to find excuses and faults of Othman, and counted his shortcomings and false, and they were clearly witnessing his changes in the statement and mentioned them to him, and above all, sharing the public treasury among his close friends and kith and kin, Mua‘wiyah came from Sham to Medina confirmed his deviations as the good points of him, but in the mean time, condemned the Immigrations instead!

 Ibn Ghotaiba Dinvary says: Othman used to climb the pulpit in the mosque and say:

أمَا وَ اللهِ يَا مَعْشَرَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَ الْأنْصار! لَقَدْ عِبْتُمْ عَلَىَّ أشْيَاءَ، و نَقَمْتُمْ امُوراً قَد أقْرَرْتُمْ لِابْنِ الْخَطَّابِ مِثْلَهَا! وَ لَكِنَّهُ وَ قَمَكُمْ وَ قَمَعَكُمْ، وَ لَمْ يَجْتَرِئ مِنْكُمْ أحَدُ يَمْلَأ بَصَرَهُ مِنْهُ وَ لَا- يُشِيرُ بِطَرْفِهِ إلَيْهِ! أمَا وَ اللهِ لَأنَا أكْثَرُ مِنِ ابْنِ الْخَطَّابِ عَدَداً، وَ أقْرَبُ نَاصِراً وَ اجْدَرُ- إلَى أنْ قَالَ لَهُمْ- أتَفْقِدُونَ مِنْ حُقوُقِكُمْ شَيْئاً؟ فَمَالِى لَا أفْعَلُ فِى الْفَضْل مَا اريدُ؟ فَلِمَ كُنْتُ إمَاماً إذاً؟ أمَا وَ اللهِ مَا غَابَ عَلَىَّ مَنْ عَابَ مِنْكُمْ أمْراً أجْهَلُهُ! وَ لَا أتَيْتُ الَّذِى أتَيْتُ إلَّا وَ أنَا أعْرِفُه.[24]

Be aware, o the company of the Immigrations and the Supporters! You found such faults with me and considered many with me to be unlawful, such as this one you are applying against Omar bin Khat'tab! However, he has subdued you, and in most severe way and the ugliest way possible ignores your needs! He has harshly humiliated you in getting your demands. His unfriendly dealing with you has brought privation to you; and none of you dared to stare at him or to make an allusion to him!

Be aware! By Allah, my army is greater than the army of Omar Khat'ab, and my companions are closer to me; and it is me that deserve to be strict against you!' He went on until said to the people: Have you not received your wages or your due life-pensions?! So why should I not do what I want to do by the excessive income to me! In that case, why should on earth my being an Imam?

Be aware! Nothing of what you say, or whatever faults you fine with me, is hidden from me! I have done my best for you within all my power, and I have obtained things through my knowledge.'

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For strengthening Othman, Mua‘wiyah really frightened the Immigrants

Ibn Ghotaiba says: following this affair, Mua‘wiyah bin Abi Sofyan returned from Sham and soon after took part in a session where Ali bin Abī Tālib, Talhat bin Obaid-ul-lah, Zubair bin Aw'wam, Sa's bin Abi Wagh'ghas, Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf and Am'mar Yasir were present. He told them:

يَا مَعْشَرَ الْصَّحَابَة أوصِيكُمْ بِشَيْخِى هَذَا خَيْراً! فَوَ اللهِ لَئِنْ قُتِلَ بَيْنَ أظْهُرِكُمْ لَأمْلَأنَّهَا عَلَيْكُمْ خَيْلًا وَ رِجَالًا.

ثُمَّ أقْبَلَ عَلَى عَمَّارِ بْنِ يَاسِرٍ فَقَالَ: يَا عَمَّارُ، إنَّ بِالشَّامِ مِائة ألْفِ فَارسٍ كُلُّ يَأخُذُ الْعَطاءَ مَعَ مٍثْلِهِمْ مِنْ أبْنَائِهِمْ وَ عُبْدَانِهِمْ. لَا يَعْرِفُونَ عَلِيًا وَ لَا قَرَابَتَهُ، وَ لَا عَمَّاراً وَ لَا سَابِقَتَهُ، وَ لَا الزُبَيْرُ وَ لَا صَحَابَتَهُ، وَ لَا طَلْحَة وَ لَا هِجْرَتَهُ، وَ لَا يَهَابُونَ ابْنَ عَوْفٍ و لَا مَالَهُ، وَ لَا يَتَّقُونَ سَعْداً وَ لَا دَعْوَتَه.[25]

'O the company of the Messenger's companions! I enjoin you to look after our great Sheikh, Othman, and treat him in the best way! By Allah, if he is killed among you, I will fill up the town, Medina, with the cavalry and the foot-soldiers.' Then, he turned to Am'mar Yasir and said: 'O Am'mar! We have a thousand cavalry men in Sham, and all of them receive their good due salaries, so do their children and the servants do, they also get their own salaries.

They know neither Ali nor his closeness [to the Messenger]; they do not know Am'mar and his background, nor do they know Zubair and his companionship with the Messenger.

They know not Talha and his immigration, they do not know Ibn Auf and are not afraid of him or his influence; and they are not afraid of Sa'd or his invitation!'

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Omar sacrificed the true Islam for the glory of the Arabs

Here, we see how Omar's plan is carried out, and on the other hand, how the Immigrants and the followers of the right path, and their Leader, the Commander of the believers, are put aside!

Mua‘wiyah, along with a hundred thousand fighters, violates the rule and is mocking at the sanctities of the Islam by counting out immigration, closeness and so on; and then says:

Because of the opposition with Othman, no matter how much change he has made in different angles, he is supported by Omar's instructed man, the government of Bani Omayyad in Sham and are ready to confront with anyone needed.'

Yes, Omar was not worry about the Islam and Immigration, his worry was just the Arabs! He wanted to respect the Arabs and make leaders, masters and chieftains out of them; so his love of Islam was only a tool to achieve what he was after! Because it was the Islam that would bring dignity to the Arabs!

Omar knew that it was only Mua‘wiyah who could strengthen the government of Arab.

He was aware of Mua‘wiyah's hatred, aggression and perseverance for setting up an Arabic government and the Arab imperialism.

Ibn Hajar Asghalani has quoted his uncle, Baghavi, relating Zubair saying:

حَدَّثَنىِ مَحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِىٍّ قَال: كانَ عُمَرُ إذَا نَظَرَ إلَى مُعَاوِيَة قَالَ: هَذَا كسْرَى الْعَرَب.‏[26]

Muhammad bin Ali told me: 'Omar's general mood was that whenever he saw Mua‘wiyah, he kept saying: "This man is the Arabic form of Khosro for the Arabs!"[27]

And ibn Sa'd has mentioned it from Madaeeni that:

قَالَ: نَظَرَ أبُو سُفْيَانَ إلَى مُعَاوِيَة وَ هُوَ غُلَامُ فَقَالَ: إنَّ ابْنِى هَذَا لَعَظِيمُ الرَّأسِ، وَ إنَّهُ لَخَلِيقُ أنْ يَسوُدَ قَوْمَهُ. فَقَالَتْ هِنْد: قَوْمِهُ فَقَطّ؟ ثَكلْتُهُ إنْ لَمْ يَسُدِ الْعَرَبَ قَاطِبَة.[28]

He said: Once, when Mua‘wiyah was still a young boy, Abu Sofyan looked at him and said: 'This son of mine has a big head, it means he is competent to act as a chief upon his tribe.' Hind asked: 'What; only his tribe? I will mourn then if he cannot direct all the Arabs!'

Islam, which is the religion of kindness, affection, humble, generosity, brother-hood and cooperates with all other regions and creeds, rich and poor, weak or strong nations is on one side, and the imperial government disguised in Islamic garment is on the other side – the moral attitude of Muhammad and the nature and virtues of him on one side, and the hatred of Omar and Mua‘wiyah on the opposite side. Therefore, it can be said that whatever Islam has governed the world, whether at the time Omar, Othman, Bani Omayyad and Bani Abbas so far, is considered as the Omar's government full of hatred and enmity. And that which has governed the world in the right way are those government of the Messenger of Allah and the Holiness Commander of the believers, upon them be peace. Even now, the world is expecting to witness the advent of the Existing of the Household of Muhammad: Hojjat ibn al-Hassan al-Askari, may our souls mad sacrifice to him, It is the very kindness, brother-hood, morality and the disappearance of oppression and injustice, being parallel with all the weak and deprived.

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Omar cannot bear the statement of the Commander of the believers

This policy of Omar is a hundred percent opposite the policy of the Descendant of Ali bin Abī Tālib. Therefore, as we see, Omar cannot tolerate to see Ali having the authority and being the Caliph.

Ibn Abd-ur-Rabawa, with his documents from Hisham bin Orwa, quoting his father Orwa, has related that: When Omar bin Khat'tab was stabbed, they told him: We wish you had already chosen a deputy Caliph after you!' He relates some narratives from Omar until he comes to this point that they told him once again:

يا أمِيرَ اْلمُؤمِنينَ لَوْ عَهِدْت؟! فَقَالَ: لَقَدْ كنْتُ أجْمَعْتُ بَعْدَ مَقَالَتِى لَكمْ أنْ أوَلَّىَ رَجُلًا أمْرَكمْ أرْجُو أنْ يَحْمِلَكمْ عَلَى الْحَقِّ- وَ أشارَ إلَى عَلِىٍّ- ثُمَّ رَأيْتُ أنْ لَا- أتَحَمَّلَهَا حَيّاً وَ مَيِّتا.[29]

'We wish you had chosen one as the Caliph after you!' Omar said: 'After revealing you those statements, I had in mind to choose someone for you to be the most competent for the government, and hoped that to choose someone to lead you to the straight path, and he was no one but Ali bin Abī Tālib; so it Ali I wanted to assign upon your affairs. However, I thought, I couldn't tolerate to see Ali as the Caliph in my life time, and even when I am dead and lost!'

Balazori has wuoted from Amru bin Maimoon relating that: 'I witnessed on the day Omar was stabbed. Omar sent for Ali, Othman, Talha, Zubair, Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf and Sa'd Wagh'ghas, and they came in his presence. Then, after a little change of words, he asked them to call Sohaib as well, then, he said to Sohaib: Lead the people in the mass prayers for three days, and gather these people in a certain quiet place until they agree on one person among them. Then, if anyone of them disagrees, do not hesitate but do behead him!'

When those with Omar left the house, Omar said:

قَالَ: إنْ وَلَّوْهَا الْأجْلَحَ سَلَكَ بِهِمُ الطَّرِيقَ. قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ: فَمَا يَمْنَعُكَ يَا أمِيرَ الْمُؤمِنينَ؟! قَالَ: لَا أتَحَمَّلُهَا حَيًّا وَ مَيِّتا.[30]

Omar said: 'If they entrust the leadership and the Caliphate to Ali, the one whose hair falling on his shoulders on either side, he can lead the Islamic nation to the straight path.' Omar's son asked: 'O the Commander of the faithful, then, what is the reason that you do not trust the state to him?' Omar answered: 'I cannot bear seeing his Caliphate in my life and even when I am dead and gone!'

And Abd-ur-Birr has related the very narrative from Omar.[31]

And after that which Amru bin Maimoon has quoted of Omar concerning Ali bin Abī Tālib, Mohibb-ad-Din Tabary has mentioned that:  'Nisaee has extracted this narrative, and he has added that Omar had also said that:

لِلّهِ دَرُّهُمْ إنْ وَلَّوْهَا الْأصَيْلِعَ كَيْفَ يَحْمِلُهُمْ عَلَى الْحَقِّ وَ انْ كَانَ السَّيْفُ عَلَى عُنُقِهِ! قَالَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ كَعْبٍ: فَقُلْتُ: أتَعْلَمُ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ وَ لَا تُوَليهِ؟! فَقَالَ: إنْ تَرَكْتُهُمْ فَقَدْ تَرَكَهُمْ مَنْ هُوَ خَيْرُ مِنِّى.[32]

'May Allah bestow his blessing upon them; if they entrust the Caliphate and the leadership to Ali, who has thin hair in front of head, they will see how he leads them to the righteous way – even if swords rain on him!'

Muhammad bin Ka'b says: 'What! You know this fact of Ali but why are you not choosing him?!' Omar said: 'If I leave the people without assigning one for them, the one before me who was better than I am would leave it without assigning!'

It becomes quite clear through the forgoing discussions that Omar never like to see the leadership of Ali; he has in mind to choose Othman as the Caliph. Now, it is time we saw why he did not assigned him in his life time but left him be chosen by the council! There are some reasons for this action of his:

First: the case of the council was that they chose some others to be at the level of Ali, and they set up some priorities for them; this policy not only deprived Ali of his own rights, but it made Othman and Talha think of the Caliphate after the death of Othman, and it encouraged them to stand against Ali and violate his newly established government by raising the Battle of Jamal.

And after that, the Battle of Siffin erupted and that lead to the Battle of Nahrawan. The very chaos caused brought up some terrorists against Ali and they killed him in the prayer altar.

Secondly: Omar had already foresaw Ali and Zubair's objection of swearing allegiance with Abu Bakr and its consequence, and he well remembered Talha's mocking Abu Bakr when he was assigning Omar as the Khaliph;[33] therefore, to avoid such oppositions,  he gathered all the all the opponents in a session calling the 'Council'. And he set up fifty fighters upon them with swords in hands so that to stop any objection, and also force them to pay allegiance. And in this way, there would remain no opposition on the way of Othman caliphate.

The third point is that Omar knew Othman very well and since that day, he saw his behavior with the Muslims, therefore, he always said: 'I fear to over-dominate my relative and the family of Moeet upon the nation.' It was why he withheld to assign him directly; he left everything with Abd-ur-Rahman so that the people's curse to go with him and also to save his respect.

Fourth: He apparently reminded the Learned of the Immigrants of his favour doing for them by inviting them to take part in the council; and by doing so, to stop their grumbling and complain later on.

The fifth was that he superficially wanted to say that the assignment for the Caliph was through council but not by his own personal will – it was what he had decided already. Omar relied on it, and for avoiding the people to swear allegiance with the Commander of the believers , Upon Him be Peace, after his death, the affair of the Guardianship to be solved by the council.

In his book of "سيره‏", ibn Hishal has quoted Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf saying that: 'When Omar was at Mina, a man asked him:

يا أمير المؤمنين! هَلْ لَك فِى فُلانٍ يقُولُ: وَ اللَهُ لَو قَدْ مَاتَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الخَطَّابِ لَقَدْ بَايعْتُ فَلَاناً. وَ اللَهِ مَا كانَت بَيعَة أبى بَكرٍ إلّا فَلْتَة فَتَمَّت؟‏

'O the Commander of the faithful! Have you heard that a certain man has said: "By Allah, if Omar bin Khat'tab dies, I will pay homage with such and such; by Allah, 'swearing allegiance' with Abu Bakr was an inexperience thing to do?"

By hearing what he say, Omar got angry and said: 'God willing, at the prayer time this evening, I will speak to the people and avoid them to follow those who want to usurp their command.'

Abd-ur-Rahman says, I told him: 'O the Commander of the faithful! Do not do so here, because this place is where the mean people have gathered! Wait for a while until we return to Medina. Medina is the house for the traditions and there you encounter with the wise, noble and jurisprudents! Then, what you want to say, you say it with peace of mind! The people of knowledge and jurisprudents lesson to you well and absorb what you mean and then put it in action.'

Omar said; 'By Allah, God-willing! Right in the first session in Medina I will stand to sermon for the people.' Then, ibn Hisham relates some subjects from ibn Abbas that he had said:

إنَّهُ قَدْ بَلَغَنى أنَّ فُلَاناً قَالَ: وَ اللَهِ لَوْ مَاتَ عُمَرُ بنُ الخَطَّابِ لَقَدْ بَايعْتُ فُلَاناً. فَلَا يَغُرَّنَّ امْرَءاً أنْ يقُولَ: إنَّ بَيعَة أبِى بَكرٍ كانتْ فَلْتَة فَتَمَّتْ. وَ إنَّهَا قَدْ كانَتْ كذَلِك إلّا أنَّ اللهَ قَدْ وَقَى شَرَّهَا. وَ لَيسَ فِيكمْ مِن تَنقَطِعُ الْلأعْنَاقُ إلَيْهِ مِثْلَ أبِى بَكْرٍ. فَمَنْ بَايعَ رَجُلًا مِنَ المُسْلِمِينَ بِغَيرِ مَشوِرَة مِنَ المُسْلِمِينَ فَإنَّهُ لَا بَيعَة لَهُ هُوَ وَ لَا الَّذى بَايعَهُ تَغِرَّة أنْ يقْتَلا.[34]

'I have been informed that such and such has said: 'By Allah, when Omar bin Khat'tab passes away, I will pay homage to such and such. Let not that statement of Abu Bakr's saying was inexperience and thoughtless utterance make someone proud. Although paying homage with him was the same, unless Allah save people of its consequence. And there is no one among you to be like Abu Bakr to attract the people with his utterance and people to be willing to make companions with him. So anyone among the Muslims, without consulting, pays homage to a man, his homage is not accepted – neither his homage nor the one is paid homage with; both of them must be killed.'

Ibn Abi al-Hadid has quoted Jahiz saying that:

إنَّهُ قَالَ: إنَّ الرَّجُلَ الَّذى قالَ: لَوْ قَدْ ماتَ عُمَر لَبَايعْتُ فُلاناً، عمّار بنُ ياسِرٍ: لَوْ قَدْ مَاتَ عُمَرُ لَبَايعْتُ عَلِياً. فَهَذَا القَولُ هُوَ الَّذِى هَاجَ عُمَرَ أن خَطَبَ مَا خَطَبَ بِه.[35]

'He has said: 'the one who has said 'If Omar dies, I will pay homage to such and such' is Am'mar Yasir; because it is he who has said 'If Omar dies, I will pay homage to Ali'.' This saying was the very statement that made Omar angry and he said whatever he could say in his sermon.'

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The plan of Counsel and how to put aside Commander of the believers had already been sketched

Anyhow, the plan how to set up the Counsel and how to put aside Ali had already been sketched how to cut Ali's hand of the Caliphate. Therefore, that which we see the news of this process, and the reason of Omar's sermon in Medina instead of Mina, which was planned by Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf, and above all, Omar's decision at the Counsel was those six men would have the control in their hands and could, whenever wanted, to veto the outcome! All affairs were in the hand of Abd-ur-Rahman, the son-in-law of Omar – all had been planned before hand. There remains no doubt that they had already blocked the way for Ammar Yasir and Zubair to pay homage to Ali!

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The council which is set up under the direct dominion of Omar, is not a council but is absolute despotism

Blazari has quoted Waghedi, he too from his father, he from his father and he has related that Omar had said:

إنَّ رِجَالًا يقُولُونَ: إنَّ بَيعَة أبِى بَكرٍ كانَتْ فَلْتَة وَقَى اللَهُ شَرَّهَا. وَ إنَّ بَيعَة عُمَرَ كانَتْ مِن غَيرِ مَشْوَرَة. وَ الامْرُ بَعْدِى شُورَى؛ فَإذَا اجْتَمَع رَأى أرْبَعَة فَلْيتَّبِعِ الإثْنَانِ الارْبَعَة. وَ إذَا اجْتَمَعَ رَأى ثَلَاثَة وَ ثَلاثَة فَاتَّبِعُوا رَأى عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَن بْنِ عَوْفٍ؛ فَاسْمَعُوا وَ أَطِيعُوا! وَ إن صَفَّقَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بِإحْدَى يدَيهِ عَلَى الاخْرَى فَاتَّبِعُوه.[36]

[Omar said] 'Some people say: 'Swearing allegiance with Abu Bakr is baseless and it has been set up without giving the second thought to it, however, may Allah save people of the consequence!' And so was the case of the homage paying with Omar. After me, the question of the Caliphate must be put in the counsel. Then, in the counsel of six, if four of them had opinion on a certain person the other two have to obey them. But if three of them voted one and the other three chose another one then, you take the advice of Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf and follow what he says! Listen to his verdict and obey him! And if, as the sign of commanding for the homage, Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf slaps his hand on the next hand, he means to pay homage, then follow him and pay homage.'

And similarly, quoting Abu Makhnaf, Blazari related the situation of the Counsel and their putting in action Omar's plan, and when he ended up his saying, Omar said:

وَ إن كانُوا ثَلَاثَة (وَ ثَلَاثَة) كانُوا مَعَ الثَّلَاثَة الذِّينَ فِيهُم ابْنُ عَوْفٍ إذ كانَ الثِّقَة فِى دِينِهِ وَ رَأيهِ المَأمُونَ لِلاخْتِيارِ عَلَى المُسْلِمِين.[37]

'And if members of the counsel are three by three, let the people be on the side of one that the son of Auf is within; because he is reliable in his religion as well as promise, and he is trustworthy for the Muslims.'

And Blazari has also related of Hisham bin Sa'd, he too from Zeid bin Zslam quoting his father saying that Omar had said:

إنِ اجْتَمَعَ رَأى ثَلَاثَة وَ ثَلَاثَة فَاتَّبِعُوا صِنفَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بنِ عَوْفٍ وَ اسْمَعُوا وَ أطِيعُوا.[38]

If the opinions of three are on one person and the opinions of the other three on someone else, you keep the side of Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf, listen to him and obey him!'

And Mulla Ali Mot'taghi has related it from his father saying that:

إنَّ عُمَرَ قَالَ: «إن ضَرَب عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ إحْدَى يدَيهِ عَلَى الاخْرَى فَبَايعُوهُ». و عَنْ أسلَم أنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الخَطَّابِ قَالَ: «بَايعُوا لِمَنْ بَايعَ لَهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بنُ عَوْفٍ؛ فَمَنْ أبَى فَاضْرِبُوا عُنُقَه.[39]

Omar said: 'If Abd-ur-Rahman slapped on his hand, then, pay homage to him.' And he has quoted Aslam saying that Omar bin Khat'tab said: 'Pay homage to one that Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf is going to pay homage to, then, whoever rejects it do behead him.'

Here, we ask what! Was Rahman bin Auf reliable but Ali bin Abī Tālib was not?! Why was his right not given to him? Or his reliability and honesty among the nation was what Omar had invented, but not the people? Therefore, it means that: the verdict, opinion and the religion of the son of Auf is directly under my control!

And secondly, why Omar did not invite the noteworthy Immigrants and the close companions of the Messenger in that Counsel? Those similar to: Ammar Yasir, Salman Farsi, Miqdad bin Aswad, Kindi, Hozaifa Dhu Shahadatain and ibn Haitham Tahyan and some others like them? Those who were the sincere supporters of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, whose wisdom, intellect, cleverness and honesties are recorded in the history books?

And thirdly, why did Omar set up this Counsel? He is also like other Muslims. Setting up such a counsel must be directly under the supervisions of all Muslims, not only by a single person. Has this kind of council any use or affect for the leadership? What does it differ, he has assigned Othman right from the beginning! Apart from that, even if Othman would not be chosen as the caliph but the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, would be nominated, it could not be a free election; the choice would be limited and the council would just a person's opinion. What was the difference between that election and the Shah's election in the Sana Parliament; the election that at least half of the deputies were already chosen by Shah himself!

And the fourth point is that where from could he invent this counsel? If he has taken it from the tradition of the Messenger of Allah then he insist that the Messenger of Allah did not assign anyone as the leader, he did not assign Ali bin Abī Tālib but he left the affairs of the nation with them so that they choose their own Guardian. Omar too wanted to follow this way and let the people be free and choose the Commander of the believers after his death. Then, why by his commanding for a counsel after his death, he took away the freedom of the nation and made the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, stay-at-home?

So it is obvious that inviting the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, to take part in the counsel was not he would probably be chosen, but they forced him to agree the caliphate of the future caliph! The purpose of his command: 'killing anyone who objected the verdict of the counsel' was only the Holiness Ali, because Omar had planned not to invite any opponents in the counsel to be killed. By doing so, he let the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, have two choices, but not anymore. First: to be obedient to the command of Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf, and the second: to be killed! By his death to let them do what they wanted to; so this strange plan was the agenda of the counsel.

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[1] Surah 18, "کهف", Verses 102-105.
[2] “روضة كافى‏”, printing of Heidary publishing house, pages 58-63.
[3] “سُنن بَيْهَقى‏”, Of Molim, from Abu Nazarah based on the relation of “تفسير الميزان‏”, volume 2, pages 90 and 91.
[4] Surah 12, "یوسف", Verse 18: I will remain patient in this tragically event and in this agony only Allah is my reliable source.
[5] Everyday He is in some [specific’ task, the blissful verse 29 from the chapter 55, ‘الرّحمن‏’, which the whole verse goes as:

يسئَله من فى السمواتِ و الارضِ كل يوم هو فى شَأن

[6] The subject that Abd-ur-Rahman pointing at is: "I consulted with the people", but it is not recorded in “تاريخ طبرى‏”, (the History of Tabary), peinted in “حسينيه مصريه‏”, in 1326 anno Hejira, and nor is it recorded in “كامل ابن أثير”. It might be withing the suspensions; however, whatever Abd-ur-Rahman has said is totally wrong. Because, if it were right he would respond to the chiefs of the companion who were angry with his choosing Othman and objected him for his action, he would tell them that he had already conculted with them.and what he did was just their own opinion. However, Abd-ur-Rahman had not such an excuse, so he just said to the companions: :I will never speak with Othman during my life time, (I am not in the speaking mood with him), he said so and did so.Later on, when he fell ill and Othman went to visit him, he turned his face to the wall and spoke to Othman (“عقد الفريد”, volume 3, page 73). The question is that: Can ‘Speaking not with Othman and being not in speaking mood with him’ be the expiation of his sin and mistake, who that misled the poor Muslims and took them under his control!

[7] Surah 2, "بقرة", Verse 235: (حَتّى يبلغَ الْكِتاب أَجله‏)
[8] “تاريخ طبرى‏”, printer: “مطبعة استقامت قاهره‏”, (Cairo Esteghamat Publishing House), volume 3, page 297, and the print of “دار المعارف مصر”, volume 4, page 233, also “عقد الفريد”, volume 3, page 76.
[9] " الإمامة و السياسة", printing: " مطبعة الامة بدرب شغلان‏", 1328 anno Hejira, page 26.
[10] Surah 48, "فتح", Verse 10.
[11] "تاریخ طبری", The History of Tabary, volume 3, page 302.
[12] "تاريخ طبرى‏ ", (The History of Tabary), printer: , مطبعة استقامت‏, volume 3, pages 293 and 294, and " مطبعة دار المعارف‏ ", volume 4, pages 229 and 230. And " عقد الفريد", the first printing, year 1331 anno Hejira, volume 3, page 72.
[13] The Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, had four dauthers from [his wife], Khadijah, they were: Zeinab, Roghai'iah, Umm Kolthom and Fatima, peace be upon her. Roghai'iah was married to Otaiba, the son of Abi Lahab, in Mecca. Later, when the chapter " تَبَّت‏ " was sent down Abi Lahab commanded his son to divorce Roghai'iah. Therefore, Atabah divorced Roghai'iah wvwn before having intercourse with her (كرَامة مِن اللهِ و هَواناً لأبى لَهَب‏). Then, after divorcing Roghai'iah Othman married her in Mecca; Roghai'iah together with Othman immigrated to Abyssinia, there, Roghai'iah gave birth to a son whom they named Abdullah – that is why Othman is called " أبو عبد الله‏", (father of Abdullah). He grew up and became a six-year-olad boy and once a cock beaked into his eye and his face swelled. [His situation worsened] and he died in Jamadi-al-Ula, year four Anno Hejira, and the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, prayed upon his corpse. When the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was going to " غزوه بدر", (Campaign of Badr), his daughter, Roghai'iah, fell ill, so the Holiness Messenger did not let Othman go to Badr, he let his stay in Medina and take care of his wife, Roghai'iah. However, Roghai'iah died just on the day when Zeid bin Haritha returned to Medina and spread the news of the Messenger's victory at the war. Roghai'iah's illness was typhoid and she died by that illness. But Othman married Kolthom after Roghai'iah had passed away, and she was died in the house of Othman.

("تنقیح المقال", volume 3, pages 73 and 78; and "إعلام الورى‏", pages 147 and 148. Also "أسدالغابة", volume 3, pages 376 and 377).

[14] "تاريخ طبرى‏", (The History of Tabary), printing " مطبعة استقامت‏", volume 3, page 2.

[15] "تاريخ طبرى‏", (The History of Tabary), "استقامت‏" printing, volume 2, pages 618 and 619; and "دار المعارف‏" printing, volume 3, page 429. And "الرياض النّضرة", with the explanation of Muhammad Mostafa Abu-al-A'la, volume 3, page 66.
[16] It is related in "أعلام زركلى‏", volume 1, page 153 that: Mohibb-ad-Din Tabari, born 615 anno Hejira, and died 694, as Ahmad bin Abdullah bin Muhammad Tabary, Abu-al-Abbas Hafiz , was a Shafiee jurisprusence, and expert in the different sciences. Both his birth and death was in Mecca, and he was the Sheikh of the Shrine in Mecca. His books include: "السَّمط الثمين فى مناقب امّهات المؤمنين‏", and "الرياض النَّضرة فى مناقب العشرة", and "القرى القاصد امُّ القرى‏", "ذخائر العقبى فى مناقب ذوى القربى‏", and finally the laws and commands, "الأحكام‏".
[17] "الرياض النَّضرة", second printing, volume 2, page 182.
[18] " الرياض النّضرة", second printing, volume 3, page 66.
[19] " الرياض النّضرة", second printing, volume 3, page 66.
[20] "كنز العمّال‏", first printing, volume 3, page 158.

[21] "الإمامة و السياسة", printed in Egypt, 1328 anno Hejira, page 9.
[22] "الإصابة ", volume 3, page 412. And it has been explained in " البلاغه شرح نَهْج ‏” (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha), of ibn Abi-al-Hadid, the printing of " دار إحياء الكتب العربيّة", volume 1, page 338 that: Mua‘wiyah governed for forty- two years. Twenty-two years of this period he was the governor of Sham which was after the death of his brother, Yazid bin Abi Sofyan – after five years of the Caliphate of Omar until the Commander of the believers' martyrdom in the year forty anno Hejira; and twenty years as the governor until he passed away.
[23] The treatise of "تطهير الجَنان‏", printed in Hamish " الصَّواعِق المُحْرِقة" pages 37 and 38. And ibn Hajar Asghalani has mentioned this narrative in the book of "الإصابة", volume 3, page 414, while was translating and writing about Mua‘wiyah.
[24] "الإمامة و السِّيَاسة", page 28, of the third printing, Egypt, year 1382 anno Hejira, the printing house of " مصطفى البابى الحلبى‏"; and in this printing, the phrase " ما غَاب عَلَى‏ " has written with 'غ' thus, the translation is what we have explained in the text. However, in the printing of 'Ama publishing house, ' Shaghalan Gate Egypt, year 1328, in the pages 26 and 27 that has related this story, they have written the same phrase with obsolete ''ع' , therefore, it means: "Be alert! I am not ignorant of all those faults that the fault finders have branded me with."
[25] "الإمامة و السِّياسة ", page 27.
[26] "الإصابة", volume 3, page 413.
Our Master, Al‘lāma, the late miraculous sign of Allah, Taba‘tabaee, may he receive Allah's paradise, in the book of "شيعه‏", in his discussions with Professor Henry Korban , concerning the first problem, 'The Fall of Guardianship and the Islamic government, page 27 has said: And besides his governing territory, Mua‘wiyah in Sham used to govern for years like the Arabic form of Khosro , such a government that had only one ruler and then aggression and the dictatorship! The only excuse of Mua‘wiyah was that because of his nearness to the Roman Empire he had to govern in that way otherwise the Caliph would not approve his ruler-ship.
And the suspenders to the phrases of Al'lama, in the pages of 324 and 325 have said: Ibn Abi-al-Hadid has related: When Omar was going to Sham, Mua‘wiyah, while wearing the best clothes and his servants were it his service, went to welcome him, he went closer and gave kisses on the hands of Omar. Omar said: O son of Hind, I see that you are living in pleasure, enjoying your self, wearing nice clothes and having abundant blessing! I have heard that the needy and the poor gather at you gate and ask for your permission to visit you and reveal their agonies to you! Mua‘wiyah said: O the Commander of the faithful! We are at the borders of the enemies of Islam, (Romans), we like them to see our comfortable and easy life. But that we do not let the people have such lives, we think that it is too much for them. Omar said: I just asked you for a simple question but you lead me to blind alley! I what you said is right, then you answer is wise; though you answered in the polite way.
Ibn Hajar in "إصابه‏", and ibn Athir in "أسدالغابة", in the translation of the condition of Mua‘wiyah have related something Omar saying about Mua‘wiyah; they say, once Omar saw Mua‘wiyah and said: 'This is the Arabic form of Khosro.' Omar sees that Mua‘wiyah has pompous life, and he lives quite different from the Messenger of Allah, however, he approves him and prefers him to the virtuous of the Messenger. Then, he let that aggressive one over-dominate the poor people, an finally it leads to the Battle of Siffin and the crimes of Mua‘wiyah, Bani Omayyad and Yazid: Refer to the book " النّصايح الكافية", author Sayyid Muhammad bin Aqil.

[28] "الإصابة", volume 3, page 413.
[29] "عِقد الفريد", first printing, volume 3, page 71.
[30] "أنساب الاشراف", volume 5, page 18. And in the volume of the Commander of the believers, newly printing, page 103, it is written " لَئِنْ وَلَّوْهَا الأجَيلْح‏". And " الرِّياض النّضرة", volume 2, pages 182 and 183, by Nisaee extraction. And the great Hafiz, Abd-ur-Raz'zaq bin Hammam San'aani, dies in the year 211 anno Hejira, has quoted Amru bin Maimoon in his book " المُصَنف‏", volume 5, pages 446 and 447 saying:

قال: كنت عند عمر بن الخطّاب حين ولَّى السِّتَّة الأمر فلمّا جازوا اتبعهم بصره؛ ثمّ قال: لئن ولَّوها الأجَيلِحَ لَيركبَّن بهم الطّريق- بريد عَليا

[31] "استيعاب‏", volume 3, page 1154.
[32] " الرّياض النَّضِرة", volume 2, page 183.
[33] It is said in " البلاغه شرح نَهْج ‏” (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha)" of ibn Abi al-Hadid, from the four-volume- printing, the printing of " دار إحياء التراث العَرَبى‏", volume 2, page 120: و طلحة هو الّذى قال لابى بكر عند موته: ما ذا تقول لربّك و قد ولَّيتَ فينا فظًّا غليظاً؟ و هو القائل له: يا خليفة رسول الله! إنّا كنّا لا نحتمل شراستة و أنت حى تأخذ على يديه، فيكف يكون حالنا معه و أنت ميتٌ و هو الخليفة?! "Talha is same one who said to Abu Bakr at his death time: What are you going to answer Allah for choosing such a bad-tempered and ungodly man upon us as the Caliph? And he is the same who said to Abu Bakr: 'O Caliph of the Messenger of Allah! In your life time, even though you were controlling him we could not bear him, so now, what our condition going to be while you have passed away and he is the Caliph upon us?!
Also in volume 2, pages 119 and 120 of the four-volume " البلاغه شرح نَهْج ‏” (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha)" has explained about Omar's bad morality where he says: و كان عمر بن الخطّاب إذا غضب على واحدٍ من أهلهِ لا يسكن غضبه حتّى يعَضّ يدَهُ عَضّاً شديداً حتّى يدميها "And Omar's custom was that when he was angry with one of the Household, and his own relatives, his anger would not stop until he would so severely bite his hand to bleed!
[34] "سيره ابن هشام‏", printing in 1383 anno Hejira, publication of "مطبعة مدنى قاهره‏", volume 4, pages 1071 to 1073. And in the part of " أنساب الأشراف‏", the first section, publication " دار المعارف مصر", page 584, it has been written:
فَمن بايع رجلًا على غير مشورة فإنّهما أهلُ أن يقتلا. و إنّى أقسم بالله ليكفّنّ الرِّجال أو ليقطعنّ أيديهم و أرجلهم و ليصلّبنّ فى جذوع النّخل.
And in the beginning of Omar's sermon it has been said that:
قَالَ فِيها: إنَّ فلاناً و فلاناً قالا: «لو مات عمر، بايعنا علياً فتمّت بيعته. فإنّما كانت معه الى أبى بكر فلتة وقى الله شرّها.
Then, after relating this sentence about those two who had said they would pay homage with Ali, Omar has a lengthy sermon.‏
[35] "شرح نهج البلاغة” (The Explanation of Nahj-ul-Balagha)", printing " دار إحياء الكتب العَرَبية", volume 2, page 25; and the four-volume printing of " دار الاحياء الثّراث العَرَبى‏", volume 1, page 123. And ibn Abi al-Hadid has related this subject from his Sheikh, Abu-al-Ghasim Balkhi and too from his Sheikh, Abu Othman Hahiz.
[36] "أنساب الأشراف‏", volume 5, page 15.
[37] "أنساب الأشراف‏", volume 5, page 15.
[38] "أنساب الأشراف‏", volume 5, page 19. And there is one very close to this meaning in "عقد الفريد", volume 3, page 74.
[39] "كنز العمّال‏", volume 3, page 160.

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