Anyhow, all seditions and differences popped up from this counsel, and whatever disaster happed to the Muslims was by that. Here, it is time we mentioned a subtle story that ibn Abdrabba Andolosi has related in "عقد الفريد". He says so: 'It is said that Zeiad, sent Hasin' son to Mua‘wiyah and he stayed with him for a long time. Once Mua‘wiyah called him and they sat in their privacy for a while, and then, Mua‘wiyah said: 'O son of Hasin, I have gathered that you are very intelligent and own stable wisdom! Now, I would like to ask you something; do answer me!' Haasin's son replied: 'Do ask whatever you like.' Mua‘wiyah said: 'For what reason the Muslims became discouraging and separated, and what cause differences among them?' Ibn Hasin said: 'It was the killing of Othman!' Mua‘wiyah said: 'You gave no good reason.' Ibn Hasin said: 'It was the movement of Talha, Zubair and Aisha and Ali's fighting with them.' Mua‘wiyah said: 'Again you gave no good reason.' Ibn Hasin said: 'I have nothing more than these to say.' So, I will tell you the reason that nothing discouraged the Muslims or separated them but the counsel that Omar set up among those six! And this is because Allah sent Muhammad His guidance and with His right religion so that influence all other creeds and religions. Although the disbelievers did not approve it, Muhammad carried out whatever Allah had commanded and them, Allah took him to Him, he considered Abu Bakr for prayer, and the Muslims approved him for their world because Muhammad had approved him for their religion.
Abu Bakr followed the tradition and nature of the Messenger of Allah until he passed away; Abu Bakr chose Omar as the Caliph, Omar too followed Abu Bakr in the same way, then, he put the caliphate in a counsel with six, but there was no man to be caliph for each one of them wanted it for his benefit, in the mean time, each one's relative was anxious and hopeful and was struggling for him to be the caliph. And every one of them was expecting to receive the position of the Caliphate. It is quite clear that if Omar had openly chosen a caliph, as Abu Bakr did, there would be no dispute or differences among them as well as the nation.
Out of what is said so far, we benefit that Omar' deflorations and changes in the religion, was not a brief change, it was the basic alteration and continued among his followers; therefore, as the time goes on, it remains unveiled to the world.
And as his followers considered the changes in the religion to be the religious changes, they considered Omar as a saint and took his traditions as the traditions of the Messenger of Allah – while, intellect, religion and conscious are the proper judges that except the Divine Inspiration nothing is worthy to follow, and the necessity of following the messengers is that they are connected to the Unseen World, otherwise following something blindly, in all aspects of life, is condemned! Omar intruded the policy of the Messenger of Allah; he invented many different things calling the traditions of Omar, and then, putting them together with the traditions of the previous caliph, which are famous as: 'the traditions of the Sheikhs'!
Here, it becomes quite clear that his harm to the true Islam and the laws and traditions of Muhammad is greater than the harm of Abu Sofyan, Abu Lahab, Abu Jahl and some others. It is because by their sabotages, fighting and disasters they created for the Muslims, and on top, for the Messenger of Allah, their purpose was to prevent the progress of the Messenger and the Islamic nation. They wanted to be chiefs and lead the people but not the Messenger of Allah. However, Omar's was to prevent the spirituality, the Guardianship and the nature of Islam! Omar mixed up the religion with his own traditions, and then, injected it to the Muslims. Omar interfered in the spirituality of Islam and influenced his way thinking covered in the clothes of Islam. Therefore, we see that the policy of Abu Sofyan has disappeared, and no one follows it in the world, but Omar's is there in its original shape! And it is impossible to make a Sunnite understand that his religion is baseless – there is only the Book of Allah, tradition of the Messenger of Allah and then nothing more.
The reason that in the books of Shiite Omar has been compared to Samaritan in the Tribe of the Holiness Moses is that, in the point of the spirituality, Samaritan interred in the religion of Moses and then, invited the Israelis to worship the calf. He was not just one ruler to have an apparent government. The love of governing the people, especially spiritual leadership, is a great sin and with no doubt, there is a destruction for one who desires it and ruins and levels him to dust!
About that whether the Caliphate is by the written text or through inheritance, in his fourth article, (مقالة رابعه), from his book, "سِرُّ الْعَالَمَين", Imam Muhammad Ghazali has a discussion leading to the long statement:
لَكنْ أسْفَرْتِ الْحُجَّة وَجْهَهَا وَ أجْمَعَ الجَمَاهِيرُ عَلَى مَتْنِ الحَدِيثِ فِى يومِ غَدِيرِ خُمٍّ بِاتّفَاقِ الجَمِيعِ، وَ هُوَ يقُولُ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ: «مَن كنتُ مَوْلاهُ فَعَلِى مَولاهُ» فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: بَخٍّ بَخٍّ لَك يا أبَا الحَسَنِ لَقَدْ أصْبَحْتَ مَوْلاى وَ مَوْلَى كلِّ مُؤمِنٍ وَ مَؤمِنَة.
فَهَذَا تَسْلِيمٌ وَ رِضى وَ تَحْكيمُ. ثُمَّ بَعْدَ هَذَا غَلْبُ الهَوَى لِحُبِّ الرِّياسَة، وَ حَمْلِ عَمُودِ الخِلافَة، وَ عُقُودِ البُنُودِ، وَ خَفَقَانِ الهَوَى فِى قَعْقَعِة الرَّاياتِ، وَ اشّتِبَاك ازْدِحَامِ الخُيولِ، وَ فَتْجِ الامصَارِ سَفَاهُمْ كأسَ الهَوَى، فَعَادُوا إلَى الخِلا فِ الْأوَّلِ، فَنَبَذُوهُ وَرَآءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَ اشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا فَبِئسَ مَا يشْتَرُونَ.
وَ لَمَّا مَاتَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ وَ سَلَّمَ قَالَ قَبْلَ وَفَاتِهِ: إيتُونِى بِدَواة وَ بَياضٍ لازيلَ عَنكمْ إشكالَ الْأمْرِ، وَ أذْكرَ لَكمْ مِنَ المُسّتَحَقُّ لَهَا بَعْدِى.
قَالَ عُمَرُ: دَعُوا الرَّجُلَ فَإنَّهُ لَيهْجُرُ- وَ قِيلَ: يهْدُو. 
However, argument and reason were unveiled, the great scholars and the majority of the Muslims came together on the narrative of the event of the Ghadir-e-Khum that the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, had stated: 'Whomsoever, I am Master and Guardian upon, so is Ali his Master and Guardian.' And following it, Omar said: 'Well-done, and congratulation to you O Abu-al-Hassan! You brought the night to the daybreak, while you are my Master and Guardian – so are you the Master and Guardian of every man and woman Muslim!'
Thus, these statements are willingness to the affair, and the case is the transmission of author to Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace. Then, after this event, they once again turned to their old passions, cardinal desires, the love of authority, clinging the pillar of Caliphate, hoisting the big flags and banners, pulling down the flags of the opponents, and through numerous plans and tricks they moved to their old skims and threw the fact behind, and by ignoring the right, they sold the covenant of Allah for a trifle price – what a bad transaction and dealing it was!
And the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, was on the point of death, before passing away he said: 'Bring me some paper and ink to write you something to save you disputing about the Caliphate after my demise.' Omar said, 'Leave this man on his own, he is saying nonsense; he has run out of his mind – or because of his severe illness he is talking in delirium!'
In his short and brief expressions, Imam Ghazzali has done his best and revealed the fact.
Of course, this kind of perception is due to his avoiding desires and passions, the cardinal desires and the love of having authority, ignoring the title of 'His Holiness' for his own. Also leaving the position of the headmaster for Baghdad Religious School, and ignoring all the worldly designations and sitting by his own for ten years in Sham, by religious mortifications purifying him – challenging with the Satanic concupiscence and asking the assist of Divine. In this way, he shut the door to superstitions and found the fact; as it is understood by referring his book, called: "الْمُنقِذُ مِنَ الضَّلال", which has been written in Sham.
Indeed Allah does not cast into oblivion the trial and struggle of good people, and according to this verse:
وَالَّذِينَ جَاهَدُوا فِينَا لَنَهْدِينَّهُم سُبُلَنَا وَ إِنَّ اللَهَ لَمَعَ الْمُحْسِنِين.
'…and those who struggle in Our cause, We surely guide them in Our way; for indeed Allah is with the good-doers.'
And the purport of:
مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِن ذَكرٍ أوْ أُنثَى وَ هُوَ مُؤمِنٌ فَلَنُحْينَنَّهُ حَيوة طَيبَة وَ لَنجْزِينَّهُم أجْرَهُم بِأحْسَنِ مَا كانُوا يعْمَلُون.
'…and whoever does a righteous deed – whether he is a men or a woman – provided he is a believer, We will certainly let him live a happy life, and reward him with his earnings for the finest deeds he has been doing.'
With no doubt, Ghazzali was of the Sunnite and he was of the followers of Omar, and even the prejudiced one. However, searching for the right, illuminated the light of guidance in his heart, and then, no doubt, he followed the path of the Shiite and put step in the path of sanctity.
The Late jurisprudent the wise narrator and great commentator of Islam, concerning him, Mula Mohsin Feiz Kashani says: 'He was busy writing "إحياء العلوم" of the Sunnite, and later he became a Shiite and then wrote the book of  "سرّ العالمين".
So by what we have said so far, one must not care the statements and writings of some recent scholars who believe the book of "سرّ العالَمَين" is not of Ghazzal's. Because, apart from that, most of the reasons that he has mentioned in his book have answers and explanations; some of them are faultless and are free from mistakes, so is no fair any scholar without thoroughly investigating it to reject or give a bad name to it.
Among those who accept the book of " سرّ العالَمَين" to be of Ghazzali's, are: Zahabi in " ذَهَبى ", in " ميزان الاعتدال", ibn Hajar Asghalani in " لسان الميزان", Sibt ibn Jouzi in "تَذْكِرَهُ خَوَاصّ الْامّة", Georji Zaidan in "آداب اللُّغة الْعَرَبية", Mulla Mohsin Feiz Kashani in " المحَجَّة الْبَيَضْاء", Al'lama Muhammad Baqir Majlisi in  " بحار الأنوار", Al'lama Abd-ul-Hussein Amini in " الْغَدير", and in the instruction of the book, he has related the " سرّ العالَمَي ", printing in Najaf, Tabatabaee Hasani  saying: those who have related the book of "سرّ العالمَين " to Ghazzali are: Ghazi Nor-ul-Lah Tostary in " مَجالِسُ الْمُؤمنين ", Sheikh Ali bin Abd-ul-Aali Karaki, the second investigator in what is related about. And Al'lama Tehrani says: in "تاج العروس" and in " الْإتحاف فى شرح الإحيآء"they have also related it to Ghazzali.
Anyhow, the love of chairmanship has mislead Talha and Zubair with their such long record, and having twelve thousand fighters in their disposal, they have rejected paying allegiance to the Commander of the believers, the only source of virtuous among all being in the period of the Messenger of Allah, and then, later on attacking the poor and weak people and murdering them mercilessly with their falsely excuses that they had killed Othman, and too many other injustices against the Muslims, Then, can be expected of the Sheikhs whose record of enmity with Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, goes back to many years ago – since the time of the Messenger of Allah. So there is no surprise in it.
That is why the religion of the Shiite consider such people as unlawful lot, and believe that the Imamate is only for the master of the infallibles, free from pride and passions, so that to lead and guide people to the fact and straight path.
As the knowledge of a man is more his passion s are less; and as many good records he has his nature becomes fairer and milder. That is here when one's nature make him stand up and serve the religion, and look after the needy and protect Islam; in the name of Islam do the opposite and usurp the rights of the rightful ones such as Ali. Covering his main nature and character, he gets ready to protect the needy, gets away Fadak from the sweat-heart of the Messenger of Allah, and for saving the society, he breaks the front gate of Fatima and presses Zahra so forcefully against the wall that she collapses and miscarries her babe. All of these have happened in the name of religion and protecting the law, the Book of Allah and the religion. And after that, they have wasted the rights of the people, oppressed them to give up their beliefs and hopes and consequently to surrender. It went on until the time of the government of bani Omayyad came, then bani Abbas, they too did what the predecessors did. They pressed the people and got away their belongings and blood building the palaces and luxurious lives. As they say:
When in the beginning, the first brick is laid in a tilted position; the wall is raised tilted high to the heavens!
The Sheikhs mixed up the religion with their own perceptive way of thinking. They troubled the pure water from the spring and let people drink their contaminated water! And they made foggy atmosphere out of clean air and let the people breathe it. However, the Commander of the believers, who is the standard for goodness and justice, does not trespass against the Book of Allah and the tradition of His Messenger; he even says not a single baseless word to help him run the government in the best way. To have more allies, he never says: 'I give value to the Sheikhs tradition.' To Abd-ur-Rahman bin Auf answer, when he wanted to allegiance to Ali said: 'I pay homage to you but the condition is that I will also carry out the traditions of the Sheikhs along with the Book of Allah and the tradition of the Messenger,' he openly said: 'No, but only the Book of Allah, the tradition of the Messenger and my own opinion!' Here, he ignored the ruler-ship because it was based on the Sheikhs tradition, which was baseless. And when abd-ur-Rahman wanted to make a condition that the Holiness should not give power to Bani Hashim, he did not accept it and said: 'I will give the authority to anyone I think is capable – either among Bani Hashim or anyone else.'
Ibn Ghotaiba Dinvary has related that:
ثُمَّ أَخَذَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بِيدِ عَلِى فَقَالَ لَهُ: أبَايعُك عَلَى شَرْطِ عُمَرَ أنْ تَجْعَلَ أحَداً مِنْ بَنِى هَاشِمٍ عَلَى رِقَابِ النَّاسِ !
فَقَالَ عَلِى عِندَ ذَلِك: مَالَك وَ لِهَذَا إذَا قَطَعْتَهَا فِى عُنُقِى؟! فَإنَّ عَلَى الاجْتِهَادِ لُامَّة محمَّدٍ. حَيثُ عَلِمْتُ القُوَّة وَ الْأمَانَة اسْتَعَنْتُ بِهَا، كانَ فِى بَنِى هَاشِمِ أوْ غَيرِهِم! قَالَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ: لا وَ اللَهِ حَتَّى تُعْطِينَى هَذَا الشَّرطُ. قَالَ عَلِى: وَ اللَهِ لا أعطيكهُ أبَداً. فَتَرَكهُ فَقَامُوا مِن عِندِه.
Then, Abd-ur-Rahman held Ali on his hand and told him: 'I swear allegiance with you for your Caliphate, but like Omar, I make a condition that you never give authority to Bani Hashim against the people!'
Ali answered: 'What is your business with this problem, why are you going to impose it to me? It is my responsibility to do my best for the nation of Muhammad, and I will ask for help wherever I think it is useful for my government – whether it is among the Bani Hashim or anywhere else!' Abd-ur-Rahman said: 'By Allah, you will not get the Caliphate unless you accept this condition!' Ali answered: 'By Allah, I will never make a condition with you.' Thus, Abd-ur-Rahman left Ali and went on his own!
And similarly, ibn Ghotaiba relates that after the case of the arbitraries that the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, preached for the people of Kufa, and was preparing them to Jihad, within the sermon he said: 'I am commanding to every chief of the tribes to write a letter and hand it to me; in the letter it must be said how many fighters each one has in his disposal, as well as their children who can fight and so is it with their slaves and other supporters. Give those letters to me so that I check them – God willing!' The first chief of a tribe who stood up and answered was Sa'd bin Ghais Hamadani, next to him was Eddi bin Hatam and Hojr bin Eddi and then the great men in the tribes. All surrendered and obeyed the Commander of the believers and soon an army was set up.
Then, ibn Ghotaiba continued the subject until he said:
فَبَايعُوهُ عَلَى التَّسلِيمِ وَ الرِّضا، وَ شَرَط عَلَيهِمْ كتَابَ اللهِ وَ سُنَّة رَسُولِهِ صَلَّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم، فَجَاءَهُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ خُثْعَمِ فَقَالَ لَهُ عَلِى: بَايعْ عَلَى كتَابِ اللهِ وَ سَنَّة نَبِيهِ! قَالَ: لا! وَ لَكنْ ابَايعُك عَلَى كتَابِ اللهِ وَ سُنَّة نَبِيهِ وَ سُنَّة أبى بَكرٍ وَ عُمَرَ. فَقَالَ عَلَى: وَ مَا يدْخُلُ سُنَّة أبى بَكرٍ وَ عُمَرَ مَعَ كتابِ اللهِ وَ سُنَّة نَبِيِّهِ؟ إنَّمَا كانَا عَامِلَينِ بِالحَقِّ حَيثُ عَمِلًا. فَأبَى الْخُثْعَمِى الّا سُنَّة أبى بَكرٍ وَ عُمَرَ، وَ أبى عَلِى أنْ يبَايعَهُ الّا عَلَى كتَابِ اللهِ وَ سُنَّة نَبِيهِ صَلّى الله عليه (و آله) و سلّم.
فَقَالَ لَهُ حَيثُ ألحَّ عَلَيهِ: تُبَايعُ؟ قَالَ: لَا، إلّا عَلَى مَا ذَكرْتُ لَك! فَقَالَ لَهُ عَلِى: أمَا وَ اللَهِ لَكأنِّى بِك قَدْ نَفَرْتَ فِى هَذِهِ الفِتْنَة وَ كأنِّى بِحَوافِرِ خَيلَى قَدْ شَدَّخَتْ وَجْهَك! فَلَحِقَ بِالخَوارِج فَقُتِلَ يوْمَ النَّهْرُوانِ.
قَالَ قَبصَة: فَرَأيتُهُ يوْلَا النَّهْرُوانِ فَتِيلًا، قَدْ وَطَأتِ الخَيلُ وَجْهَهُ، وَ شَدَخْت رَأسُهُ، وَ مَثَّلَتْ بِهِ؛ فَذَكرْتُ، قَوْلَ عَلِى وَ قُلْتُ: لِلَّهِ دَرُّ أبى الْحَسَنِ! مَا حَرَّك شَفَتَيهُ قَطُّ بِشَىْءِ إلَّا كانَ كذَلِك.
After that the great men and the chiefs of the tribes willingly paid homage and Ali made a condition that they had to act upon the Book of Allah and follow His Messenger, Bless be to Him and his Descendants. At that condition, a man came from the tribe of Khoth'am  and Ali told him: 'Do swear allegiance with the Book of Allah and the tradition of His Messenger.' He said: 'Never, but I swear allegiance with you based on the Book of Allah, the tradition of His Messenger, and the traditions of Abu Bakr and Omar.' Ali told him: 'But the traditions of Abu Bakr and Omar do not go with the Book of Allah and the tradition of the Messenger!' Abu Bakr and Omar were two agents for the right, but if they acted upon right.' The Khoth'ami man rejected to pay allegiance without Abu Bakr and Omar's being in his condition, Ali too did not accept his allegiance putting the traditions of Abu Bakr and Omar side by side with the Book of Allah and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants.
Seeing that the Khoth'ami man was still on his condition, Ali asked him: 'Do you want to pay allegiance?' He answered, 'No, unless on the condition that I told you before.'
Therefore, Ali told him: 'Be aware, by Allah, I see that you are rejecting us through sedition, and resisting to pay allegiance! I clearly see that your face is battered under the hoofs of the horses of our army!' Later on, that man joined the Kharijites and was killed on the Day of Nahravan.
Ghabisa says: 'On the Day of Nahravan, I saw him murder and fall on the ground, under the hoofs of the horses. They battered his face and broke his head, and then, cut him into pieces! At that moment I remembered Ali's statement and whispered to me: 'May Allah pour His endless blessings upon Abu-al-Hassan, Abu-al-Hassan has never uttered a word unless it has happened as he had said."'
Right from the beginning, the only aim and struggle of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, along with his loyal companions was establishing the law of the Qur'an and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah. They avoided any probable changes to happen in the right religion and defended any aggression towards Islam. If we consider the virtue and the way of the Holiness' ruling, as well we consider his companions virtues and behaviors, we understand that if anyone was not in the line of Ali he could not be his companions or follow him – willingly or unwillingly he would be dismissed; because the Holiness' spiritual condition and his other companions' way of thinking and living would not match with his condition. Time and again, the Holiness used to say: 'Our aim is Allah and setting up justice, we will try in this way until to the end of our lives. We have no aim apart from this, we are not after rank, position and ruler-ship!'
Abuzar Ghaf'fari, the right and brave fighter, and that great companion and the dearest to the generous Messenger lonely stood against the tyrannical Mua‘wiyah in Sham, and after sending him by force to Medina, he challenged against Othman's aggression.
The great historian and narrator and well-known astronomer Massoudi has written the exile of Abuzar to Rabazah in his book "مروج الذَّهب", and has said that Othman has rejected escorting him; and he has said: 'Ali, Hassan and Hussein, upon them be peace, and Aqil, Abdullah bin Ja‘far and Am'mar Yasir escorted him.' Their escorting was too much to Othman and he said:
'When Ali returned from the escorting of Abuzar, the people received him gladly and said: "O the Commander of the believers, Othman has become angry with your escorting Abuzar!"' Ali answered: 'Then, he has become angry like the horses dislike their harnesses!' That means his anger is meaningless!
And when later, at night, Ali meets Othman, he objects the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, he says: 'Why have you rejected my command?'The Holiness answers: 'I did not reject your command' Othman says: 'Have you not heard that I had prohibited seeing Abuzar?' The Holiness answers.
أو كلُّ مَا أَمَرتُنَا بِهِ مِن شَىءٍ نَرَى طَاعَة لِلَّهِ وَ الحَقَّ فِى خِلافِهِ اتَّبَعْنَا فِيهَ أمْرَك؟! بِاللَهِ لا تَفْعَل! 
'What! Do whatever you command us, but we find it against the right and the command of Allah, should we still follow it? No, by Allah, we would never do so.'
Ibn Ghotaiba Dinvari says: 'The historians and the investigators have said that a group of the companions of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, came together and wrote down a letter mentioning whatever Othman had acted against the tradition of the Messenger of Allah, as well as the two Caliphs before him. It included the due welfare taxes of Africa which was for Allah and the right of the Messenger of Allah as well as the poor and the needy, but he had given all to Marwan-e-Hakam, and the transgressions in making new buildings; they have even counted that he had built seven houses for himself in Medina: a house for his wife, NAa'ilah, and a house for his daughter, Aisha, and some of them for the other keath and kin and daughters of his. And the palaces that Marwan has built for himself in Dhi Khasab, he has done it with the income due welfare taxes which belongs to Allah and His Messenger. He has given the high positions in the government to the young and unskilled cousins and other relatives of his who are brought up by Bani Omayyad. None of them had ever spoken to the Messenger or taken his advice; and that which happened by his Emir, Walid bin Aghaba in Kufa, when he had the control of Kufa in hand, was that once he established the Morning Prayer four cycles instead of two – he was in the state of intoxication! Then, he told the congregation: 'If you like, I am ready to pray more for you – I can pray even more than four cycles!'
After receiving the news, Othman did not punish him, and he always delayed it; and he pushed the Supporters and Immigrants aside and did not ask for their experience in the affairs, he did not consult with them, and he took the lands in the suburbs of Medina for his own and did not let the people use them as the pastures for their animals. He had assigned countless monthly payments for his relatives and acquaintances who had not even see the Messenger, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, let alone to have conversations with him. They neither defended Islam nor went to Jihad for the victory of Islam. Apart from beating the people with sticks, he began lashing them, because before him, the two Caliphs would not lash the people but only beat them with short bamboos.
And after writing the letter, they confederated to reach it to Othman. They were ten altogether. And the people who aware of this letter were: Am'mar bin Yasir and Miqdad bin Aswad. When they set out to give the Othman, they one by one separated and disappeared on the way while the letter was with Am'mar. They all went away and left Am'mar alone, he continued his way until reached Othman's house.
It was too cold on that day, Am'ar asked Othman to enter his house, and he let him enter. When Am'ar went in, he saw Marwan bin Hakam and his family sitting with Othman, so he handed the letter to Othman.
Othman read the letter and then asked Am'ar: Have you written this letter? Am'ar answered: 'Yes, I have done it.'
Othman asked: 'Was anyone with you when you were written it?' Am'ar answered: 'Yes, there were some men with me, but on the way here, they were frightened to encounter you and disappeared!' Othman asked: 'Who are those people?' Am'mar said: 'I am not going to mention their names.' Othman asked: 'So how did you dare doing such thing among them?' Marwan said: 'O Commander of the faithful! This negro slave, Am'mar has encouraged people against you, so if you kill him, then you have given a good lesson to the whole nation. And then, when they remember him, they will not do anything like that.'
Othman commanded to beat him, and in the mean time he too was beating him with the others, until they tore apart him stomach and Am'ar collapsed and became unconscious. They dragged his corpse out and left it outside in front of the gate.
Umm Salama, the wife of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, ordered some men to carry him to the front of her house. He was left there. And as Am'mar belonged to the tribe of Banu Moghira, the Banu Moghira became angry with Othman. On the same day, when Othman left house for the mid-day prayer, Hisham bin Walid bin Moghirah stood in his way and said: 'By Allah, if Am'mar dies by this cruel action of yours, then I will kill a great man of Bani Omayyad!' Othman said: 'But you are not there!'
Then, Othman went to the mosque. He saw Ali sitting in the mosque while wrapping up his head because of a headache. Othman told him: 'O Abu-al-Hassan! By Allah, I wonder whether I wish for your death or you living! By Allah, if you die, then I have no desire to be alive for anyone else; it is because I cannot find anyone like you! And if you are alive, then I always find one attached you and always relies on you and does whatever he likes against me without knowing what to do with. Nothing stops me killing him but only his position with you and your respect to him! Therefore, my case with you is similar to a disobedient son with his father. If the son dies, the father becomes mournful of his loss, and if he lives, he always causes problems for his father! So, take a peaceful way so as we too can follow it! Or choose the way to fight then we too understand what to do against you! Do not let me suspend in the middle and living in dilemma! By Allah, if you kill me, you will not find anyone alike me! And if I kill you, nor can I find anyone for me! And whoever causes sedition, he cannot be a Guardian for the nation!'
Ali said: 'There is a good answer for every word you say, however, I have a bad headache to answer you now! I am just going to repeat the same word that Abd Salih has already said:
When the Caliphate was of the Commander of the believers, Upon Him be Peace, he was determined to do his best, to do away with the innovations and turn the condition to what it was at the time of the Messenger of Allah; for example, to take back and return to the public treasury the lands that Othman had freely given away to his kith and kin. When on the second day he had received the Caliphate, he said in his sermon:
ألا كلُّ قَطِيعَة أقْطَعَهَا عُثْمَانُ وَ كلُّ مَالِ أعْطَاهُ مِن مَالِ اللَهِ فَهُوَ مُرْدُودٌ فِى بَيتِ المَالِ؛ فَإنَّ الحَقَّ القَدِيمَ لا يبْطلُهُ شَىءٌ. وَ اللَهِ لوْ وَجَدْتُهُ قدْ تُزُوِّجَ بِه النِّساءُ وَ مُلِك بِهِ الامَآءُ، لَرَدَدْتُهُ؛ فَإنَّ فِى العَدْلِ سَعَة، وَ مَن ضَاقَ عَلَيهِ العَدْلُ فَالجَوْرُ عَلَيهِ أضْيق.
'Let it be known that every piece of land that Othman has given away and whatever property of Allah he has distributed must be returned to the public treasury house. By Allah, if I receive the news that people have given them as the dowries to their wives, or they have bought slave maids by that means, I will surely return them back to the public treasury, because there remains victory in justice, and whoever has problem with justice he will face oppression and difficulties.' That is, if one is unable to run the affairs of his in life through justice then he is not capable to run it even by aggression, because there is resistance in aggression while there is not in justice.
Although the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, was the Caliph for about twenty-five years, he could not do away with all the innovations of the Sheikhs, and then, in that way to let people know that nothing is reliable against the Book of Allah and the tradition of the Messenger. It was because people were so accustomed to those innovations that only a new religion could keep them away from the wrong beliefs! Leaving the innovations meant giving up their religion!
Consequently, they were trying to save that tradition, and the armies of the Commander of the believers, except a few who had been trained by the Holiness, all were from the Sunnite; they were really defending the traditions of the Sheikhs and defending them.
They are just called the Shiite because against those strict supporters of Othman and Mua‘wiyah, they had tendency to call the Holiness the fourth Caliph! In this way, they just followed the command and probation of the Holiness and took jihad otherwise they were just following the traditions of the Sheikhs.
They did not accept the Holiness as the first and the real Caliph of the Messenger of Allah, and did not think that his assignment was by the Messenger of Allah. Thus, the Holiness very clearly states it in his sermon: 'If I wanted to accept the traditions of the Sheikhs and especially those of Omar's my army would disperse and would not support me.'
Muhammad bin Ya'qub Kolaini relates in " روضة كافى", from Ali bin Ibrahim, quoting his father, he also from Ham'mad bin Isa, he too from Ibrahim bin Othman, who quotes bin Ghais Hilali that: 'The Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, preached a sermon.
To start with, he praised Allah, and saluted the Messenger of Allah, and then said:
ألَا إنَّ أخْوَفَ مَا أخافُ عَليكم خُلَّتَانِ: اتَّبَاعُ الْهَوَى وَ طُولُ الْأمَلِ. أمّا اتِّباعُ الْهَوَى فَيصُدُّ عَنِ الْحَقِّ، وَ أمّا طُولُ الْأمَلِ فَينْسِى الْاخِرَة.
Then, the Holiness continues:
إنِّى سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ الله صَلَّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم يقُولُ: كيفَ أنتُمْ إذَا لَبَسَتْكُمْ فِتَنة يَرْبُو فِيهَا الصّغيرُ، وَ يهْرُمُ فِيهَا الْكَبيرُ، يجْرِى النَّاسُ عَلَيهَا وَ يتَّخِذُونَهَا سُنَّة، فَإذَا غَيرَ مِنْهَا شَىْءٌ قِيلَ: قَدْ غُيرَتِ السُّنَة، وَ قَدْ أتَى النّاسُ مُنْكراً. ثُمَّ تَشْتَدُّ الْبَلِية وَ تُسْبَى الدُّرِية وَ تَدْفُهُمُ الْفِتْنَة كمَا تَدُقُّ النّارُ الْحَطَبَ وَ كمَا تَدُقُّ الرَّحَى بِثُقَالِهَا، وَ يتَفَقَّهُونَ لِغَيرِا للهِ، وَ يتَعَلَّمُونَ لِغَيرِ العَمَلِ، وَ يطْلَبُونَ الدُّنْيا بِأعْمَالِ الاخِرَة.
ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ بِوَجْهِهِ وَ حَوْلَهُ نَاسُّ مِن أهْلِ بَيتِهِ وَ خَاصِّيتِهِ وَ شِيعَتِهِ فَقَالَ: قَدْ عَمِلَتِ الْوُلَاة قَبْلِى أعْمَالًا خَالَفُوا فِيهَا رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى الله عَليه وَ آله و سلّم مُتَعَمِّدِينَ لِخِلافَة، نَاقِضِينَ لِعَهْدِهِ، مُغَيرينَ لِسُنَّة؛ وَ لَوْ حَمَلْتُ النَّاسُ عَلَى تَرْكهَا وَ حَوَّلْتُها إلَى موَاضِعِهَا وَ الَى مَا كانَت فِى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم لَتَفِرَّقَ عَنِّى جُنْدِى حَتَّى أبْقَى وَحْدِى أوْ قَلِيلٌ مِنْ شِيعَتِى الَّذِينَ عَرَفُوا فَضْلِى وَ فَرْضَ إمَامَتى مِنْ كتابِ اللهِ عَزّ وَ جَلَّ وَ سُنَّة رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلّى الله عليه و آله و سلّم.
Be aware! How does it come when sedition comes, it comes in disguise showing the fact to you other way round, and puts you in doubt and dilemma. It lasts for a long time until a young one grows up, and the old one gets even older in that sedition, in that situation, people adjust their affairs according to that sedition!
They take it as the tradition, and then if there is a little change in it, they say: the tradition has changed; thus, people do ugly things. And then, sedition worsens and they take away the children as captives. Sedition so batters them as fire burns the wood, similar to stone-mills that ground whatever seeds between!
People becomes jurisprudents for the ungodly, they learn and act for the others; they act in the name of the Hereafter but for this world and search for the worldly life.
Then, the Holiness turned to his Household, his own close ones, his followers who were gathered around him and said: 'The Guardians and Emirs before me have done many things but against the will of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, they were determined to do things against the Messenger of Allah, they broke the covenant of the Messenger of Allah and manipulated his tradition.
Now, if I force people to keep away from them and if I change those innovations to their original ways, and to put them as they were at the time of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, then even my army will forsake me leaving me all alone; or there may remain a few of my followers who know my virtues – those who have learned my situation through the Book of Allah and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants.
Then, the Holiness mentioned some of the innovation and next said: If I change these and turn to the Book of Allah and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants: (إذاً لَتَفَرَّقُوا عَنِّى), then they will leave me alone and disperse.
At that time he states:
وَ اللهِ لَقَدْ أمَرْتُ النَّاسَ أن لَا يجْتَمِعُوا فِى شَهرِ رَمضَانَ إلّا فِى فَرِيضَة، وَ أعْلَمَتهُمْ أنَّ اجْتِمَاعَهُمْ فِى النَّوافِلَ بِدْعَة فَتَنَادَى بَعْضُ أهْلِ عَسْكَرِى مِمَّنْ يقَاتِلُ مَعِى: يا أهْلَ الإسْلَامِ غُيرَتْ سُنَّة عُمَرَ، ينْهَانَا عَنِ الصَّلَاة فِى شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ تَطَوُّعاً، وَ لَقَدْ خِفْتُ أنْ يثُورُوا فى نَاحِية جَانِبِ عَسْكَرِى، مَا لَقِيقُ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْامَّة مِنَ الْفُرْقَة وَ طَاعَة أئِمَّة الضَّلالَة وَ الدُّعَاة إلَى النّار - الخطبة 
By Allah, I did command the people not to pray the Taravih prayers in mass at the nights of Ramadhan, they should only gather in the mosque for the obligatory prayers in mass; I did warn them that voluntary prayers in mass at the nights of Ramadhan were only an innovation. In that case, some men who were in my army shouted and warned each other that: 'O men of Islam! The tradition of Omar has been changed; now, this man is avoiding us to pray our voluntary prayers in mass in Ramadhan! They made such a raw that I was afraid they would make trouble in some part of my army. How difficulties I have been through by this nation, they have disobeyed me; they have been following the misleading false leaders who were dragging them into the fire …!'
It must be considered that the immaculate Imams, peace be upon them all how difficulties have gone through in turning the situation to the time and the virtues of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, they have sacrificed their lives and have doen their best on this way.
In his history book, Tabary has related the letter of the purified soul, Muhammad bin Abdullah, to Mansour Davaneghi; where he says:
وَ إنَّ أَبَانَا عَلَيّا كانَ الْوَصِى وَ كانَ الْإمَامَ فَكيفَ وَرِثْتُم وَلَايتَهُ وَ وُلْدُهُ أحْياء.
'Indeed, our father, Ali bin Abī Tālib, was the Successor of the Messenger of Allah and the Imam of the nation. So how have you inhered his Guardianship while his children are alive?!'
This letter is lengthy; and to answer it, Abu Ja'far Mansour writes a detailed letter; and it includes that:
وَ لَقَدْ طَلَبَهَا أبُوك لِكلِّ وَجْهٍ، فَأخْرَجَهَا نَهَاراً وَ مَرَّضَهَا سِرَّا وَ دَفَنَها لَيلًا فَأَبَى النّاسُ إلّا الشَّيخَينِ وَ تفَضْيلَهُمَا.
'Indeed, wherever possible, your father, Ali bin Abī Tālib, were after the Guardianship and was searching to obtain it, he used to take Fatima outside so that to claim his claim, he used to treat her medically away from the people's knowledge, he buried her in the middle of the night; however, people did not stop following the theories of the Sheikhs.'
Ibn Khaldoun, who is relating this letter from Mansour Davaneghi, he is quoting it with very tiny bit of differences and says:
وَ لَقَدْ طَلَبَ بِهَا أَبُوك مِن كلِّ وَجْهٍ وَ أخْرَجَهَا تُخَاصِمُ- إلى آخره.
'Indeed, by all means, your father was after the Guardianship, and he took Fatima outside to dispute and challenge to get the Guardianship back.'
Anyhow, our discussion is that the theories of the Sheikhs had so affected the people that the Commander of the believers, upon him be peace, could not take all of them away during his Guardianship. People were in the same way and with the very ideas during the period of the Holiness Imam Hassan, upon him be peace, and day after day, because of the power of Bani Omayyad, who was under the influence of Mua‘wiyah bin Abi Sofyan and was trying to do away with the ideology of the Imamate and to wipe out the name and sign of the Messenger of Allah in Sham, these innovations became stronger day by day. It continued until Mua‘wiyah clearly announced to Moghira bin Sho'ba: 'I will not rest until I bring down the name of Muhammad from the top of the minarets and bury it forever!'
Mua‘wiyah says, 'I will not rest until I bring down the name of Muhammad from the top of the minarets and burry them
In his history book, Masoudi has recorded about the events of the year two hundred and twelve of anno Hejira that: In this year, Ma'moon's herald announced it with his command that the Caliph is free from obligation and blame if anyone speaks good of Mua‘wiyah or considers him to be superior to anyone of the Messenger's Household, and if says that the Qur'an has been created by man and the similar utterances. Then, there was differences among the people why Ma'moon had announced his being from such actions of Mua‘wiyah, everyone took a different side.
One side is that, one of the companions of Ma'moon had related astory from Motrif bin Moghira bin Sho'ba Thaghafi to Ma'moon; and Zubair bin Bakkar has recorded this story in his book as: 'the famous news of the triumph', and he has narrated it to Mowaffagh. And the the story is that Zubair bin Bakkar says that: 'I heard that Madaeeni say, Motraf bin Moghira bin Sho'ba said: My father and I were as two guests to Mua‘wiyah.
My father used to go to Mua‘wiyah and they would have conversation, after that he would come to me and tell me what they had talked about. He used to tell me of his intelligent and was surprised what he had heard from him. It was until one night my father returned from Mua‘wiyah's presence but stopped eating food. I found him very depressed but I waited to see him come over; I thought that he was sorry about our condition or anything unpleasant we had done making him unhappy.
I asked him: 'O father, what is reason that I see you so depressed tonight?' He answered: 'O my son! I have returned from the most devil people!' I asked: 'How is that! What are you talking about?' He said: 'When he and I were sitting in our privacy, I told him: "O the Commander of the faithful! Your rank and position are at such a highest degree with us that you have affected all of us! Now, it were time you would show your justice and increase your generosity, because you are getting too old now! And how nice it would be if you were kind to your brethren, Bani Hashim, and to be kind to them! By Allah, now they have no power you are frightened of them!"
To my question, Mua‘wiyah said:
هَيهَاتَ هَيهَاتَ!! مَلَك أخُوتَيْمٍ فَعَدلَ وَ فَعَلَ مَا فَعَلَ؛ فَو اللهِ مَا عَدَا أنْ هَلَكَ، فَهَلَكَ ذَكرُهُ إلّا أنْ يقُولَ قائِلٌ: أبُو بَكرِ. ثُمَّ مَلَك أخُو عَدى فَاجْتَهَّدَ وَ شَمَّرَ عَشْرَ سِنينَ؛ فَوَ اللهِ مَا عَدَا أن هَلَك فَهَلَك ذِكرُهُ إلّا أنْ يقُولُ قائِلٌ: عُمَرُ: ثُمَّ مَلَك أخُونَا عُثْمَانُ فَمَلَك رَجُلٌ لَم يكنْ أحَدٌ فِى مِثْلِ نَسَبِهِ، فَعَمِلَ مَا عَمِلَ (وَ عُمِلَ بِهِ): فَوَ اللهِ مَا عَدَا أنْ هَلَك فَهَلَك ذِكرُهُ وَ ذِكرُ مَا فُعِلَ بِهِ .
وَ إنَّ أخَا هَاشِمٍ يصْرَخُ بِهِ فِى كلِّ يوْمٍ خَمْسَ مَرَّاتٍ: أشْهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ. فَأَى عَمَلٍ يبْقَى مَعَ هَذَا؟ لَا امَّ لَك! وَ اللَهِ إلّا دَفُناً دَفُنا .
'Far be it from you; far be it from you! (What! How can I save my fame and respect by doing goodness to Bani Hashim and having a visit with them?) O our brother, Tay'yimi! Abu Bakr ran the government and he was just among the people, and he did what it was best to do. However, as soon as he died, his name and game were also died and buried with him; now and then, his name is mentioned when someone is talking about him! And after him, our so called brother, Omar received the government; he tried and ran the government for ten years. However, I swear by Allah that as soon as he died, his name and fame were also disappeared unless one mentions Omar when is talking about him. Then, our brother, Othman took the government, and no one was similar to him in lineage, and he did his best (and forgave those who did wrong with him), but by Allah, as soon as he died, his name and game were also died and buried with him; now and then, his name is mentioned when someone is talking about him!'
However, this Hashimi brother of us, (the Messenger of Allah), whose name is announced five times a day as:
"أشهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّدا رَسُولُ الله"; so, which action should I carry out to be similar to this announcement of 'Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah' and then be remembered and mentioned forever! Listen, o you, may cry over your mother's death! By Allah, I will never remain in peace unless I burry this name within earth!'
(It means, no matter what good I may do, but by this call and announcement, my name will be forgotten as soon as I pass away! I have tried and done my best to take Muhammad's name away from the surface of land, his name does not allow anyone to be proud of his action. And stopping his name being announce on the top of the minarets, means imposing the Bani Hashim the harshest treatment and finally doing away with the.'
Masoudi says: By Ma'moon Abbasid hearing this story, it caused, as we mentioned it, to announce in the Muslim living countries: "The Caliph is free from being blamed if anyone says any goodness of Mua‘wiyah or considers him to be greater than any companions." Ma'moon write letters to many Islamic lands to curse Mua‘wiyah on the pulpits of the mosques. This command was too much to the people to bear it, they respected him, so dissatisfaction erupted among the people. Therfore, they told Ma'moon: Cursing Mua‘wiyah benefits nothing for the government, so Ma'mmon ignored what he had commanded to be done.
Mua‘wiyah changed the Prophet-hood of the Messenger of Allah, Bless be to Him and his Descendants, into the Monarchy
'By Allah, I did not fight with you on your prayers, nor was it for fasting. It was not for your going on the Hajj Pilgrimage, nor was it for paying the Zakat. You do these by your own, I fought you only for having the government, to be your Emir; although you disapproved it, Allah honoured me to have it.'
Whenever Abd-ur-Rahman bin Sharik mentioned this case, he would say: "وَ اللَهِ هَذَا هُوَ التَّهَتُّك", 'By Allah, these words are slandering Allah!' On the day when a man remarked Mua‘wiyah with harsh words but he did not answer him for the objections of the people, he said: 'We have nothing to do with the people until they would interfere our business in the government.'
By what we have said so far, it has become clear that, based on Omar's command, Mua‘wiyah changed the Messenger-hood of the Prophet of Allah into simple statesmanship and government, he considered all sanctities mockingly, and then, similar to the policies of the kings, he trusted the government to Yazid and asked people the swear allegiance with him. And he ruined the Islam which was established by the Messenger of Allah and the people such as: Hamza, Ja'far and Ali bin Abī Tālib, Upon Him be Peace, and he totally destroyed the religion of Muhammad and the tradition of Ahmad. And according to his own word, he chose the prayers, fasting, Hajj and Zakat for the people to do; he assigned the imperial politics for the Arabs and the whole Muslims. He went even further until people forgot the nobility and the virtues of Ali, they did not know his records in the history of Islam; they took him as an aggressive and oppressive man! The fact of the prophet-hood which illuminated in the Guardianship, was forgotten, there remained of the Islam and the Qur'an not more than a simple name. In fact, the situation was in a way that Islam seemed to be a historical event, in a certain period of time appeared and before long it disappeared!
The practical rising of the Master of the martyrs, and the scientific rising of the Holiness Imam Sādiq, Upon Him be Peace, to help Islam
At such state, the Islam and Muhammad's religion needed two great pushes: a practical push and a scientific one.
The practical movement by the Master of the martyrs Hussein bin Ali, upon him be peace, happened in a way that as a sudden thunderclap shook the tyrannical government, like the harsh volcano raised a tumult throughout the entire world; the agony of the Holiness was so severe that it raised up the dead and sent the alive into the state of the dead! It practically proved that Muhammad's religion and tradition was burning the entire world down into ashes! For this kind of movement, nothing could be better and reasonable than the plan of the Mater of the martyrs. He did what ought to be done by choosing that sanguinary uprising and that world-wide flaming love, and by means of his well-planned sermon he chose him straight way and announced it to the word, as:
اللَهُمَّ إنَّك تَعْلَمُ أنَّهُ لَمْ يكنْ مَا كانَ مِنَّا تَنَافُساً فِى سُلْطانٍ، وَ لا الْتِمَاساً مِنْ فُضُولِ الْحُطَامِ، وَ لَكنْ لِنَرَى الْمَعَالِمَ مِنْ دِينِك، وَ نَظْهِرَ الْإصْلَاحَ فِى بِلَادِك، وَ يأْمَنَ الْمَظْلُومُونَ مِنْ عِبَادِك، وَ يعْمَلُ بِفَرائِضِك وَ سُنَنِك وَ أحْكامِك.
فَإنْ لَمْ تَنْصُرُونَا وَ تَنصِفُونَا قَوِى الظَّلَمَة عَلَيكمْ وَ عَمِلُوا فِى إطفَاءِ نُورِ نَبِيكمْ، وَ حَسْبُنَا اللهُ وَ عَلَيهِ تَوَكلْنَا وَ إِلَيهِ أَنَبْنَا وَ إِلَيهِ الْمَصِير.
'O my creator! Indeed You know whatever is given us (such as: desire to rise up, applying 'to enjoin good behavior, forbidding the disapproved, the victory of the innocent and crushing down the oppression) are not by our own will and getting the chairmanship and government in our disposal and then being proud of. Nor is it for increasing our properties and the ornaments of the world! All these are only seeing Your improvement and the signs of Your religion, and to settle peace and amendment in Your land so that to ease life for Your slave worshippers to live in peace and safe and sound, to to fulfill your Commands and obligations.
So [o people] if you want not to assist us, and not being just to us, then these aggressive rulers will dominate you, they will apply all their strength to crush you to earth, and they will try to extinguish the light of your Messenger! And Allah is enough for us, we rely on Him and will return to Him – for our return is to Him!'
But the scientific movement was done by the Holiness Imam Sadiq, upon him be peace. After the Muslims uprising against the government of Bani Omayyad, and Abu Molim Khorasani's uprising, the condition of the Holiness Imam Sadiq, upon him be peace, to take the authority in his hand was better than all; but the Holiness did not choose this way. He was well aware that if he had the authority in his hand, then all his time and energy would be spent on how to control the Muslims societies and run the government: planning and organizing the people's lives in every towns and cities, choosing the governors and chiefs and directing them what to do and what not to, the affairs of battles and how to deal with the opponents and hundreds and hundreds of other things so that to bring peaceful lives in the land. Then, there would be no time and chance to deal with the scientific side of religion and living, publicizing the religion of the Messenger, jurisprudence, commentaries and narratives, altering the ignorant tradition to the Islamic and Muhammad's traditions, discovering the fact and announcing to the people and then presenting and teaching the people the main and right Islam. This scientific school needed a long time and great effort. Thus, to fight with his own desires and passions he struggled nights and days for thirty years. He represented this religion in the best way and enlivened the spirits of Prophet, Ali and the Guardianship. Therefore, the school of the Shiite turned to be called 'The School of Ja‘fari'. Although all the Imams were guarding this religion, at that certain time, when all thoughtful people, the writers and scholars were using their own ideas and freely were putting them on the paper, this Divine task fell upon the Holiness. So by establishing a religious Theoretical School in Medina and Iraq and started training thousands students and teaching the Islamic ideology, arguments and philosophy in the best way possible. He trained well-known narrators, historians, orators and sages in those schools. Ja‘far e Holiness did whatever needed for the pure Islam, he unveiled what was away from the people's imaginations! His remarkable move let almost everyone single man friend or enemy – know his immense knowledge, piety, his carelessness for the ornaments of the world, and they confessed the Holiness' highest position and great efforts.
Imam Abu-al-Fat'h Muhammad Shahrestani, demised in 548 anno Hejira, though he was not a Shiite, but of the Sunnite, even he mocked the Shiite, concerning the Holiness he says:
أبُو عَبْداللهِ جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الصَّادِقُ، ذُو عِلْمٍ عَزيزٍ فى الدِّينِ، وَ أَدَبٍ كامِلٍ فِى الحِكمَة، وَ زُهْدٍ بَالِغٍ فِى الدُّنيْا، وَ وَرَعٍ تَامٍّ عَنِ الشَّهَوَاتِ. وَ قَدْ أَقَامَ بِالْمَدِينَة مُدَّة يقِيدُ الشِّيعَة الْمُنْتَمِينَ إلَيهِ، وَ يفِيضُ عَلَى الْمُوَالِينَ لَهُ أسْرَارَ الْعُلُومِ، ثُمَّ دَخَلَ الْعِرَاقَ وَ أَقَامَ بِهَا مُدَّة مَا تَعَرَّضَ لِلْامَامَة قَطُّ وَ لا نَازَعَ أحَداً فِى الخِلَافَة؛ وَ مَنْ غَرِقَ فِى بَحْرِ الْمَعْرِفَة لَمْ يطْمَعُ فِى شَطِّ، وَ مَن تَعلَّى إلَى ذِرْوَة الحَقِيقَة لَمْ يَخَفْ مِن حَطِّ. و قِيلَ: مَنْ أَنِسَ بِاللَهِ تَوَحَّشَ عَنِ النَّاسِ، وَ مَنِ اسْتَأنَسَ بِغَيرِ اللَهِ نَهَبَهُ الْوَسْوَاس.
Abu Abdullah Ja‘far bin Muhammad Sadiq is a man of great knowledge in the religion and the facts, and he is intelligent in philosophy, and a pious man in the world affairs as well he resist the unlawful, passions and lust! He lived in Medina for a while and thought his relatives and the closest people to him. He gave especial attention to those who were after knowledge. Then, he went to Iraq and lived there for a period of time. He never objected the government of the time, and nor did he discuss with anyone of his opponent. It is true, if one plunges in immense knowledge, he keeps away from greed; and whoever reaches the highest position in true knowledge and wisdom, he is never afraid being considered low. It has been said that: He who becomes familiar with Allah, then he is not afraid of people; but whoever becomes familiar with someone other than Allah, his way of imagination will destroy his nobility and root!'
Although Ahmad Amin Misri was not friendly with the Shiite, and most of time he accused them, while hearing what Shahrestani say, he states: "" إنَّهُ مِنْ أوْسَعِ النّاس عِلْماً و اطّلاعا, and because of his truthfulness he was known and called 'The Truthful', (Sadiq). He lived from 83 anno Hejira to 148. Although he was reluctant to have authority, Mansour Davaneghi would not stop tormenting him. The Holiness had a beautiful garden in Medina where all the scholars, with different religions and ideas, would gather in the presence of the Holiness. They have related that two of the well-known jurisprudents, Abu Hanifa and Malik bin Anas were the students of the Holiness. So were Wasil bin A'ta Mo'tazeli and Jabir Bin Hay'yan the famous chemist of his students. Ahmad Amin has related some of the statements of the Holiness concerning the Intention, Destiny and Disaster, and then, he praises the vast knowledge of the Holiness.
Anyhow, there must be written different books about the relationship of the practical uprising of the Master of the martyrs, and the scientific affairs of the Holiness Imam Sadiq so that the truth to be unveiled. In our part, we briefly explained it and showed the way to the experts to follow it.
Endless praise be to Allah, and many thanks to Him that He assisted us to bring up the volume eight of 'Knowing the Imams', of the series of 'A Course on Science and Knowledge of Islam' on the 12th of Ramadhan, in one thousand, four hundred and five anno Hejira, in the Holy City of Mashhad – and praise be to His Unity, and may He bestow blessing upon His Messenger and his Descendants!
 "قضاء أمير المؤمنين عليه السّلام", Testari, pages 281 and 282.
Surah 3, "آل عمران", Verse 187.
 In volume 1, and page 1 says:
ان أبا حامد كان حين تصنيف الإحيآء عامى المذهب و لم تشبّع بعد؛ و انّما رزقه الله هذه السعادة فى أواخر عمره، كما أظهره فى كتابه المسمّى بسرّ العالَمين و شهد به ابن الجوزىّ الحنبلى
لا شك فى نسبة الكتاب إلى الغزّالى فقد نصّ عليه الذهبى فى سميران الاعتدال» فى ترجمة الحسن بن صبّاح الإسماعيلى و ينقل عنه قصّته؛ و صرّح بها سبط ابن الجوزى فى التذكذرة ص 36 و شطراً من الكلام المذكور
Sayyid Muhammad Sadiq Bahr-ul-Olum.